Breaking News
July 23, 2018 - No Outcome Differences Based on Anesthesia Team Make-Up
July 23, 2018 - Getting to the heart of congenital cardiac defects
July 23, 2018 - Healthy behaviors are not effective in preventing gestational diabetes in obese women
July 23, 2018 - Top of Teachers’ To-Do List: Focus on the Positives
July 23, 2018 - LDL quality is a novel, modifiable cardiovascular risk marker
July 22, 2018 - Researchers identify enzyme as potential new drug target for blood disorders
July 22, 2018 - Research shows that neurons can encode more than one signal at a time
July 22, 2018 - Exposure to secondhand smoke increases the risk of stillbirth
July 22, 2018 - Skin conditions by the numbers
July 22, 2018 - Brain tumour chemotherapy now available to even more NHS patients
July 22, 2018 - Researchers find mugwort pollen as major source of airborne endotoxins
July 22, 2018 - Occupational safety and health at workplace
July 22, 2018 - Pfizer And Lilly Announce Positive Top-Line Results From Phase 3 Trial Of Tanezumab For The Treatment Of Osteoarthritis (OA) Pain
July 22, 2018 - Early supper associated with lower risk of breast and prostate cancer
July 22, 2018 - Survey results identify major inequalities in acute stroke treatment across Europe
July 22, 2018 - Researchers discover promising treatment for genetic form of autism spectrum disorder
July 22, 2018 - Prenatal Depression More Common in Young Moms Today
July 22, 2018 - What helps adults with autism get and keep a job?
July 22, 2018 - Pediatric NEXUS Head CT DI guides selective imaging decisions in blunt trauma patients
July 22, 2018 - Novel tool predicts genes that cause disease due to production of truncated proteins
July 22, 2018 - AHA: Vaping Tied to Blood Clots — in Mice
July 22, 2018 - Study finds therapy dogs effective in reducing symptoms of ADHD
July 22, 2018 - Scientists find reason why malarial parasites are faster than immune cells
July 22, 2018 - Researchers gain more insight into how FUS protein causes ALS and FTLD
July 22, 2018 - Frequency of joint replacements halved in rheumatoid arthritis patients between 1997-2010
July 22, 2018 - QUT researcher highlights growing impact of non-prescription antibiotics supply in pharmacies
July 22, 2018 - UK health communication researcher seeks solutions for disposing leftover medicine
July 22, 2018 - Pfizer Initiates Pivotal Phase 3 Program for Investigational Hemophilia B Gene Therapy Fidanacogene Elaparvovec
July 22, 2018 - Mutation discovered to protect against Alzheimer’s disease in mice
July 22, 2018 - Researchers reveal how patients in urban areas develop multiple, long-term conditions
July 22, 2018 - Replacing conventional cancer treatment with complementary therapy linked to increased risk of death
July 22, 2018 - Study uncovers molecular key for delaying progression of multiple sclerosis
July 22, 2018 - Availability of athletic trainer in high school reduces injury rates in girls’ sports, shows study
July 22, 2018 - FDA Approves Krintafel (tafenoquine) for the Radical Cure of Plasmodium vivax Malaria
July 22, 2018 - Novel nuclear medicine probe will help assess new drugs for neurodegenerative diseases
July 22, 2018 - Physical activity even during exposure to air pollution can reduce risk of heart attack
July 22, 2018 - Scientists discover protein regulator of myelin production
July 22, 2018 - Sleep disturbances associated with higher dementia risk
July 22, 2018 - Scientists move one step further in developing eye drops to treat age-related macular degeneration
July 22, 2018 - Five-Year Stroke Rates Lower After PCI Versus CABG
July 21, 2018 - Alopecia areata – Genetics Home Reference
July 21, 2018 - Study identifies overdose risk factors in youth with substance use disorders
July 21, 2018 - Drug in clinical trials for Parkinson’s disease offers hope for treating heart failure
July 21, 2018 - Coupling free malaria tests with diagnosis-dependent vouchers can improve rational use of ACTs
July 21, 2018 - Sweetness depends on molecular interactions between specific sugars and water in saliva
July 21, 2018 - Muscle fitness is strongly associated with improved rate of ageing in the brain
July 21, 2018 - Resetting E-Prescriptions for Opioids Helps Curb Use: Study
July 21, 2018 - Overuse of antibiotics not what the doctor ordered
July 21, 2018 - Bundled-payment system did not lower costs for serious medical conditions, shows study
July 21, 2018 - Therapy dogs found to be effective in reducing ADHD symptoms in children
July 21, 2018 - Could rotating multiple therapists better treat PTSD patients?
July 21, 2018 - Binge drinking impairs working memory in adolescent brain
July 21, 2018 - Dying at home could be beneficial for terminally ill cancer patients and their relatives
July 21, 2018 - Researchers identify subtypes of retinal ganglion cells using single-cell RNA sequencing
July 21, 2018 - Study uncovers opportunities to reduce death by suicide among cancer patients
July 21, 2018 - Genetic sequencing reveals new clues to aggressiveness of prostate cancer
July 21, 2018 - BioSight Launches a Phase 2b Clinical Trial of BST-236 as a First-Line Treatment of Acute Myeloid Leukemia
July 21, 2018 - First major study comparing robotic to open surgery published in The Lancet
July 21, 2018 - ADHD medications may fail to improve cognition in healthy college students, study shows
July 21, 2018 - Intervention program that includes a personalized app could benefit teens with suicidal thoughts
July 21, 2018 - Researchers identify new compound that protects against neurodegeneration
July 21, 2018 - Gene therapy may hold potential to treat people with spinal cord injuries
July 21, 2018 - FDA Approves Nivestym (filgrastim-aafi), a Biosimilar to Neupogen
July 21, 2018 - Surgeons have substantial impact on genetic testing in breast cancer patients who need it
July 21, 2018 - Species diversity can have positive and negative impacts on disease transmission
July 21, 2018 - Genome research suggests presence of enteric fever in medieval Europe
July 21, 2018 - Risk of Sensory Deficits Drops With Rising Gestational Age
July 21, 2018 - Mum’s sleep matters—the effect of sleep on an unborn baby
July 21, 2018 - UC San Diego researchers awarded two grants for investigating stem cell-based therapies
July 21, 2018 - Cellular ‘garbage disposal’ may actually work on some of the proteins to neuronal development
July 21, 2018 - More Pregnant Women Having Heart Attacks
July 21, 2018 - Acne Breakouts | NIH News in Health
July 21, 2018 - Change health messaging to focus on potential impact to help stop the next pandemic
July 21, 2018 - Frailty associated with poor survival rates in young heart patients
July 21, 2018 - New discovery could save millions of lives from fatal fungal infections
July 21, 2018 - OBD presents latest data on the use of EpiSwitch™ in predicting patient response to immunotherapy and identifying lymphoma subtypes
July 21, 2018 - Childhood adversity increases susceptibility to addiction via immune response
July 21, 2018 - Scientists identify potential target for the treatment of binge eating
July 21, 2018 - Whole-brain LIPUS therapy improves cognitive dysfunction in mice simulating dementia, Alzheimer’s
July 21, 2018 - Digital media use raising risk of ADHD symptoms among the young
Genomic recycling: Ancestral genes tackle new roles

Genomic recycling: Ancestral genes tackle new roles

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print
Credit score: CC0 Public Area

One frequently hears concerning the multitude of genes now we have in commonplace with chimps, birds or different dwelling creatures, however such comparisons are from time to time deceptive. The shared proportion in most cases refers most effective to genes that encode directions for making proteins—whilst overlooking regulatory genes, which however make up a big a part of the genome. “People and fish, for example, proportion about 70% in their protein-coding genes, however most effective about Zero.five% of the most important elegance of regulatory genes—ones that give upward push to so-called lengthy non-coding RNAs, or lncRNAs,” says Dr. Igor Ulitsky of the Organic Legislation Division on the Weizmann Institute of Science.

The lncRNAs (pronounced link-RNAs) till just lately won a lot much less consideration than the protein-coding genes, however they’re now proving to be of accelerating pastime to science. No longer most effective are there as many as 20,000 lncRNA genes within the human genome—about the similar quantity because the protein-coding ones—however the lncRNAs have in recent times been printed to function grasp switches in all kinds of organic processes. They flip genes off and on and have an effect on different regulatory genes, controlling cell destiny all the way through fetal building, in addition to cell department and demise within the grownup organism. Those grasp regulators would possibly due to this fact dangle the important thing to elucidating and even treating plenty of illnesses.

To make sense of lncRNAs, scientists are looking to know the way they seemed within the genome and whether or not they may be able to be grouped into categories consistent with their job. In a contemporary learn about revealed within the magazine Genome Biology, Ulitsky and his workforce—analysis scholars Hadas Hezroni, Gali Housman and Zohar Meir, and workforce scientists Drs. Rotem Ben-Tov Perry and Yoav Lubelsky—controlled to spot a category of mammalian lncRNAs that had developed from extra historic genes by way of taking up new purposes.

The scientists began out with the idea that evolution is a cost-effective procedure: If a gene loses its serve as, it’s more likely to be “recycled” for various functions within the cellular. “Simply as bricks from a ruined monument can lend a hand to construct a brand new space, so genes that went out of use can in finding new roles within the cellular all through evolution,” Ulitsky explains.

His workforce individuals evolved a sequence of algorithms that enabled them to search out such “recycled” genes within the mammalian genome. First, they known just about 1,000 genes that code for proteins in chickens, fish, lizards and different non-mammalian vertebrates, however now not in people, canines, sheep and different mammals. The scientists hypothesized that a minimum of a few of these genes, after shedding their protein-coding serve as, began production lncRNAs in mammals. Via evaluating “gene neighborhoods” within the neighborhood of lncRNAs and of genes that had stopped coding for proteins, the researchers printed that certainly, about 60 lncRNA genes in mammals—or 2% to three% of lncRNAs shared by way of people and different mammalian species—seem to be derived from ancestral genes. Their genetic collection is in some instances very similar to that of the traditional genes, however they have got misplaced their protein-coding talent.

“It’s exhausting to understand what led to those genes to lose their protein-coding doable greater than 200 million years in the past, when mammals developed from their vertebrate ancestors,” Ulitsky says. “However the truth that those genes had been conserved within the genome for goodbye means that they play necessary roles within the cellular.”

Figuring out such “fossils” of protein-coding genes within the mammalian genome will facilitate additional learn about of human lncRNAs and would possibly in the end lend a hand scientists perceive what occurs when their serve as is disrupted. As an example, lncRNAs lend a hand create various kinds of neurons within the fetal mind; their failure to correctly resolve the destiny of those neurons would possibly give a contribution to epilepsy. As a result of lncRNAs are fascinated by controlling cellular department, their malfunction is also implicated in most cancers. In any case, manipulating lncRNAs would possibly make it conceivable to regard positive genetic problems.

Explains Ulitsky: “In recent times, lncRNAs had been discovered to be necessary for the activation or repression of genes related to plenty of problems. It is going to at some point be conceivable to regard those problems by way of concentrated on the lncRNAs so that you can reprogram complete gene regulatory networks. As an example, in a learn about in mice, researchers on the Baylor Faculty of Medication in Houston, Texas, had avoided development of Angelman syndrome, led to by way of mutations on chromosome 15, by way of silencing a selected lncRNA—to unharness expression of a gene that it represses.”

Discover additional:
Lengthy, mysterious strips of RNA give a contribution to low sperm depend

Additional info:
Hadas Hezroni et al. A subset of conserved mammalian lengthy non-coding RNAs are fossils of ancestral protein-coding genes, Genome Biology (2017). DOI: 10.1186/s13059-017-1293-Zero

Magazine reference:
Genome Biology

Supplied by way of:
Weizmann Institute of Science

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles