Breaking News
October 24, 2018 - Spectrum Pharmaceuticals Receives FDA Approval of Khapzory (levoleucovorin) for Injection
October 24, 2018 - Researcher uses smartphone to detect breast cancer gene
October 24, 2018 - Advanced breast cancer patients can benefit from immunotherapy-chemotherapy combination
October 24, 2018 - Stress related to social stigma negatively impacts mental health of autistic people
October 24, 2018 - New 17-item questionnaire may help detect GI disorders in children with autism
October 24, 2018 - 12% of frequent marijuana smokers experience cannabis withdrawal syndrome
October 24, 2018 - Immune therapy may be potential treatment option for patients with hard-to-treat ankylosing spondylitis
October 24, 2018 - Poor Experience With PCP Linked to Hospitalization in CKD
October 23, 2018 - Dummies not to blame for common speech disorder in kids
October 23, 2018 - The future of ethics and biomedicine: An interview
October 23, 2018 - X4 Pharmaceuticals announces clinical data of X4P-001-IO and Opdivo in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma
October 23, 2018 - FDA targets 465 websites that sell potentially dangerous, unapproved drugs
October 23, 2018 - New approach may lead to better diagnostic techniques for autoimmune disorders
October 23, 2018 - Innovative computer software sheds new light on genetic processes underlying deadly diseases
October 23, 2018 - Juul Drawing Lots of Teen Followers on Twitter
October 23, 2018 - WHO says Zika risk low in Pacific ahead of Meghan visit
October 23, 2018 - A deeper look at ‘Reflecting Frankenstein’
October 23, 2018 - Breastfeeding can have protective affect against high blood pressure in women, confirms study
October 23, 2018 - Epigenetic modifications may contribute to Alzheimer’s Disease
October 23, 2018 - Volunteering for peer counseling programs benefits people with lupus
October 23, 2018 - Cancer treatment may undergo a paradigm shift to immunotherapy soon
October 23, 2018 - Study uncovers new mechanism of action in a first-line drug for diabetes
October 23, 2018 - New type of molecule shows early promise against treatment-resistant prostate cancer
October 23, 2018 - Lancet publishes pioneering study of Aimovig’s efficacy in episodic migraine patients
October 23, 2018 - Scientists grow functioning human neural networks in 3D from stem cells
October 23, 2018 - Using mushrooms as a prebiotic may help improve glucose regulation
October 23, 2018 - New ENT clinic treats children in Zimbabwe
October 23, 2018 - CUIMC Celebrates 2018-2019, Issue 2
October 23, 2018 - Immunotherapy is better than chemotherapy as first-line treatment for advanced head and neck cancer
October 23, 2018 - Intake of painkillers during pregnancy linked to early puberty in future offspring
October 23, 2018 - ConnectToBrain project seeks to improve techniques for brain stimulation in current clinical use
October 23, 2018 - Polyganics begins first-in-human clinical trial of LIQOSEAL for reducing CSF leakage
October 23, 2018 - Gut bacterial community of healthy adults recovers after short-term exposure to broad-spectrum antibiotics
October 23, 2018 - Lowering systolic blood pressure does not damage the kidneys, shows study
October 23, 2018 - Incyte Announces Positive Data from Phase 2b Trial of Ruxolitinib Cream in Patients with Atopic Dermatitis
October 23, 2018 - Cardiovascular admissions more common among most deprived
October 23, 2018 - Targeted drug and hormone therapy combination extends breast cancer survival
October 23, 2018 - Map of human liver cells reveals molecular make-up of individual cells
October 23, 2018 - Drugs approved for breast cancer treatment are effective and well tolerated in men
October 23, 2018 - EKF introduces new hand-held lactate analyzer for rapid sports performance monitoring
October 23, 2018 - Researchers identify common genetic connection in lung conditions
October 23, 2018 - Forbius initiates Phase 2a trial evaluating efficacy, safety of AVID100 in patients with squamous NSCLC
October 23, 2018 - Immunotherapy achieves major pathological response in early-stage mismatch repair deficient colon cancer
October 23, 2018 - New discovery may lead to better treatment options for pancreatic cancer patients
October 23, 2018 - FDA Approves Dupixent (dupilumab) for Moderate-to-Severe Asthma
October 23, 2018 - Researchers identify immune culprits linked to inflammation and bone loss in gum disease
October 23, 2018 - Despite lower risk factors, black men have higher rates of recidivism
October 23, 2018 - Study finds why pregnant women in mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan prefer cesarean delivery
October 23, 2018 - AbbVie’s U-ACHIEVE Phase 2b/3 dose-ranging study improves outcomes in patients with ulcerative colitis
October 23, 2018 - NCI grant awarded to Abramson Cancer Center to study CAR T cells In solid tumors
October 23, 2018 - Scientists use electron microscope to study chemical transformation in catalytic cross-coupling reaction
October 23, 2018 - Research offers new hope to men who received childhood cancer treatment
October 23, 2018 - New medical navigation system receives international innovation award
October 23, 2018 - Adverse Childhood Experiences Tied to Burnout in BSN Students
October 23, 2018 - High levels of oral disease among elite athletes affecting performance
October 23, 2018 - Study examines effect of immediate vs delayed pushing during labor on delivery outcomes
October 23, 2018 - LU-RRTC to spearhead capacity-building efforts for racial and ethnic populations
October 23, 2018 - Maintenance therapy with olaparib improves progression-free survival in advanced ovarian cancer patients
October 23, 2018 - Organic food may protect against cancers finds study
October 23, 2018 - Interweaving anxiety disorder associated with stuttering remains unrecognized
October 23, 2018 - Cannabis oil shown to significantly improve Crohn’s disease symptoms
October 23, 2018 - Knowledge of sex differences in lower urinary tract may help stimulate breakthroughs in diagnosis, management
October 23, 2018 - Common antibodies associated with myocardial infarction
October 23, 2018 - Study reveals new treatment option for women with advanced breast cancer resistant to hormone therapy
October 23, 2018 - Brain’s ‘Self-Control’ Center May Be Key to Weight-Loss Success
October 23, 2018 - Prosthetic valve mismatches common in transcatheter valve replacement, ups risk of death
October 23, 2018 - Can virtual reality help people become more compassionate?
October 23, 2018 - Screen time eclipsed outdoor time for most students, shows study
October 23, 2018 - SLU researcher seeks to find solutions for ‘chemo brain’ symptoms and side effects of opioids
October 23, 2018 - Plastics now commonly found in human stools
October 23, 2018 - Zoledronic acid increases disease-free survival in premenopausal women with HR+ early breast cancer
October 23, 2018 - Cancer survivors at risk for heart failure during, after pregnancy
October 23, 2018 - Stanford project brings health education videos to mothers in South Africa
October 23, 2018 - HIV-infected Hispanics at higher risk of developing HPV-related cancers, finds study
October 23, 2018 - Politicians hop aboard ‘Medicare-for-all’ train, destination unknown
October 23, 2018 - Study suggests rising childhood obesity rates as cause for serious hip disease in adolescents
October 23, 2018 - Study highlights existence of barriers to early clinical trial access for adolescents and young adults
October 23, 2018 - Protein sequencing technique could revolutionize biomedical research
October 23, 2018 - Canon Medical to showcase world’s first Ultra-High Resolution CT system at ASTRO 2018
October 23, 2018 - Spectrum Pharmaceuticals Announces Release of Updated Poziotinib Data From MD Anderson Phase 2 Study in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients
Newly described super-silenced DNA reveals novel approach to reprogram cells

Newly described super-silenced DNA reveals novel approach to reprogram cells

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

Newly described stretches of super-silenced DNA reveal a fresh approach to reprogram cell identity to use in regenerative medicine studies and one day in the clinic, according to a study in Molecular Cell last week by investigators from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania.

“In the past, most labs, including my own, used gene activators to turn on a new program to change the identity in a given cell,” said senior author Ken Zaret, PhD, director of the Penn Institute for Regenerative Medicine and a professor of Cell and Developmental Biology. “Our study shows that in some cases we will need to disassemble a cell’s gene repression machinery to activate important genes to reprogram a cell’s identity.”

The team attempted to reprogram skin cells to make new liver cells. Conversions of one cell type to another usually have low efficiencies, and this study identifies one reason why. The long term goal of this preclinical research is to be able to replenish diseased liver tissue with healthy tissue derived from a different tissue, such as skin cells, from the same individual in a process called direct-cell reprogramming

The Zaret lab untangled an extreme form of gene silencing, opening up regions of tightly wound DNA that is difficult for activators to reach to turn on certain genes. They found the regions by characterizing an increase in chemical cross-linking due to DNA being more compacted in the scaffolding of repressed regions of chromosomes

“Think of a piece of fishing line that has been used for a while, with several knots along its length,” Zaret said. “The knotted areas are more easily cross-linked regions, reflecting them being super-silenced areas of DNA.”

For the body to maintain its 200-plus different cell types, cells must activate genes specific to their type while simultaneously repressing genes of alternative types. Most genes in silenced DNA regions (not available to be “read” and made into a protein) are typically functions not used by the current cell type. Zaret likens it to insurance so cells don’t mix up their identity, which could induce problems such as uncontrolled, cancerous cell replications, or so that brain or liver genes are kept from being expressed in skin cells, for example.

The team characterized the proteins that help make the regions “knotted” and found they were more complex than expected. “We found more types of different proteins than we thought we would,” Zaret said. To do this, they turned on the activity of once-silenced genes in human skin cells grown in culture to see if the knotted domain would open more easily when each was eliminated. Of the 50 proteins tested, some are also mutated in such neurodegenerative disorders as Lou Gehrig’s disease.

“While most reprogramming genes are not in these super silent regions of DNA, very important genes are; so this gives us a new way to think about reprogramming,” Zaret said. The ultimate goal of their study is to find more efficient ways to reprogram one cell type into another by awakening silenced genes plus adding activators.

Source:

https://www.pennmedicine.org/news/news-releases/2018/january/penn-study-on-super-silenced-dna-hints-at-new-ways-to-reprogram-cells

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles