Breaking News
May 28, 2018 - New consensus statement outlines evidence-based medical opinion on abusive head trauma
May 28, 2018 - E-Cigarettes Don’t Help Smokers Quit, But Cash Might
May 28, 2018 - New screening tool developed to assess tanning addiction
May 28, 2018 - Unhappy combination of alcohol, anger, and aggressive behavior
May 28, 2018 - Loyola survey identifies significant group of burn patients with elevated PTSD symptoms
May 28, 2018 - Cancer cells co-opt pain-sensing ‘wasabi receptor’ to survive oxidative stress
May 27, 2018 - New way of grouping atoms could herald novel materials, drugs and computers
May 27, 2018 - Less is more? Gene switch for healthy aging found
May 27, 2018 - Breast cancer survivors do not receive recommended level of screening after surgery
May 27, 2018 - Recommendations Developed for Managing Postpartum Pain
May 27, 2018 - Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) | Arthritis Basics | Arthritis Types | Arthritis
May 27, 2018 - ‘Life support’ for transplant livers better than freezing: study
May 27, 2018 - Tree nut consumption linked to improved type 2 diabetes health
May 27, 2018 - Income and education gap causes racial differences in health behaviors, study shows
May 27, 2018 - Even at ‘Safe’ Levels, Air Pollution Puts Seniors at Risk
May 27, 2018 - Obstructive sleep apnea linked to thinning of calvaria, skull base
May 27, 2018 - Epigem’s Managing Director sets the bar for life sciences industry at VentureFest
May 27, 2018 - CPAP may reduce resting heart rate in prediabetic patients
May 27, 2018 - Study reveals striking disparities in health care access and quality across most nations
May 27, 2018 - The Yogi masters were right—meditation and breathing exercises can sharpen your mind
May 27, 2018 - SLU researcher aims to find solutions for diabetes patients at risk of hypoglycemia
May 27, 2018 - Scientists uncover the cause of insulin resistance in obesity
May 27, 2018 - $2.3 million NIH grant to support new project on oxytocin neurons and social behavior
May 27, 2018 - Less Driving Tied to Lower Cardiovascular Disease Risk
May 27, 2018 - Genetics Home Reference: LMNA-related congenital muscular dystrophy
May 27, 2018 - Long-term psychological study confirms time is the best medicine against homesickness
May 27, 2018 - Study explores if CPAP treatment can improve sexual QOL for sleep apnea patients
May 27, 2018 - Study investigates role played by brain in prosocial behavior
May 27, 2018 - New Guidelines Mean 1 in 3 Adults May Need Blood Pressure Meds
May 27, 2018 - Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Analysis: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information
May 27, 2018 - Kids in tough neighborhoods head to ER more often
May 27, 2018 - Exercise alters brain’s dopamine system to help treat addiction, study finds
May 27, 2018 - Sepsis patients treated and released from ED for outpatient follow-up experience good outcomes
May 27, 2018 - Initiative cuts overuse of tests, treatments for bronchiolitis
May 27, 2018 - Study links ‘sleep spindles’ to memory reactivation
May 27, 2018 - Scientists develop new method to speed up genome evolution of baker’s yeast
May 27, 2018 - Sunscreen pills are fake says FDA
May 27, 2018 - Study finds increasing wealth gap between households of seniors and families with children
May 27, 2018 - Link between tuberculosis and Parkinson’s disease discovered
May 27, 2018 - Doctors call on health authorities for permission to provide stroke patients with life-saving treatment
May 26, 2018 - Couples who eat seafood-rich diet tend to get pregnant faster
May 26, 2018 - NIH summit presents recommendations to accelerate treatment development for Alzheimer’s disease
May 26, 2018 - Medication-related harm found to be common among older adults, but preventable
May 26, 2018 - Lunaphore and Vitro announce partnership to develop ISH protocols for RNA, DNA targets
May 26, 2018 - Cryoablation Efficacious for Cancer Pain, Review Finds
May 26, 2018 - Link between IBD and Parkinson’s might allow doctors to slow down condition
May 26, 2018 - Study finds fewer than 5% of low-income, urban mothers use prenatal vitamins before pregnancy
May 26, 2018 - California hospitals urge moms to favor breast milk over formula
May 26, 2018 - Most concussion patients do not receive follow-up care after hospital discharge, says study
May 26, 2018 - Lifetime risks of developing Alzheimer’s dementia vary by age, gender
May 26, 2018 - Researchers find novel ways to improve participation in clinical research
May 26, 2018 - Researchers develop methods for measuring free-base nicotine levels in e-cigarettes
May 26, 2018 - AHA: Preterm Birth Could Warn of Mom’s Future Heart Risks
May 26, 2018 - Some calories more harmful than others
May 26, 2018 - Study links cell size with commitment to division
May 26, 2018 - Researchers develop new, rapid blood test to detect liver damage
May 26, 2018 - Researchers discover cascade of immune processes linked to poor outcomes in aggressive breast cancer
May 26, 2018 - New research will use mathematics to solve mysteries in cell biology
May 26, 2018 - Proposed National Resilience Strategy to reverse catastrophic increases in ‘deaths of despair’
May 26, 2018 - Mice remain slim on burger diet
May 26, 2018 - BMC receives $13.5 million award to test methods for delivering childhood anxiety treatment
May 26, 2018 - ‘Right to Try Act’ will not benefit terminally-ill patients
May 26, 2018 - Study reveals novel statistical algorithm to identify potential disease genes
May 26, 2018 - Two genes play vital roles in malignant brain cancer
May 26, 2018 - Study explores link between groundwater lithium and diagnoses of bipolar disorder, dementia
May 26, 2018 - Researchers reveal stimulatory effects of myelin on young neural cells
May 26, 2018 - Small part of cellular protein that helps form long-term memories also drives neurodegeneration
May 26, 2018 - Four-legged friends can have heart issues, too
May 26, 2018 - Scientists create small, self-contained spaces inside mammalian cells
May 26, 2018 - Better Social Support Network Protects Black Men Against HIV
May 26, 2018 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
May 26, 2018 - Burnout, depression can affect ophthalmology residents, study finds
May 26, 2018 - Latinos and African Americans more likely to experience serious depression than Whites
May 26, 2018 - Data from past epidemic could help improve response to future Ebola outbreaks
May 26, 2018 - Researchers provide insight into how the memory molecule limits brain plasticity
May 26, 2018 - OSU biologist describes ‘restoration ecology’ approach toward patient health
May 26, 2018 - New approach to study brown fat could aid in finding treatments for obesity
May 26, 2018 - UCI Center on Stress & Health receives NIH funding to develop digital health interventions
May 26, 2018 - Could More Fish in the Diet Boost Sex Lives and Fertility?
May 26, 2018 - NTU Singapore and SERI invent new scope to diagnose glaucoma
Novel polygenic hazard score captures age variations of aggressive prostate cancer

Novel polygenic hazard score captures age variations of aggressive prostate cancer

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

An international team, led by researchers at the University of California San Diego School of Medicine, has developed and validated a genetic tool for predicting age of onset of aggressive prostate cancer, a disease that kills more than 26,000 American men annually.

The tool, described in the January 11 online issue of the BMJ (formerly the British Medical Journal), may potentially be used to help guide decisions about who to screen for prostate cancer and at what age.

Currently, detection of prostate cancer relies primarily upon the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening blood test. But PSA testing is not very good as a screening tool. While it reduces deaths from prostate cancer, indiscriminate PSA screening also produces false positive results and encourages over-detection of non-aggressive, slow-growing tumors.

“The existing PSA test is useful, but it is not precise enough to be used indiscriminately on all men,” said the study’s first author, Tyler M. Seibert, MD, PhD, chief resident physician in the Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences at UC San Diego School of Medicine. “As a result, it may prompt medical interventions like biopsy, surgery or radiotherapy that might not be necessary.”

Seibert, senior author Anders Dale, PhD, professor and co-director of the Center for Translational Imaging and Precision Medicine at UC San Diego School of Medicine, and colleagues in Europe, Australia and the United States, used genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to determine whether a man’s genetic predisposition to developing prostate cancer could be used to predict his risk of developing the aggressive and lethal form of the disease.

GWAS search individual genomes for small variations, called single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), that occur more frequently in people with a particular disease than in people without the disease. Hundreds or thousands of SNPs can be evaluated at the same time in large groups of people. In this case, researchers used data from over 200,000 SNPs from 31,747 men of European ancestry participating in the ongoing international PRACTICAL consortium project.

Using a method developed at UC San Diego, the researchers combined information from GWAS and epidemiological surveys to assess quantification for genetic risk at age of disease onset. “Polygenic Hazard Score methodology is specialized in finding age-dependent genetic risks and has already been proven to be very useful in predicting age of onset for Alzheimer’s disease”, said study co-author Chun Chieh Fan, MD, PhD, in the Department of Cognitive Science at UC San Diego.

“The polygenic hazard score is very versatile and can be applied to many age-related diseases,” said Fan. “In this case, the polygenic hazard score of prostate cancer captures the age variations of aggressive prostate cancer.”

Genotype, prostate cancer status and age were analyzed to select SNPs associated with prostate cancer diagnosis. Then the data was incorporated into the polygenic hazard score, which involves survival analysis to estimate SNPs’ effects on age at diagnosis of aggressive prostate cancer. The results led to a polygenic hazard score for prostate cancer that can estimate individual genetic risk. This score was then tested against an independent dataset, from the recent UK ProtecT trial, for validation.

“The polygenic hazard score was calculated from 54 SNPs and proved to be a highly significant predictor of age at diagnosis of aggressive prostate cancer,” said Seibert. “When men in the ProtecT dataset with a high polygenic hazard score were compared to those with average PHS, their risk of aggressive prostate cancer was at least 2.9 times greater.”

“And when we account statistically for the effect of the GWAS having disproportionately high numbers of men with disease compared to the general population, we estimate that the risk defined by the polygenic hazard score is 4.6 times greater.”

The study authors note that an individual’s genotype does not change with age, so the polygenic hazard score can be calculated at any time and used as a tool for men deciding whether and when to undergo screening for prostate cancer. This is especially critical for men at risk of developing prostate cancer at a very young age, before standard guidelines recommend consideration of screening.

“This kind of genetic risk stratification is a step toward individualized medicine,” said Dale, who also noted that PSA tests are much more predictive of aggressive prostate cancer in men with high polygenic hazard score than in those with low polygenic hazard score. This suggests that polygenic hazard score can help physicians determine whether to order a PSA test for a given patient, in the context of the patient’s general health and other risk factors.

Investigators caution that further study of the clinical benefits are needed before the polygenic hazard score is ready for routine use.

Source:

http://ucsdnews.ucsd.edu/pressrelease/new_polygenic_hazard_score_predicts_when_men_develop_prostate_cancer

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles