Breaking News
February 23, 2019 - Study gives a snapshot of crocodile evolution
February 23, 2019 - Research finds steep rise in self-poisonings among young people
February 23, 2019 - American Gastroenterological Association announces “AGA Future Leaders Program”
February 23, 2019 - Scientists uncover new mechanisms regulating neural stem cells
February 23, 2019 - Combinations of certain insecticides turn out to be lethal for honeybees
February 23, 2019 - AHA News: Why Are Black Women at Higher Risk of Dying From Pregnancy Complications?
February 23, 2019 - NIMH » Anxiety Disorders
February 23, 2019 - Autistic people urgently need access to tailored mental health support
February 23, 2019 - Newly designed molecule could benefit people with Friedrich’s Ataxia
February 23, 2019 - Chinese CRISPR twins may have better cognition and memory
February 23, 2019 - Study finds new genetic clues associated with asthma in African ancestry populations
February 23, 2019 - Fetal signaling pathways may offer future opportunities to treat lung damage
February 23, 2019 - Early-stage osteoarthritis drug wins prestigious innovation award
February 23, 2019 - Researchers report positive findings with dasotraline for ADHD in children ages 6-12
February 23, 2019 - News study reanalyzes the effects of noncaloric sweeteners on gut microbiota
February 23, 2019 - New device allows scientists to reproduce blow effects on the heart in lab
February 23, 2019 - Holy herb identified as a potential treatment for Alzheimer’s disease
February 23, 2019 - New technology platform digitally counts growth factors in single cells
February 23, 2019 - Surgery and other treatments offer viable options for adult scoliosis
February 23, 2019 - Reduced antibody adaptability may make the elderly more vulnerable to influenza
February 23, 2019 - Neighborhood income, education associated with risk of disability progression in MS patients
February 23, 2019 - 2019 guidelines for management of patients with atrial fibrillation
February 23, 2019 - Surprise rheumatoid arthritis discovery points to new treatment for joint inflammation
February 23, 2019 - A just-right fix for a tiny heart
February 23, 2019 - UMass Amherst scientist explores role of citrus peel in decreasing gut inflammation
February 23, 2019 - Owlstone Medical and Shanghai Renji Hospital collaborate to initiate breath biopsy lung cancer trial
February 23, 2019 - AMSBIO’s comprehensive portfolio of knock-out cell lines and lysates
February 23, 2019 - New app reliably determines physicians’ skills in forming accurate, efficient diagnoses
February 23, 2019 - Peripheral nerve injury can trigger the onset and spread of ALS, shows study
February 23, 2019 - Researchers uncover mechanisms that prevent tooth replacement in mice
February 23, 2019 - Once-a-day capsule offers new way to reduce symptoms of chronic breathlessness
February 23, 2019 - FDA Adds Boxed Warning for Increased Risk of Death with Gout Medicine Uloric (febuxostat)
February 23, 2019 - Phone-based intervention aids rheumatoid arthritis care
February 23, 2019 - Opioid epidemic makes eastern inroads and targets African-Americans
February 23, 2019 - New identified biomarker predicts patients who might benefit from HER2-targeted agents
February 23, 2019 - Study offers new insights into mechanisms of changes in erythrocytes under stress
February 23, 2019 - Antipsychotic polypharmacy may be beneficial for schizophrenia patients
February 23, 2019 - Researchers investigate how marijuana and tobacco co-use affects quit attempts by smokers
February 23, 2019 - Patients with diabetes mellitus have high risk of stable ischemic heart disease
February 23, 2019 - Transparency on healthcare prices played key role in Arizona health system’s turnaround
February 23, 2019 - A comprehensive, multinational review of peppers around the world
February 23, 2019 - Study finds modest decrease in burnout among physicians
February 23, 2019 - A simple change can drastically reduce unnecessary tests for urinary tract infections
February 23, 2019 - Deep Learning-Enhanced Device Detects Diabetic Retinopathy
February 23, 2019 - Researchers discover new binding partner for amyloid precursor protein
February 23, 2019 - Modest decrease seen in burnout among physicians, researchers say | News Center
February 23, 2019 - Transplanting bone marrow of young mice into old mice prevents cognitive decline
February 23, 2019 - Mogrify to accelerate novel IP and cell therapies using $3.7m USD funding
February 23, 2019 - Johns Hopkins study describes cells that may help speed bone repair
February 23, 2019 - Scientists demonstrate influence of food odors on proteostasis
February 23, 2019 - Researchers unlock the secret behind reproduction of fish called ‘Mary’
February 23, 2019 - Acupuncture Could Help Ease Menopausal Symptoms
February 23, 2019 - Researchers use AI to detect early signs of Alzheimer’s
February 23, 2019 - On recovery, vulnerability and ritual: An exhibit in white | News Center
February 23, 2019 - Memory Stored in Unexpected Region of the Brain
February 23, 2019 - Several health experts worldwide gather at EUDONORGAN event
February 23, 2019 - Discovery of potent compound in native California shrub may lead to treatment for Alzheimer’s
February 22, 2019 - Researchers create new map of the brain’s own immune system
February 22, 2019 - ICHE’s reviews on surgical infections, unnecessary urine tests, and nurses’ role in antibiotic stewardship
February 22, 2019 - UK Research and Innovation invests £200 million to create new generation of AI leaders
February 22, 2019 - Takeda collaboration to boost fight against Alzheimer’s and other neurodegenerative diseases
February 22, 2019 - Heavy drinking may change DNA, leading to increased craving for alcohol
February 22, 2019 - U.S. opioid deaths jump fourfold in 20 years; epidemic shifts to Eastern states | News Center
February 22, 2019 - 5 Questions with William Turner on Diversity in Medicine
February 22, 2019 - HHS Finalizes Rule Seeking To Expel Planned Parenthood From Family Planning Program
February 22, 2019 - Researchers uncover biochemical pathway that may help identify drugs to treat Alzheimer’s
February 22, 2019 - Biologist uses new grant to find ways to eliminate schistosomiasis
February 22, 2019 - Bag-mask ventilation to help patients breathe during intubation prevents complications
February 22, 2019 - AbbVie Announces New Drug Application Accepted for Priority Review by FDA for Upadacitinib for Treatment of Moderate to Severe Rheumatoid Arthritis
February 22, 2019 - Nature versus nurture and addiction
February 22, 2019 - New website connects researchers with data experts, resources | News Center
February 22, 2019 - Today’s Concerns About Drug Prices Echo The Past
February 22, 2019 - CT and Doppler equipment have low accuracy in detecting cerebral vasospasm and ischemia
February 22, 2019 - Study finds out similarity in function between healthy retina cell and tumor cell
February 22, 2019 - CWRU awarded NIH grant to identify effective treatments for intimate partner violence
February 22, 2019 - Oncotype DX Not Cost-Effective for Low-Risk Breast Cancer
February 22, 2019 - Scientists discover new type of immune cells that are essential for forming heart valves
February 22, 2019 - Talk About Déjà Vu: Senators Set To Re-Enact Drug Price Hearing Of 60 Years Ago
February 22, 2019 - Genetic defect linked to pediatric liver disease identified
February 22, 2019 - New cellular atlas could provide a deeper insight into blinding diseases
Mice find out about highlights necessary position of liver in balancing fat and sugars

Mice find out about highlights necessary position of liver in balancing fat and sugars

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

Sugar within the type of blood glucose supplies crucial calories for cells. When its same old nutritional supply — carbohydrates — is scarce, the liver can produce it with the help of fats. However new analysis from Johns Hopkins now provides to proof that different tissues can step in to make glucose when the liver’s skill is impaired, and that the breakdown of fat within the liver is very important to give protection to it from a deadly onslaught of fats. The brand new analysis findings, from research in mice, are prone to lend a hand researchers higher perceive a rising elegance of often-deadly metabolic sicknesses, which impact how the frame processes vitamins, the investigators say.

A abstract of the findings will seem on-line June 16 within the magazine Cellular Stories.

“We have been stunned that different tissues, together with the kidney and gut, may just compensate so neatly when the liver’s skill to generate glucose is impaired,” says Michael Wolfgang, Ph.D., “however, however, it isn’t bizarre in biology to have backup techniques for one thing so a very powerful to survival as offering calories to cells.”

Wolfgang, an affiliate professor of organic chemistry on the Johns Hopkins College College of Drugs, says that consistent with textbooks, the power to handle blood glucose right through hunger, referred to as gluconeogenesis, calls for the breakdown and processing of fatty acids, referred to as fatty acid oxidation. Additionally, it’s idea that about 90 % of gluconeogenesis happens within the liver, whilst the opposite 10 % happens within the kidneys and intestine. So when he and his workforce deleted the gene Cpt2, which is important for fatty acid oxidation, from mouse liver cells, they did not be expecting them to continue to exist with no power provide of carbohydrates.

“Mice are living for the primary two weeks on milk from their mothers, which is excessive in fats and occasional in carbs,” says Wolfgang, “so we have been stunned that they did OK when their liver’s skill to burn fats to make glucose and ketones was once crippled.”

Wolfgang explains that once enzymes destroy down high-energy compounds — fatty acids — they produce more than one molecules of acetyl CoA, which funnel into two other reactions. One generates energy-containing molecules of ATP, which can be utilized to make glucose to handle blood glucose ranges in animals that have not eaten carbohydrates shortly. The opposite response makes molecules referred to as ketones, which can be utilized by way of some tissues, just like the mind, instead calories supply when glucose is scarce.

The researchers have been additionally stunned that the mice missing Cpt2 within the liver weighed the similar as customary mice and used an identical quantity of calories. They even used related quantities of fats and sugar as gas assets. The one obvious exchange was once decrease ranges of circulating ketones, which was once anticipated.

“I nonetheless to find it laborious to wrap my head round how those severely compromised mice now not simplest survived however have been indistinguishable from customary mice of their calories use,” says Wolfgang.

In additional checks, when the researchers tested the mouse kidneys, they discovered an higher fats content material and the genes accountable for fatty acid oxidation have been extra lively, suggesting that the kidney had dialed up the method in comparison to customary mice.

The ones effects begged the query of simply what misery alerts the liver was once sending to inform different tissues to lend a hand. Inspecting the process of genes within the liver, the workforce discovered massive adjustments, together with in some long-range signaling molecules. One, referred to as FGF21, stuck their eye as it encourages cells to soak up carbohydrates and destroy down fat, and is being examined as a remedy for diabetes and weight problems. Certainly, they discovered its ranges a great deal increased within the blood of mice whose livers lacked the power to burn fats.

To learn how fasting would impact fatty acid oxidation within the liver, the researchers withheld meals from the genetically changed mice for 24 hours. However the mice have been ready to regulate to even this problem. Their total calories utilization was once customary, as have been their blood glucose ranges, despite the fact that their livers have been fatty and so they had too many circulating fat and no circulating ketones. The researchers additionally noticed adjustments in gene process ranges associated with oxidation, each within the liver and the kidney.

To raised perceive the original metabolism of the mice missing Cpt2, the researchers subsequent put them on a high-fat, “ketogenic vitamin,” very similar to the economic Atkins vitamin this is very low in carbohydrates. Despite the fact that, consistent with Wolfgang, they have been eating a large number of energy and necessarily consuming butter for each meal, their livers could not care for the fats, and the vitamin was once in the end deadly to the mice. The mice had apparently dissolved all fats tissue all through their our bodies, however their livers have been engorged with fats molecules. Wolfgang explains that fats tissue all through the frame breaks down fat into fatty acids, that are then despatched to the liver for processing.

Wolfgang says: “The liver knew it had to burn fats to make glucose, so it stored asking fats tissue to ship fatty acids. Nevertheless it could not burn the ones fatty acids, so it simply absorbed them and were given too fats to serve as.”

Wolfgang says the workforce’s information counsel that the majority circulating ketones are produced by way of the liver thru fatty acid oxidation. Ketones are recognized to sluggish the breakdown of fat in fats tissue, so their absence within the mice most likely contributed to the ongoing onslaught of fat at the liver.

All of this, says Wolfgang, would possibly lend a hand give an explanation for how and why metabolism is going haywire in people who find themselves overweight, diabetic or are born with genetic mistakes that impact fatty acid oxidation, together with mistakes in Cpt2, which will also be deadly.

Wolfgang additionally issues out that what acutely threatens other people with kind 1 diabetes is a situation referred to as ketoacidosis. Since those people lack insulin, which cells want to soak up carbohydrates, their cells finally end up depending too closely on fatty acid oxidation within the liver, which generates ketones. Too many ketones within the blood make it acidic, which decreases its capability to hold oxygen. Wolfgang hopes that additional research to know how the frame adjusts to a compromised liver will make clear learn how to save you ketoacidosis and higher alter or re-regulate inaccurate metabolism.

About author