Breaking News
January 21, 2018 - Youth with shared residency after parents’ divorce have less mental issues
January 21, 2018 - Sleep Better, Lose Weight? – Drugs.com MedNews
January 21, 2018 - More $$ Needed for Health Emergencies, Senators Told
January 21, 2018 - Gene test to predict breast cancer recurrence less cost effective in real world practice
January 21, 2018 - Study finds rise in number of adolescents receiving psychiatric or neurodevelopmental diagnosis
January 21, 2018 - Reminders can improve immunization rates
January 21, 2018 - A More Personalized Approach to PSA Screening in 2017
January 21, 2018 - T-cells engineered to outsmart tumors induce clinical responses in relapsed Hodgkin lymphoma
January 21, 2018 - Tetraphase Pharmaceuticals Announces Submission of New Drug Application to FDA for Eravacycline for the Treatment of Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infections (cIAI)
January 21, 2018 - Have Robotics Had a Detrimental Effect on Surgical Residency?
January 21, 2018 - Being bilingual may help autistic children
January 21, 2018 - Metrics Are Not Widespread in Rheumatoid Care
January 21, 2018 - Neuroanatomic abnormalities ID’d in those at risk for autism
January 21, 2018 - Children born with Down’s syndrome have superior genome that compensates for disability
January 21, 2018 - Study finds higher risks for asymptomatic paroxysmal AF patients
January 21, 2018 - The Second Stage of Diet Resolutions
January 21, 2018 - CT Scans Reduce Lung Cancer Deaths … But Among Whom?
January 21, 2018 - ADHD drug use soars among young women
January 21, 2018 - Researchers propose new regulation mechanism linked to action of SirT6 on chromatin
January 21, 2018 - Statins appear to reduce risk of repeated surgery in patients who undergo vitrectomy
January 21, 2018 - Morning Break: Hep A Outbreak Spreads; Tide Pod Challenge; Keeping Lobsters Out of Hot Water
January 21, 2018 - EULAR and ACR present SLE classification criteria at the 2017 ACR/ARHP Annual Meeting
January 21, 2018 - Progenics Pharmaceuticals Announces FDA Acceptance of New Drug Application for Azedra (iobenguane I 131) in Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma
January 21, 2018 - House Passes Funding Bill with 6-Year CHIP Renewal
January 21, 2018 - DASH ranked Best Diet Overall for eighth year in a row by U.S. News and World Report
January 21, 2018 - Dementia study sheds light on how damage spreads through brain
January 20, 2018 - Morning Break: Missing Maria Deaths; N.J. Doc Charged in Wife’s Murder; Viva Vaseline!
January 20, 2018 - No interventions proven to prevent late-life dementia
January 20, 2018 - Judge orders new Olympus trial over superbug death
January 20, 2018 - Don’t Rely on Just One Blood Pressure Test for Kids: Study
January 20, 2018 - Going Off the Deep End About Water
January 20, 2018 - Parental attention can reduce risk of drug abuse in adolescence
January 20, 2018 - Mast Uri System offers efficient and cost-friendly diagnostic solution
January 20, 2018 - International SOS, Chatham House sign partnership agreement to further advance Global Health Security Agenda
January 20, 2018 - Study offers way to predict onset of lung disease in children with cystic fibrosis
January 20, 2018 - C-Suite Must Lead in Ending Sexual Harassment
January 20, 2018 - Researchers find a way to ‘starve’ cancer
January 20, 2018 - Applied math can help predict genesis and evolution of different cancers
January 20, 2018 - UCLA researchers describe herpes virus structure associated with Kaposi’s sarcoma
January 20, 2018 - New study enrolls first patient to evaluate potential of WaveCrest LAAO System
January 20, 2018 - New review explores effects of exposing developing brains to general anesthesia
January 20, 2018 - GW Pharmaceuticals Announces Acceptance of NDA Filing for Epidiolex (cannabidiol) in the treatment of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and Dravet syndrome
January 20, 2018 - Weight-Loss Surgery Approaches Offer Similar Results
January 20, 2018 - Free online access to millions of documents on chemical toxicity
January 20, 2018 - CE marked MAST Toxoreagent kit for detection of Toxoplasma antibodies
January 20, 2018 - DNA study sheds light on longstanding puzzle of cell division
January 20, 2018 - Montefiore provides specialized medical care to parents of adopted children
January 20, 2018 - Enzyme discovery provides new horizon of therapeutic opportunities across disease spectrum
January 20, 2018 - New smartphone app successfully enables remote monitoring of surgical wounds
January 20, 2018 - Liquid Biopsy Shows Promise for Colon Cancer
January 20, 2018 - Surgery death rates in Africa are twice global average: study
January 20, 2018 - New isothermal amplification kit using LAMP technology
January 20, 2018 - Pretreatment improves outcomes in high-risk stage 3 melanoma, study shows
January 20, 2018 - Health Highlights: Jan. 17, 2018
January 20, 2018 - House Opioid Task Force has Big Plans for 2018
January 20, 2018 - Perfectionism among young people significantly increased since 1980s, study finds
January 20, 2018 - Evidensia Sweden orders Sectra cloud-based PACS for reviewing all medical images
January 20, 2018 - Researchers test new anti-malaria medication
January 20, 2018 - Small Joint Surgeries Drop among RA Patients
January 20, 2018 - Young people with shared residency have fewer mental problems
January 20, 2018 - Childhood physical activity may have far-reaching implications
January 20, 2018 - Overweight female kidney donors of childbearing age may have greater preeclampsia risk
January 20, 2018 - MSU scientists seek to identify brain mechanisms related to psychosis
January 20, 2018 - CBT is cost-effective treatment in primary care setting, Kaiser Permanente study finds
January 20, 2018 - Scientists find how potential new eczema treatment could also alleviate asthma
January 20, 2018 - Older hospitalized patients less likely to be tested for influenza
January 20, 2018 - Syndax Pharmaceuticals Announces Clinical Collaboration to Evaluate Entinostat in Combination with anti-PD-L1 Cancer Immunotherapy in Breast Cancer
January 20, 2018 - Endoscopes Over Microscopes in Retinal Surgery: Ophthalmology Times
January 20, 2018 - Technology not taking over children’s lives despite screen-time increase
January 20, 2018 - Study finds extensive contamination around lead battery recycling plants in 7 African countries
January 20, 2018 - Researchers develop new mathematical tool to solve genetics challenge
January 20, 2018 - Flu may pass to others through exhaled breath, study shows
January 20, 2018 - Study reveals key role of macrophages in systemic sclerosis
January 20, 2018 - Neuronal loss very limited in Alzheimer’s disease, new study shows
January 20, 2018 - Toothpaste ingredient could be employed as anti-malarial drug against drug-resistant parasites
January 20, 2018 - Research shows how travel choices affect children’s well-being and achievement in school
January 20, 2018 - Novel robot can aid treatment of rare birth defect
January 19, 2018 - TherapeuticsMD Announces Submission of New Drug Application for TX-001HR
January 19, 2018 - Fighting Infant Mortality | Medpage Today
January 19, 2018 - Researchers offer new evidence on four-year-old children’s knowledge about ecology
Researchers shed light on link between cholera outbreaks affecting African and American continents

Researchers shed light on link between cholera outbreaks affecting African and American continents

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

Researchers at the Institut Pasteur and the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, in collaboration with several other international institutions, recently published two studies tracing the history of cholera outbreaks in Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean from the last 60 years. Genomic analysis of more than 1,200 strains of Vibrio cholerae revealed for the first time the link between the different outbreaks of cholera since 1961. In particular, the researchers’ results show that the latest cholera pandemic originated in Asia, and that the majority of antibiotic resistant strains come from this continent. These findings, published on November 10, 2017 in Science, help to improve understanding of how the cholera bacterium circulates, and to anticipate the risk of new outbreaks emerging and adapt control strategies accordingly.

Cholera is an acute infection of the small intestine caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. It is thought of as an ancient disease yet still causes major outbreaks such as those recorded in Haiti in 2010 and the one currently ravaging Yemen. In 2016, cases were reported in 38 countries and almost 100,000 lives are still lost to the disease every year. Since the 1800s, there have been seven cholera pandemics around the globe, resulting in millions of deaths. France was notably hit by “Asian cholera” in 1832 during the second pandemic which claimed the lives of 19,000 people in Paris in just 6 months.

Researchers from the Institut Pasteur, the Institut Pasteur International Network and the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute (Cambridge, UK), in collaboration with different international institutions, recently shed light on the link between the different cholera outbreaks affecting the African and American continents in the course of the current (7th) pandemic that began in 1961. Their research involved analyzing the genomes of more than 1,200 current and past strains of V. cholerae collected from across the globe over the last few decades.

The researchers focused on African and Latin American isolates, due to the large epidemics that have occurred in those regions. The seventh pandemic of cholera first came to Africa in 1970, and Africa has since become the continent most affected by the disease.

The researchers observed that the cholera bacterium had been introduced at least 11 times into Africa over a period of 44 years, always from Asia, and that human populations were the main vectors for disease dispersal throughout Africa.

Dr. François-Xavier Weill, Head of the Institut Pasteur Enteric Bacterial Pathogens Unit, explained: “These results show that cholera was not only introduced into Africa in 1970 before subsequently taking up residence there, but is repeatedly introduced to the two main regions of West and East Africa, spreading across the continent along similar paths to areas of persistence such as the Lake Chad Basin or the Great Lakes region. These results provide information about the regions of Africa that are most susceptible to the introduction of cholera, and that will need to be targeted to stem the wave of cholera before it sweeps the rest of the continent.”

The scientists also investigated the evolution of antibiotic resistance in the cholera bacterium. They discovered that, in the vast majority of cases, the multidrug resistance that the bacteria developed over time was acquired in South Asia before they were introduced into Africa.

In the second study, the team focused on Latin America where epidemic cholera reemerged in 1991 alongside sporadic cases of low level disease. This allowed the researchers to prove that different strains of V. cholerae can be assigned different risks for causing large outbreaks. The massive epidemics seen in Peru in the 1990s and Haiti in 2010 were caused by the Asian pandemic strain, whereas the sporadic cases in Latin America arose from local strains which do not seem to have epidemic potential. The genomic tools developed during this research will help predict the epidemic potential of given V. cholerae strains and enable the health authorities on the American continent to adapt their public health response strategy.

Marie-Laure Quilici, a scientist at the Institut Pasteur Enteric Bacterial Pathogens Unit and Head of the National Reference Center for Vibrios and Cholera, explained: “These studies show the added value of whole-genome sequencing of V. cholerae strains for cholera surveillance, prevention and control; they illustrate the benefits of combining epidemiological and laboratory data during investigations of epidemics, and lend weight to the message recently issued by the WHO’s Global Task Force on Cholera Control to public health practitioners, which recommends systematically combining these two approaches to improve epidemic management.”

Professor Nick Thomson of the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute and London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, said: “We are now getting a real sense of how cholera is moving across the globe. These findings have implications for the control of cholera pandemics, but also help to better understand how a simple bacterium continues to pose such a threat to human health.”

Source:

https://www.pasteur.fr/en/press-area/press-documents/cholera-understanding-link-between-world-s-major-outbreaks-paves-way-better-control-strategy

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles