Breaking News
March 24, 2018 - Experts seek to standardize treatments for childhood rheumatic diseases
March 24, 2018 - Foil-based measuring chip rapidly detects Legionella
March 24, 2018 - Bariatric surgery linked to positive outcomes in very obese adolescents with type 2 diabetes
March 24, 2018 - Are there risks from secondhand marijuana smoke? Early science says yes.
March 24, 2018 - Researchers examine link between knee pain and depression in older adults
March 24, 2018 - FDA Alert: BD Vacutainer Blood Collection Tubes by Becton, Dickinson and Company (BD): Class I Recall
March 24, 2018 - Daytime Sleepiness Linked to Amyloid Accumulation Without Dementia
March 24, 2018 - Energy storehouses in the brain may be source of Alzheimer’s, targets of new therapy
March 24, 2018 - Praising people with autism shows promise for producing more exercise
March 24, 2018 - Using harmless red or infrared light to diagnose breast cancer
March 24, 2018 - Clash over abortion hobbles a health bill. Again. Here’s how.
March 23, 2018 - Virtual nature environment could be new way to recover from stress
March 23, 2018 - New study identifies key cellular mechanisms behind vascular aging in mice
March 23, 2018 - Nightmares Common Among U.S. Troops, But Seldom Reported
March 23, 2018 - Another Record Low for Tuberculosis in U.S.
March 23, 2018 - Changes in the eye connected to a decline in memory
March 23, 2018 - Radiologist creates dramatic teaching tool using power of VR
March 23, 2018 - Grilled meat could be raising the risk of hypertension finds study
March 23, 2018 - Mutations found in bassoon gene may help explain cause of rare brain disorder
March 23, 2018 - Childhood Brain Injuries May be Linked to ADHD Years Later
March 23, 2018 - Why treating addiction with medication should be carefully considered
March 23, 2018 - Researchers make key discovery about cellular pathway linked to myriad of diseases
March 23, 2018 - Researchers uncover cause of rare childhood neurodegenerative disease
March 23, 2018 - Measles infection in early childhood could contribute to later COPD
March 23, 2018 - Opioid painkiller is top prescription in 11 states
March 23, 2018 - Sienna Biopharmaceuticals Announces First Patient Dosed In Proof-of-Concept Trial of Topical By Design™ JAK Inhibitor SNA-125 for Atopic Dermatitis
March 23, 2018 - In Teen Girls, Neural Patterns May Drive Emotional Resilience
March 23, 2018 - Gene-based test for urine detects, monitors bladder cancer
March 23, 2018 - BD to introduce new digital solution for IV chemotherapy administration process at EAHP 2018
March 23, 2018 - New computational method helps to identify tumor cell mutations with greater accuracy
March 23, 2018 - Researchers identify potential obesity treatment in freezing hunger-signaling nerve
March 23, 2018 - Wales participates in the 100,000 Genomes Project
March 23, 2018 - 24-Hr Paging Cuts ED Visits for Kids with Endocrine Issues
March 23, 2018 - The brain learns completely differently than we’ve assumed since the 20th century
March 23, 2018 - Less nutritious diet mainly contributes to Type 2 diabetes among U.S.-based South Asians
March 23, 2018 - Stony Brook Medicine expert provides tips for healthy diet to decrease cancer risk
March 23, 2018 - New findings could have revolutionary impact on quality of life of older people
March 23, 2018 - Restoring enzyme may help reverse effects of vascular aging, study shows
March 23, 2018 - Protein profiling reveals new prostate cancer mechanisms
March 23, 2018 - Depression may be linked to increased risk of atrial fibrillation
March 23, 2018 - FDA Takes Aim at Flavored Tobacco
March 23, 2018 - SMART Strategy Lowers Asthma Exacerbation Risk
March 23, 2018 - Cold open water plunge provides instant pain relief
March 23, 2018 - Portable and wearable technology supports future of military medical devices
March 23, 2018 - Patients with vascular malformations have poor health-related quality of life
March 23, 2018 - Researchers develop unique technology to overcome global antibiotic resistance crisis
March 23, 2018 - New DOD grant to support testing of promising therapy for triple-negative breast cancer
March 23, 2018 - Novel vaccine technologies can help better prepare for future infectious disease threats
March 23, 2018 - OncoBreak: Colonoscopy TV; Coverage for Genomic Testing; Care for Caregivers
March 23, 2018 - For some surgeries, nerve blocks mean better outcomes, fewer opioids
March 23, 2018 - Maternal obesity and androgen excess induce sex-specific anxiety in offspring, study suggests
March 23, 2018 - The tale of Theranos and the mysterious fire alarm
March 23, 2018 - USC researchers create algorithm to optimize substance abuse intervention groups
March 23, 2018 - Impulsivity may be associated with greater weight loss during treatment in obese children
March 23, 2018 - CTI BioPharma Announces Publication of Pacritinib Phase 3 PERSIST-2 Clinical Trial in JAMA Oncology
March 23, 2018 - Senate Panel Addresses Native Americans’ Opioid Troubles
March 23, 2018 - Brain connections in schizophrenia
March 23, 2018 - Mental health assessment in health checks can help detect psychologically vulnerable people
March 23, 2018 - New test for urothelial cancers offers less invasive, more accurate detection
March 23, 2018 - Groundbreaking 100,000 Genomes Project achieves important milestone to transform NHS care
March 23, 2018 - Mice getting a new lease of life with anti-aging pills
March 23, 2018 - Obesity kills taste buds and dulls taste sensation finds study
March 23, 2018 - Medical students get less formal education in radiation oncology, study finds
March 23, 2018 - Researchers find investigational compound to treat triple negative breast cancer after brain metastasis
March 23, 2018 - Researchers develop wearable system to monitor electrical activity in the stomach over 24 hours
March 23, 2018 - A Different Opioid Crisis | Medpage Today
March 23, 2018 - PTSD an ongoing fight for generation of Iraq War vets
March 23, 2018 - Researchers uncover specific gene region in hypertension
March 23, 2018 - Specific immune cells may help slow progression of ALS, research shows
March 23, 2018 - Biosense Webster launches new ‘Power to Heal’ campaign to alleviate AF burden
March 23, 2018 - FDA could curb or ban tobacco in menthol or fruit flavoured cigarettes soon
March 23, 2018 - Mom’s Pre-Pregnancy Waist Size Tied to Autism Risk
March 23, 2018 - AMD Treat-and-Extend Regimens OK: Ophthalmology Times
March 23, 2018 - Safe-sleep recommendations for infants have not reduced sudden deaths in newborns
March 23, 2018 - Survey finds inappropriate prescribing of antibiotics for hospitalized children
March 23, 2018 - Researchers propose alternative treatment to target lymphoma signaling at its root
March 22, 2018 - Compound found in beet extract could help slow progression of Alzheimer’s disease
March 22, 2018 - Lower temperatures can trigger the body’s ‘good’ fat formation at cellular level
March 22, 2018 - Sentinel lymph node biopsies could be safely avoided for some breast cancer patients
March 22, 2018 - Combined Preeclampsia Test Superior to U.K. Standards
Genomic recycling: Ancestral genes tackle new roles

Genomic recycling: Ancestral genes tackle new roles

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print
Credit score: CC0 Public Area

One frequently hears concerning the multitude of genes now we have in commonplace with chimps, birds or different dwelling creatures, however such comparisons are from time to time deceptive. The shared proportion in most cases refers most effective to genes that encode directions for making proteins—whilst overlooking regulatory genes, which however make up a big a part of the genome. “People and fish, for example, proportion about 70% in their protein-coding genes, however most effective about Zero.five% of the most important elegance of regulatory genes—ones that give upward push to so-called lengthy non-coding RNAs, or lncRNAs,” says Dr. Igor Ulitsky of the Organic Legislation Division on the Weizmann Institute of Science.

The lncRNAs (pronounced link-RNAs) till just lately won a lot much less consideration than the protein-coding genes, however they’re now proving to be of accelerating pastime to science. No longer most effective are there as many as 20,000 lncRNA genes within the human genome—about the similar quantity because the protein-coding ones—however the lncRNAs have in recent times been printed to function grasp switches in all kinds of organic processes. They flip genes off and on and have an effect on different regulatory genes, controlling cell destiny all the way through fetal building, in addition to cell department and demise within the grownup organism. Those grasp regulators would possibly due to this fact dangle the important thing to elucidating and even treating plenty of illnesses.

To make sense of lncRNAs, scientists are looking to know the way they seemed within the genome and whether or not they may be able to be grouped into categories consistent with their job. In a contemporary learn about revealed within the magazine Genome Biology, Ulitsky and his workforce—analysis scholars Hadas Hezroni, Gali Housman and Zohar Meir, and workforce scientists Drs. Rotem Ben-Tov Perry and Yoav Lubelsky—controlled to spot a category of mammalian lncRNAs that had developed from extra historic genes by way of taking up new purposes.

The scientists began out with the idea that evolution is a cost-effective procedure: If a gene loses its serve as, it’s more likely to be “recycled” for various functions within the cellular. “Simply as bricks from a ruined monument can lend a hand to construct a brand new space, so genes that went out of use can in finding new roles within the cellular all through evolution,” Ulitsky explains.

His workforce individuals evolved a sequence of algorithms that enabled them to search out such “recycled” genes within the mammalian genome. First, they known just about 1,000 genes that code for proteins in chickens, fish, lizards and different non-mammalian vertebrates, however now not in people, canines, sheep and different mammals. The scientists hypothesized that a minimum of a few of these genes, after shedding their protein-coding serve as, began production lncRNAs in mammals. Via evaluating “gene neighborhoods” within the neighborhood of lncRNAs and of genes that had stopped coding for proteins, the researchers printed that certainly, about 60 lncRNA genes in mammals—or 2% to three% of lncRNAs shared by way of people and different mammalian species—seem to be derived from ancestral genes. Their genetic collection is in some instances very similar to that of the traditional genes, however they have got misplaced their protein-coding talent.

“It’s exhausting to understand what led to those genes to lose their protein-coding doable greater than 200 million years in the past, when mammals developed from their vertebrate ancestors,” Ulitsky says. “However the truth that those genes had been conserved within the genome for goodbye means that they play necessary roles within the cellular.”

Figuring out such “fossils” of protein-coding genes within the mammalian genome will facilitate additional learn about of human lncRNAs and would possibly in the end lend a hand scientists perceive what occurs when their serve as is disrupted. As an example, lncRNAs lend a hand create various kinds of neurons within the fetal mind; their failure to correctly resolve the destiny of those neurons would possibly give a contribution to epilepsy. As a result of lncRNAs are fascinated by controlling cellular department, their malfunction is also implicated in most cancers. In any case, manipulating lncRNAs would possibly make it conceivable to regard positive genetic problems.

Explains Ulitsky: “In recent times, lncRNAs had been discovered to be necessary for the activation or repression of genes related to plenty of problems. It is going to at some point be conceivable to regard those problems by way of concentrated on the lncRNAs so that you can reprogram complete gene regulatory networks. As an example, in a learn about in mice, researchers on the Baylor Faculty of Medication in Houston, Texas, had avoided development of Angelman syndrome, led to by way of mutations on chromosome 15, by way of silencing a selected lncRNA—to unharness expression of a gene that it represses.”

Discover additional:
Lengthy, mysterious strips of RNA give a contribution to low sperm depend

Additional info:
Hadas Hezroni et al. A subset of conserved mammalian lengthy non-coding RNAs are fossils of ancestral protein-coding genes, Genome Biology (2017). DOI: 10.1186/s13059-017-1293-Zero

Magazine reference:
Genome Biology

Supplied by way of:
Weizmann Institute of Science

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles