Breaking News
January 18, 2019 - New study shows link between secondhand smoke and cardiac arrhythmia
January 18, 2019 - DZIF scientists reveal problems with available diagnostics for Zika and chikungunya virus
January 18, 2019 - Breast cancers more likely to metastasize in young women within 10 years of giving birth
January 18, 2019 - Blood vessels can now be created perfectly in a petri dish
January 18, 2019 - Study identifies prominent socioeconomic and racial disparities in health behavior in Indiana
January 18, 2019 - Young-Onset Type 2 Diabetes Tied to Increased Hospitalization Risk
January 18, 2019 - For-profit nursing schools associated with lower performance on nurse licensure test
January 18, 2019 - Considering the culture of consent in medicine
January 18, 2019 - Researchers identify comprehensive guidelines for managing severe atopic dermatitis
January 18, 2019 - Analyzing proteins in blister fluid may classify burn severity more accurately
January 18, 2019 - Study finds higher suicide rates among youth who were Medicaid enrollees
January 18, 2019 - Opioid drugs often overprescribed to children for pain relief, say CHOP surgeons
January 18, 2019 - New biodegradable wound dressing material accelerates healing
January 18, 2019 - Life in Space May Take Toll on Spinal Muscles
January 18, 2019 - Bulldogs’ screw tails linked to human genetic disease
January 18, 2019 - Immunotherapy target identified for pediatric cancers
January 18, 2019 - Financial stress may increase heart disease risk in African Americans
January 18, 2019 - Scientists solve another piece of Ebola virus puzzle
January 18, 2019 - New project finds how endocrine disruptors interfere with thyroid functions
January 18, 2019 - Research finds decline in ketone body utilization when coronary circulation is reduced
January 18, 2019 - Let’s map our DNA and save billions each year in health costs
January 18, 2019 - AI demonstrates potential to identify irregular heart rhythms as well as humans
January 17, 2019 - Study shows link between air pollution and increased risk of sleep apnea
January 17, 2019 - Neck-strengthening exercises can protect athletes from concussions
January 17, 2019 - Computer model shows how to better control MRSA outbreaks
January 17, 2019 - Pain is unpleasant, and now scientists have identified the set of responsible neurons
January 17, 2019 - CUIMC Celebrates 2018-2019
January 17, 2019 - Study reveals potential pathway for endothelial cells to avoid apoptosis
January 17, 2019 - Hamilton Storage launches LabElite DeCapper SL to expand LabElite product family
January 17, 2019 - Location of epigenetic changes co-locate with genetic signal causing psychartric disorder
January 17, 2019 - Researchers awarded 6.1 million euros to address female fertility problems
January 17, 2019 - Counseling appointments fail to reduce weight gain during pregnancy, shows study
January 17, 2019 - Contraceptive patch that could provide 6 months of contraception within seconds
January 17, 2019 - Yeast model may pave way for development of novel therapies for metabolic disorders
January 17, 2019 - Study determines impact of antibiotic perturbation of the gut microbiome on skeletal health
January 17, 2019 - Cardiometabolic Risk Up With Tourette, Chronic Tic Disorder
January 17, 2019 - Hong Kong scientists claim ‘broad-spectrum’ antiviral breakthrough
January 17, 2019 - Researchers discover the brain cells that make pain unpleasant | News Center
January 17, 2019 - Hepatitis Is Common in New Cancer Patients
January 17, 2019 - Podcast: KHN’s ‘What The Health?’ Drug Prices Are Rising Again. Is Someone Going To Do Something About It?
January 17, 2019 - Smoking significantly increases your biological age, study shows
January 17, 2019 - B-group vitamins may be beneficial for people with first episode psychosis
January 17, 2019 - Researchers demonstrate how manganese produces parkinsonian syndrome
January 17, 2019 - Researchers suggest link between personality type and attitude towards others’ bodies
January 17, 2019 - Mutant mice administered with cocaine failed to exhibit hyperactivity, shows study
January 17, 2019 - Health Tip: Understanding a Heart Murmur
January 17, 2019 - Gut protein mutations shield against spikes in glucose
January 17, 2019 - Engineered immune cells target broad range of pediatric solid tumors in mice | News Center
January 17, 2019 - Study provides comprehensive description of associations between mental disorders
January 17, 2019 - Study finds link between high pesticide exposure and poor sense of smell among farmers
January 17, 2019 - Many cancer patients have undiagnosed hepatitis
January 17, 2019 - New study finds only 13% of outpatient antibiotic prescriptions to be appropriate
January 17, 2019 - Stem cell-based approach to diabetes offers hope for treatment
January 17, 2019 - New project receives €8.65 million from EU and Canada to ease genomic, health data sharing
January 17, 2019 - Improvements in pharmacological study to fight cognitive impairment in schizophrenia
January 17, 2019 - Study looks at trends over time in oral antibiotic prescribing by dermatologists
January 17, 2019 - Most substance use disorder treatment facilities do not offer medication treatment
January 17, 2019 - Multiple sclerosis could benefit from stem cell therapy
January 17, 2019 - Researchers manipulate T cells to improve transplant success
January 17, 2019 - Put away your rulers and reach for your phone
January 17, 2019 - Mindfulness linked with fewer menopausal symptoms
January 17, 2019 - Integrated care to women with PMADs offered at several levels
January 17, 2019 - Researchers identify MANF as a rejuvenating factor in parabiosis
January 17, 2019 - Truncal mutations study suggests new direction in origins of cancer
January 17, 2019 - Beckman Coulter launches new ClearLLab 10C System for clinical flow cytometry lab
January 17, 2019 - Effects of linoleic acid on the body are largely dependent on genes, shows study
January 17, 2019 - Pre-injury exercise reduces damage to both muscles and nerves, study finds
January 17, 2019 - Minimizing Antibody Size to Maximize Research Potential
January 17, 2019 - Research finds large genome in tiny forest defoliator
January 17, 2019 - Technology helps reduce the yearning for unhealthy food
January 17, 2019 - Imec develops prototype cardiovascular device
January 17, 2019 - New Drug Application for Insomnia Disorder Treatment Lemborexant Submitted in the United States
January 17, 2019 - What you should know about teeth whitening
January 17, 2019 - Why Older Adults Should Eat More Protein (And Not Overdo Protein Shakes)
January 17, 2019 - Colorectal cancer mortality rates predicted to increase globally
January 17, 2019 - Scientists discover mutational signatures of tumor hypoxia
January 17, 2019 - New evidence shows how fever alters immune cells
January 17, 2019 - Researchers find new class of blood pressure-regulating peptides in vampire bat venom
January 17, 2019 - Promega to exhibit new Maxwell RSC48 platform at 2019 Festival of Genomics
January 17, 2019 - Study pinpoints immune cells that could be key to tackling hypertension
Many different types of anxiety and depression exist, new study finds

Many different types of anxiety and depression exist, new study finds

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print
Credit: Stanford University

Five new categories of mental illness that cut across the current more broad diagnoses of anxiety and depression have been identified by researchers in a Stanford-led study.

The five categories, defined by their specific symptoms and areas of brain activation, are: tension, anxious arousal, general anxiety, anhedonia—the inability to feel pleasure—and melancholia.

“We are trying to disentangle the symptom overlap in our current diagnoses which can ultimately guide tailored treatment choices,” the researchers wrote in their study, which was published in JAMA Psychiatry.

The research is part of an ongoing effort by Leanne Williams, PhD, professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences and senior author of the study, and her lab, along with other groups within the field of psychiatric neuroscience, to better define mental illness in order to provide improved treatment plans for the millions of Americans who suffer from these disorders.

Currently, depression and anxiety are the leading cause of disability and lost productivity worldwide with only one-third of patients recovering from treatment, the study said.

The broad diagnostic categories as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, such as anxiety and depression, have so many overlapping symptoms that it’s difficult to identify biological markers for potential treatments or cures, the researchers explained.

“Currently, the treatments would be the same for anyone in these broad categories,” Williams said. “By refining the diagnosis, better treatment options could be prescribed, specifically for that type of anxiety or depression.”

For their work, the researchers collected and processed data from 420 participants both with healthy diagnoses and with multiple anxiety and depression diagnoses. The participants underwent a series of tests involving brain mapping, self reporting of symptoms, and psychiatric diagnostic testing. Researchers measured how well participants functioned in everyday life, their capacity for building social relationships and general outlook on life.

The same tests were conducted with a second independent sample of 381 people. Using a data-driven approach that involved machine learning algorithms, researchers processed the data and were able to identify the same five new categories across both groups.

Results showed that 13 percent of participants were characterized by anxious arousal, 9 percent by general anxiety, 7 percent by anhedonia, 9 percent by melancholia and 19 percent by tension.

“Interestingly, we found that many people who did not meet diagnostic criteria, but were still experiencing some symptoms, fell into the tension type,” said Katherine Grisanzio, lead author of the study and research lab manager in Williams’ lab.

In the paper, the researchers further described the new categories:

  • Tension: This type is defined by irritability. People are overly sensitive, touchy, and overwhelmed. The anxiety makes the nervous system hypersensitive.
  • Anxious arousal: Cognitive functioning, such as the ability to concentrate and control thoughts, is impaired. Physical symptoms include a racing heart, sweating, and feeling stressed. “People say things like ‘I feel like I’m losing my mind,” Williams said. “They can’t remember from one moment to the next.”
  • Melancholia: People experience problems with social functioning. Restricted social interactions further cause distress.
  • Anhedonia: The primary symptom is an inability to feel pleasure. This type of depression often goes unrecognized. People are often able to function reasonably well while in a high state of distress. “We see it in how the brain functions in overdrive,” Williams said. “People are able to power through but at some time become quite numb. These are some of the most distressed people.”
  • General anxiety: A generalized type of anxiety with the primary features involving worry and anxious arousal—a more physical type of stress.


Explore further:
Managing anxiety

More information:
Katherine A. Grisanzio et al. Transdiagnostic Symptom Clusters and Associations With Brain, Behavior, and Daily Function in Mood, Anxiety, and Trauma Disorders, JAMA Psychiatry (2017). DOI: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2017.3951

Journal reference:
JAMA Psychiatry

Provided by:
Stanford University

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles