Breaking News
September 23, 2018 - Patient Health Information Often Shared Electronically
September 23, 2018 - Can machine learning bring more humanity to health care?
September 23, 2018 - Body organs undergo structural changes in response to diet
September 23, 2018 - Genetic polymorphisms linked with muscle injury and stiffness
September 23, 2018 - As states try to rein in drug spending, feds slap down one bold Medicaid move
September 22, 2018 - Why Eczema Is Tougher to Treat for Black Patients
September 22, 2018 - Team reveals that human genome could contain up to 20 percent fewer genes
September 22, 2018 - USC research uncovers previously unknown genetic risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease
September 22, 2018 - Novel method achieves accurate and precise temperature estimation in fat-containing tissues
September 22, 2018 - BSI accredits Oxehealth’s vital signs measurement software as Class IIa medical device
September 22, 2018 - Evolution of psychiatric disorders and human personality traits
September 22, 2018 - Obesity in early puberty doubles asthma risk for boy’s future offspring
September 22, 2018 - World’s most advanced real-time patient monitoring platform receives key US patent
September 22, 2018 - Study explores connection between sexuality and cognitive status in older adults
September 22, 2018 - LSTM partners with TB Alliance to develop novel TB drug regimens
September 22, 2018 - Annual wellness visits improve delivery of preventive services in elderly population
September 22, 2018 - CHMP provides positive opinion to Cabometyx for previously-treated patients with hepatocellular carcinoma
September 22, 2018 - Hispanic communities with high proportions of Hispanics face more cardiovascular-related death
September 22, 2018 - Vici syndrome – Genetics Home Reference
September 22, 2018 - Single-dose drug can shorten flu symptoms by about a day, studies suggest
September 22, 2018 - AMSBIO launches circulating tumor DNA Reference Standards
September 22, 2018 - Sandalwood mimicking odorant could stimulate hair growth in humans
September 22, 2018 - Overlooked immune cells could play a key role in cancer immunotherapy, claims new study
September 22, 2018 - Study reveals prevalence of diagnosed type 1 and type 2 diabetes among American adults
September 22, 2018 - Researchers develop fast detection strategy to know type of virus acquired by patients
September 22, 2018 - Global Prevalence of Insufficient Activity 27.5 Percent
September 22, 2018 - Strategies to protect bone health in hematologic stem cell transplant recipients
September 22, 2018 - Brigham Genomic Medicine program unravels 30 medical mysteries
September 22, 2018 - New system harnesses power of bubbles to destroy dangerous biofilms
September 22, 2018 - Inflammation plays crucial role in preventing heart attacks and strokes, study reveals
September 22, 2018 - Calorie dense, nutrient deficient meals common across the world
September 22, 2018 - Researchers develop technology to study behavior of implants without animal testing
September 22, 2018 - First gut bacteria in newborns may have lasting effect on ability to ward off chronic diseases
September 22, 2018 - Detection of BFD virus in parrots in 8 new countries raises concerns for threatened species
September 22, 2018 - Insulin treatment shows great potential against chronic bowel inflammation
September 22, 2018 - ‘Liking Gap’ Might Stand in Way of New Friendships
September 22, 2018 - Simple factors that can avoid harmful side effects in type 2 diabetes
September 22, 2018 - ALSAM Foundation invests additional $2 million for drug discovery and development projects
September 22, 2018 - Study findings may advance discussion of how to effectively curb human-wildlife conflict
September 22, 2018 - Dopamine neurons may involve in conditions ranging from Parkinson’s disease to schizophrenia
September 22, 2018 - Protein C and Protein S Tests: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information
September 22, 2018 - Obesity and diabetes—two reasons why we should be worried about the plastics that surround us
September 22, 2018 - Concern over fussy eating prompts parents to use non-responsive feeding practices
September 22, 2018 - Novel mathematical approach uncovers existence of unsuspected biological cycles
September 22, 2018 - Cancer Research UK invests £14 million to transform London into cancer biotherapeutics hub
September 22, 2018 - Scientists predict how well the body will fight lung cancer by analyzing immune cell shapes
September 22, 2018 - New outbreak of rare eye disease identified in contact lens wearers
September 22, 2018 - Iterum Initiates SURE 2 and SURE 3 Phase 3 Clinical Trials of IV and Oral Sulopenem in Complicated Urinary Tract and Complicated Intra-abdominal Infections
September 22, 2018 - Research finds divide in dental health accessibility between city and regional areas
September 22, 2018 - Premature babies show better brain development when fed breast milk, finds study
September 22, 2018 - Novel system uses AI to detect abnormalities in fetal hearts
September 22, 2018 - UNC scientists reveal new approach to prevent obesity and diabetes
September 22, 2018 - CWRU receives NIH grant to learn how non-coding genes contribute to spread of colorectal cancer
September 22, 2018 - Scientists better understand influenza virus and how it spreads
September 22, 2018 - Scientists to focus on length of time when a person is alive and healthy
September 22, 2018 - Study shows positive financial impacts of Medicaid expansion for low-income Michigan residents
September 22, 2018 - Innovative approach for developing vaccine against most prevalent human malaria parasite
September 22, 2018 - Research scientist at Kessler Foundation receives $10,000 grant to study aphasia after stroke
September 22, 2018 - New findings on characteristics of Burning Mouth Syndrome
September 22, 2018 - Study sheds light on molecular mechanisms underlying progression of prion diseases
September 22, 2018 - Innovation Fund Denmark supports research project that aims to fight Clostridium difficile diarrhea
September 22, 2018 - Survey estimates caregiving costs for family members
September 22, 2018 - Inhibiting NF-kB improves heart function in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy
September 22, 2018 - Introducing new EMR system may affect several aspects of clinic workflow
September 22, 2018 - Study finds why some human genes are more popular with biomedical researchers
September 22, 2018 - Finding epigenetic signature appears to predict inflammation risk in serious type of IBD
September 22, 2018 - Researchers develop light-based technique to measure very weak magnetic fields
September 22, 2018 - UAB researchers study dysfunction of the immune system associated with NSAID carprofen
September 22, 2018 - QIAGEN and DiaSorin launch automated, CE-marked workflow for high-throughput TB screening
September 22, 2018 - EFS checklist provides user-friendly tool for evaluating feeding skills in preterm infants
September 22, 2018 - Family history in blacks, Latinos associated with higher risk of AFib
September 22, 2018 - Researchers identify new genetic disorder in a human patient
September 22, 2018 - Cardiac MR With Contrast Feasible in Developing World
September 22, 2018 - Daily low-dose aspirin doesn’t reduce heart-attack risk in healthy people
September 21, 2018 - Children with asthma found to be disadvantaged in education and future occupation
September 21, 2018 - Interaction of chemical slurry and ancient shale in fracking wastewater causes radioactivity
September 21, 2018 - Scientists use mice to study transmission of Lyme disease bacteria by infected ticks
September 21, 2018 - Researchers find that sample size is key factor determining accuracy of study results
September 21, 2018 - Study shows how the drive to eat overpowers the brain’s signal to stop
September 21, 2018 - 30 Million Americans Now Have Diabetes
New study shows how the immune system regulates gut fungal population

New study shows how the immune system regulates gut fungal population

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

Immune cells that process food and bacterial antigens in the intestines control the intestinal population of fungi, according to a new study from Weill Cornell Medicine scientists. Defects in the fungus-fighting abilities of these cells may contribute to some cases of Crohn’s disease and other forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

The findings, published Jan. 11 in Science, illuminate a strong connection between fungi, immunity and intestinal inflammation and suggest a new, targeted treatment strategy for IBD.

“After discovering that fungi might be involved in the pathology of IBD, one of the big questions in the field has been how to identify patients who would benefit from antifungal co-therapy, and our finding suggests a way to do that,” said senior author Dr. Iliyan Iliev, an assistant professor of microbiology and immunology in medicine at Weill Cornell Medicine and a scientist at the Jill Roberts Institute for Research in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

The large population of microbes that lives in the intestines, called the microbiome, is known to have important roles in digesting food and controlling metabolism, but it also has a close interrelationship with the immune system. A failure of immune cells to keep the gut microbe population in check can lead to chronic gut inflammation, manifesting as IBD. Scientists estimate that as many as 3 million Americans suffer from Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis, the two major forms of IBD.

Most of the work on gut microbes has focused on bacteria, but Dr. Iliev’s research has a particular emphasis on gut fungi. “Fungal DNA is hard to access and analyze using standard molecular biology techniques, but we have recently developed much better tools for doing so, and have now taken this further by visualizing fungal-host interactions in the gut,” Dr. Iliev said. Using molecular tools, he and his colleagues conducted a study, published in Science in 2012, which showed that a large population of fungal cells–called a mycobiome–lives in the gut and likely plays a role in IBD.

How the immune system normally regulates the gut fungal population and protects from the expansion of harmful fungi has been unclear. In the new study, Dr. Iliev and his colleagues largely answered that question by identifying a type of white blood cell, the CX3CR1+ mononuclear phagocyte, as the immune system’s major gut fungal regulator. “We were surprised how well-equipped those cells were for dealing with fungi,” said Dr. Irina Leonardi, a postdoctoral fellow and a lead author of the study.

Phagocytes, or “eater cells,” engulf and digest other cells, and often display fragments of their prey to other elements of the immune system to prompt a broader immune response. CX3CR1+ phagocytes dwell in the gut lining and were already known to defend the gut by engulfing bacterial cells and even food-derived plant and animal cells.

“Our findings show that these CX3CR1+ cells are also essential for the initiation of immune responses to gut fungi, and regulate the composition of the gut mycobiome,” Dr. Iliev said.

The investigators chemically induced colitis in mice, then added fungi to see whether the fungal cells would overgrow in the mouse gut and increase the severity of the illness, as they are suspected of doing in human IBD. Mice lacking gut CX3CR1+ phagocytes turned out to be far more susceptible to intestinal disease than mice that still had the antifungal cells. Antifungal drug treatment significantly reversed signs of the disease in the mice lacking CX3CR1+ phagocytes, indicating that fungal overgrowth had been the cause.

The Weill Cornell researchers studied more than 500 Crohn’s disease patients and found that those who carry a homozygous mutation in the CX3CR1 gene have a reduced gut antifungal response much like that seen in the mice lacking CX3CR1+ phagocytes. These patients generated relatively few antibodies against common gut-dwelling fungal species.

A type of antifungal antibody, called ASCA, is widely used as a diagnostic marker since it is highly elevated in the blood of patients with several chronic diseases including Crohn’s. “Our study sheds light on the mechanisms leading to ASCA generation,” Dr. Leonardi said. The team’s findings suggest that patients who have the CX3CR1 gene variant might be misdiagnosed since they are negative for ASCA. These individuals might additionally have impaired gut antifungal response that would allow fungal overgrowth and worsened colitis.

“Having this gene variant and low ASCA titers could be a good indicator that a Crohn’s disease patient might benefit from antifungal therapy,” Dr. Iliev said.

Source:

https://news.weill.cornell.edu/news/2018/01/scientists-identify-immune-cells-that-keep-gut-fungi-under-control

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles