Breaking News
August 20, 2018 - New assay may help improve both sarcoma diagnosis and treatment
August 20, 2018 - New class of insect repellents to fight against mosquito-borne diseases
August 20, 2018 - ACA Coverage Gains Include Workers Without Insurance
August 20, 2018 - 3-D printed biomaterials for bone tissue engineering
August 20, 2018 - Prenatal exposure to acute stress can affect cognitive function in children of low-income households
August 20, 2018 - Researchers find long-term structural, functional brain abnormalities in individuals with AUDs
August 20, 2018 - Shortage of insurance fraud cops sparks campaign debate
August 20, 2018 - Researchers find STAT3 as therapeutic target for chronic active EBV infection
August 20, 2018 - Health Tip: Keep Diabetic Feet Healthier
August 20, 2018 - FDA approves brain stimulation device for OCD
August 20, 2018 - NYU Langone’s Perlmutter Cancer Center expands Blood and Marrow Transplant Program
August 20, 2018 - New drug shows potential to prevent painful side effect of therapy
August 20, 2018 - RDMD raises $3 million in seed funding to accelerate rare disease research, drug development
August 20, 2018 - Illicit drug use is higher during celebratory events, may be worse than previously thought
August 20, 2018 - Exploring the relationship between fever and cancer incidence
August 20, 2018 - Study reveals how socioeconomic status affects racial, ethnic disparities in childhood cancer survival
August 20, 2018 - Brain tumors trap immune cells needed to fight cancer in the bone marrow, finds research
August 20, 2018 - Three factors that contribute to physician burnout
August 20, 2018 - Babies dependent on opioids need touch, not tech
August 20, 2018 - Understanding How Antibodies Shape the Gut Microbiome
August 20, 2018 - Cara Therapeutics Doses First Patient in Second Pivotal Phase 3 Efficacy Trial of Korsuva (CR845/difelikefalin) Injection in Hemodialysis Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease-Associated Pruritus
August 20, 2018 - Kidney transplant chains more effective in saving lives
August 20, 2018 - Study unravels cellular and molecular mechanisms behind dermal condensate formation
August 20, 2018 - New integrated gene logic-chips could have great value in medical care
August 20, 2018 - FDA Advisory Committee Recommends Approval of Paratek’s Omadacycline
August 20, 2018 - Total, open repairs decline for abdominal aortic aneurysms
August 20, 2018 - Novel system can pinpoint ingestible implants inside the body using wireless signals
August 20, 2018 - Infection rates of high risk oral HPV in England found to be lower than expected
August 20, 2018 - Making robots as valuable and trustworthy assistants for medical therapies
August 20, 2018 - Patients with low-risk blood clots can be better treated at home than at hospital
August 20, 2018 - Passive smoking exposure among kids greatly increases COPD risk late in life
August 20, 2018 - Primary Care Provider Burnout Rate Low in Small Practices
August 20, 2018 - Discovery presents treatment hope for Alzheimer’s and other neurodegenerative diseases
August 20, 2018 - Stroke patients appear to receive better care at teaching hospitals with less chance of readmission
August 20, 2018 - Distinct origin of ADHD identified In children with history of traumatic brain injury
August 20, 2018 - AHA: Wildfire Smoke Threatens Health of Those Near and Far
August 20, 2018 - Here’s a mental health workout that’s as simple as ABC
August 20, 2018 - Newly discovered cytoskeleton utilized by cancer cells for survival
August 19, 2018 - Bifidobacteria supplement colonizes gut of breastfed infants
August 19, 2018 - Why patients with Alzheimer’s markers never develop the condition
August 19, 2018 - ACA’s Medicaid expansion associated with increase in prescriptions for opioid use disorder treatment
August 19, 2018 - Important factor may be missing in models used to predict spread of epidemics from climate change
August 19, 2018 - Indian-Americans have fewer sudden infant deaths, study finds
August 19, 2018 - Experts advise against universal genomic screening of newborns
August 19, 2018 - New trial to investigate whether weight loss before conception can make mom and baby healthier
August 19, 2018 - Sun Pharma Announces FDA Approval of Cequa (cyclosporine) Ophthalmic Solution to Treat Dry Eye Disease
August 19, 2018 - Researchers examining Parkinson’s resilience
August 19, 2018 - HPI, INTEGRIS and USPI enter into agreement to offer patients more choice, flexibility of care
August 19, 2018 - Researchers find mechanism that prepares brain to replicate repeated actions
August 19, 2018 - Those who are emotionally stable when young may remain the most stable as they age
August 19, 2018 - URI professor develops simpler and quicker method for detecting impurity in heparin
August 19, 2018 - Mayo Medical Laboratories and NDSC collaborate to develop new patient blood-management solution
August 19, 2018 - Insight into endocrine cancers and treatment options
August 19, 2018 - HPV Legislation Doesn’t Impact Teen Sexual Behaviors
August 19, 2018 - Exenatide treatment alleviated symptoms of depression in patients
August 19, 2018 - Tufts researchers win grant to study integration of genomic sequencing into neonatal care
August 19, 2018 - Novel finger-prick test can help prevent toxoplasmosis
August 19, 2018 - Cosmetic Procedures Boost Well-Being, Poll Shows
August 19, 2018 - Responsive parenting intervention results in lower BMIs through age three
August 19, 2018 - Anticancer drugs can help plants to battle infection
August 19, 2018 - Sunscreen from bathers releases significant quantities of polluting titanium dioxide into the sea
August 19, 2018 - Case Western Reserve gets three-year grant to enhance food systems in Cleveland neighborhoods
August 19, 2018 - Teenagers can thank their parents’ positive attitude for avoiding obesity
August 19, 2018 - Body mass index positively linked with blood pressure
August 19, 2018 - New tool fills gap in Small Molecules market
August 19, 2018 - Study compares survival outcomes in rural and urban cancer patients enrolled in clinical trials
August 19, 2018 - Researchers develop molecular matrix that delivers healing stem cells to injured elderly muscles
August 19, 2018 - Teva and Regeneron Announce Positive Topline Phase 3 Fasinumab Results in Patients with Chronic Pain from Osteoarthritis of the Knee or Hip
August 19, 2018 - New study pinpoints ways to improve quality of food and nutrition research
August 19, 2018 - Ology Bioservices wins $8.4 million worth agreement to manufacture anti-Ebola monoclonal antibody
August 19, 2018 - New CRISPR technology may help eliminate mutated gene sequence
August 19, 2018 - “Zombie gene” protects elephants from cancer finds study
August 19, 2018 - Study explores how many American cities protect the rights of employed breastfeeding mothers
August 19, 2018 - FDA Approves Lenvima (lenvatinib) for First-line Treatment of Unresectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)
August 19, 2018 - Pain: Considering Complementary Approaches (eBook)
August 19, 2018 - Autoimmune response drives vision loss in glaucoma
August 19, 2018 - Tandem Diabetes Care introduces t:slim X2 Insulin Pump with Basal-IQ Technology in the US
August 19, 2018 - Innovative platform developed to destroy cancer cells
August 19, 2018 - Lowering pH inside tumor cells can slow down spread of cancer
August 19, 2018 - Biomarker predicts kidney cancer risk years before diagnosis
Tracing social and risk networks can help identify undiagnosed cases of HIV

Tracing social and risk networks can help identify undiagnosed cases of HIV

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

Conducting HIV testing among the social and risk networks of those recently diagnosed with HIV helps identify undiagnosed cases of HIV at significantly higher rates and at a lower cost than other testing approaches, finds a new study conducted in Ukraine by an international research team.

The study, led by Samuel R. Friedman of National Development Research Institutes (NDRI) and the Center for Drug Use and HIV/HCV Research (CDUHR) at NYU Rory Meyers College of Nursing and the, is published in the Journal of the International AIDS Society.

Caring for people with HIV and limiting HIV transmission both depend on locating and diagnosing HIV cases, ideally soon after infection. Large-scale testing and various forms of outreach to key populations are common strategies for locating people who are undiagnosed. However, in many countries, including Ukraine, considerable resources are spent on HIV testing and a large number of HIV-negatives are found for each person who tests positive.

“Tracing social and risk networks has been found to help locate people recently infected with HIV, given that the virus is transmitted through sexual and injection risk networks,” said Friedman, director of the Institute for Infectious Disease Research at NDRI and associate director and senior theoretician at CDUHR. “In addition, since social norms and rumors about HIV testing and treatment are likely to spread through social networks, which overlap to considerable degree with risk networks, this also lets us zero in on groups who would usually be unlikely to get tested on their own.”

In this study, the researchers compared three projects and their ability to identify undiagnosed cases of HIV: The Transmission Reduction Intervention Project (TRIP), integrated biobehavioral surveillance, and outreach testing. The research took place in Odessa, a large city in southern Ukraine and one of the areas where injection drug use and then an HIV epidemic began in the 1990s.

In TRIP, the researchers conducted network-based recruiting, counseling, and HIV testing from 2013 through 2016. Researchers recruited “seeds,” or participants who were potentially recently infected and whose risk networks could then be tested. Risk networks included sexual partners, people participants injected drugs with, people who were present while participants were having sex or using drugs, and people recruited from small-size venues where participants went to inject drugs or locate sexual partners.

TRIP looked at two types of “seeds” – those recently infected plus their risk network members, as well as those with longer-term HIV infections and their networks. Recently infected participants are an important target group for intervention because transmission is particularly likely during this time due to high viral loads, lack of immune response, and potentially elevated rates of risky behaviors.

Integrated biobehavioral surveillance used respondent-driven sampling – where people from a hard-to-reach population recommend other people they know – to recruit people who inject drugs. In the outreach testing project, people who inject drugs were tested for HIV at community outreach sites.

The researchers found that recruiting the risk networks of people infected with HIV through TRIP led to locating a significantly higher rate of undiagnosed positives than did either integrated biobehavioral surveillance or outreach testing. TRIP tested 1,252 people for HIV, 183 (14.6 percent) of whom were HIV positive; the integrated biobehavioral surveillance project tested 400 people and found 20 (5 percent) undiagnosed cases of HIV, while outreach testing was conducted on 13,936 people and found 331 (2.4 percent) undiagnosed cases of HIV.

“The superiority of TRIP as a way to recruit undiagnosed positives probably stems from its design. TRIP zeroes in on the social networks most likely to be infected rather than attempting to use ‘weak ties’ to recruit people who inject drugs who are socially and geographically distant from the ‘seeds,'” Friedman said.

In addition, within TRIP, recently infected participants’ networks contained higher proportions of undiagnosed positives (16.3 percent) than the networks of longer-term infected people (12.2 percent).

Finally, TRIP was found to be a cost-effective method for identifying undiagnosed cases of HIV. For each person detected, the cost was $250 for TRIP, $387 for integrated biobehavioral surveillance, $941 for outreach testing in 2013-14, and $653 for outreach testing in 2015-16.

Given the success of TRIP in Ukraine and similar findings from Athens and San Diego, the researchers recommend that TRIP’s recruiting techniques, including prioritizing networks of the recently infected, be integrated with existing HIV testing programs to improve the identification of new HIV cases.

Source:

https://www.nyu.edu/about/news-publications/news/2018/january/using-social-and-risk-networks-helps-identify-people-undiagnosed.html

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles