Breaking News
January 17, 2019 - Effects of linoleic acid on the body are largely dependent on genes, shows study
January 17, 2019 - Pre-injury exercise reduces damage to both muscles and nerves, study finds
January 17, 2019 - Minimizing Antibody Size to Maximize Research Potential
January 17, 2019 - Research finds large genome in tiny forest defoliator
January 17, 2019 - Technology helps reduce the yearning for unhealthy food
January 17, 2019 - New Drug Application for Insomnia Disorder Treatment Lemborexant Submitted in the United States
January 17, 2019 - What you should know about teeth whitening
January 17, 2019 - Why Older Adults Should Eat More Protein (And Not Overdo Protein Shakes)
January 17, 2019 - Colorectal cancer mortality rates predicted to increase globally
January 17, 2019 - Scientists discover mutational signatures of tumor hypoxia
January 17, 2019 - New evidence shows how fever alters immune cells
January 17, 2019 - Researchers find new class of blood pressure-regulating peptides in vampire bat venom
January 17, 2019 - Promega to exhibit new Maxwell RSC48 platform at 2019 Festival of Genomics
January 17, 2019 - Study pinpoints immune cells that could be key to tackling hypertension
January 17, 2019 - Couples Intervention May Aid Partners of Diabetes Patients
January 17, 2019 - Your weight history may predict your heart failure risk
January 17, 2019 - Explore a cornucopia of accomplishments in prematurity research
January 17, 2019 - New study identifies four characteristics that predict severity of postpartum depression
January 17, 2019 - New, scalpel-free treatment for reducing Parkinson’s tremor gets FDA approval
January 17, 2019 - Neurobiologists uncover key component of how the human brain marks time
January 17, 2019 - LifeTime receives fund to develop a plan to embed its vision for healthier future
January 17, 2019 - WTC first responders at higher risk for head and neck cancers, study finds
January 17, 2019 - New NSF funded study may help physicians decrease brain injury deaths
January 17, 2019 - Ham bones contain peptides that could have cardioprotective effects
January 17, 2019 - Research finds how Candida albicans adapt to low oxygen levels to cause infection
January 17, 2019 - Cobra Biologics announces appointment of Dr Darrell Sleep as Director of Innovation
January 17, 2019 - Cellular protein that interacts with viruses appears to enable infection process of Zika virus
January 17, 2019 - Opioids Now More Deadly for Americans Than Traffic Accidents
January 17, 2019 - Women who start periods early are at greater risk of cardiovascular problems
January 17, 2019 - The brain-circuitry clash that keeps you from diving into that plate of ribs when you’re dining with royalty
January 17, 2019 - Poo transplant can successfully treat patients with ulcerative colitis
January 17, 2019 - Study suggests key role for glial cells in Parkinson’s disease
January 17, 2019 - Educational videos in clinical settings increase HPV vaccination rates among adolescents
January 17, 2019 - Better understanding of aggressive brain tumour
January 17, 2019 - Why is life expectancy in the U.S. going down? A Q&A
January 17, 2019 - The Electronics Industry Sees Money In Your Health
January 17, 2019 - Hypertension drug may improve effectiveness of ovarian cancer treatment
January 17, 2019 - Scientists reveal key mechanism in worms that controls cell’s response to stress
January 17, 2019 - How Patch Clamp Technology Can Benefit Ion Channel Research
January 16, 2019 - Researchers cultivate organoids that perfectly mimic blood vessels
January 16, 2019 - Sound Pharmaceuticals Advances Phase 2 Hearing Loss Clinical Trial in Cystic Fibrosis
January 16, 2019 - Unraveling the genetic causes of skin cancer
January 16, 2019 - Higher percentages of saturated fat in low-carb diets may not harm cholesterol levels, new analysis suggests
January 16, 2019 - Using bottled or tap water impacts health benefits of green tea
January 16, 2019 - Best trained alert dogs have potential to improve Type 1 diabetes patients’ quality of life
January 16, 2019 - States with lower incidence of melanoma have higher mortality rates
January 16, 2019 - Pollution on the London Underground found to be dangerously high
January 16, 2019 - Breast cancer cells in mice coaxed to turn into harmless fat cells
January 16, 2019 - Study connects the genetic background of autistic spectrum disorders with stem cell dysfunction
January 16, 2019 - When activated, ‘social’ brain circuits inhibit feeding behavior in mice | News Center
January 16, 2019 - How Exercise May Help Keep Our Memory Sharp
January 16, 2019 - Researchers identify a key regulator that stops excessive inflammation
January 16, 2019 - TGF-beta signaling pathway in uterine cells protects against cancer
January 16, 2019 - MD Anderson Cancer Center collaborates with Dragonfly for new immunotherapy drug clinical trials
January 16, 2019 - Drug Repurposing May Provide More Psychiatric Tx Options
January 16, 2019 - A new brain imaging study challenges the dominant theoretical model of autism spectrum disorders
January 16, 2019 - GoFundMe CEO: ‘Gigantic Gaps’ In Health System Showing Up In Crowdfunding
January 16, 2019 - Induced neuronal cells derived from fibroblasts are similar to neurons in the brain
January 16, 2019 - New study finds link between childhood abuse and suicide in later life
January 16, 2019 - Lifestyle and health factors that are good for the heart can also prevent diabetes
January 16, 2019 - Scientists take another step in understanding bacteria that cause Salmonella epidemic
January 16, 2019 - Look to Your Aunts, Uncles and Parents for Clues to Your Longevity
January 16, 2019 - Study finds ADHD drugs are unlikely to cause cardiac damage in children who take them
January 16, 2019 - Call The Midwife! (If The Doctor Doesn’t Object)
January 16, 2019 - Changes in hippocampal structural connectivity differentiate responders of electroconvulsive therapy
January 16, 2019 - Study sheds light on the deadly venom of Mojave rattlesnakes
January 16, 2019 - University of Nebraska to develop new drugs that prevent and counteract effects of radiation exposure
January 16, 2019 - Sugar-based stent makes precarious sewing process easier
January 16, 2019 - FDA-approved drug hampers cancer metastasis in animal model, shows study
January 16, 2019 - Memories of past meals influence future food intake in rats
January 16, 2019 - Low-level cannabis use can change the adolescent brain
January 16, 2019 - MTC in Rouen acquires Robocath’s R-One robot for future healthcare practitioner training
January 16, 2019 - OSSIO granted FDA 510(k) market clearance for OSSIOfiber Bone Pin Family
January 16, 2019 - Childhood body composition may play a role in future respiratory health
January 16, 2019 - Outdated commissioning methods are failing mental health services in the UK, reveals report
January 16, 2019 - Unconventional immune cells trigger disturbed cytokine production in human spondyloarthritis
January 16, 2019 - Patients Turn To GoFundMe When Money And Hope Run Out
January 16, 2019 - Researchers develop novel viral identification method
January 16, 2019 - Study proposes improvements in pharmacological study of cognitive function enhancers in schizophrenia
January 16, 2019 - Study points to potential new biomarker and drug target for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Iron deficiency early in life can have long-lasting consequences for the brain

Iron deficiency early in life can have long-lasting consequences for the brain

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

Iron deficiency in the first four weeks of a piglet’s life – equivalent to roughly four months in a human infant – impairs the development of key brain structures, scientists report. The abnormalities remain even after weeks of iron supplementation begun later in life, the researchers found.

The discovery, reported in the journal Nutrients, adds to the evidence that iron deficiency early in life can have long-lasting consequences for the brain, said University of Illinois animal sciences professor Ryan Dilger, who led the study with Austin Mudd, a graduate student in the neuroscience program at the U. of I. The analysis, which relied on neuroimaging to study the piglets’ brains as they matured, homed in on specific brain regions most affected by iron-deficient diets. The use of neuroimaging was part of an effort to find noninvasive ways of studying pig brain development that could also be applied in humans.

Pigs are useful models for studies relevant to human health because they have some of the same nutrient and metabolic requirements as humans, Mudd said. For this reason, health authorities require that new infant formulas be tested in piglets before they can be used in clinical trials of human babies.

Pigs also have anatomically similar brains to humans, the researchers said.

“Pig brains and human brains follow very similar developmental trajectories,” Mudd said. “One week of piglet brain growth is roughly equivalent to one month of human brain growth. You can overlay those trajectories and they are almost identical.”

Pigs and humans also appear to respond in similar ways to dietary deficiencies – in particular, iron deficiencies, Dilger said.

“Nothing is as overt as an iron deficiency,” he said. “Both piglets and human infants with iron deficiencies are smaller, and they display other characteristic anomalies. Iron deficiency in humans is the most prolific deficiency the world over.”

“Research in humans has shown that iron deficiency early in life results in delayed motor development by 10 months of age, delayed cognitive processing by 10 years of age, altered recognition memory and executive functions at 19 years of age, and poorer emotional health in the mid-twenties” the researchers wrote.

In an earlier study of the same 28 piglets used in the new analysis, the scientists found that those fed iron-deficient diets for the first four weeks of life had smaller overall brain volume than those fed an iron-sufficient diet. When the iron-deficient pigs switched to an iron-replete diet from four to eight weeks of life, their brain volumes caught up with those of pigs that had never been iron deficient. This might lead some to assume that iron supplementation later in life corrects all of the problems associated with earlier deficiencies, Mudd said.

“We know, however, that there are many different brain regions and each one of them develops at a different rate. There could be a critical window of development for one region and not another,” he said. “With our neuroimaging, we can look more closely at different brain structures and start to identify those developmental windows.”

The researchers used magnetic resonance imaging and other noninvasive techniques to determine the relative iron content, volume and structural integrity of specific brain regions.

By comparing piglets with and without iron-deficient diets in the first four weeks of life, and then again at eight weeks after all received sufficient iron for four weeks, the researchers were able to determine whether the brain anomalies seen at four weeks persisted after the iron-deficient piglets’ diets were corrected.

The analysis revealed that the brains of iron-deficient piglets did not fully recover. They had reduced iron content in several brain regions, including the left hippocampus, a region essential to learning and memory. Giving the piglets an iron-replete diet for another four weeks did not appear to increase the iron content of these brain regions.

The iron-deficient piglets also had structural deficiencies in their gray matter and white matter in several brain regions at four and eight weeks. Only the olfactory bulb, a brain structure that supports the sense of smell, was bigger in the iron-deficient piglets than in those that had never been deficient. The olfactory bulbs of the deficient piglets also had greater iron content than those of piglets that had never been deficient.

This latter finding suggests there could be a compensatory mechanism in the brain that concentrates available iron in the olfactory bulb to encourage an animal that normally roots around in the dirt with its snout to do so more aggressively to obtain sufficient iron from soil, the researchers said. While this is only a hypothesis and has not been proved, the researchers said, it is interesting that humans with iron deficiencies sometimes experience a condition known as pica, which makes them want to eat unusual substances, including dirt.

“Essentially what we found in this study is that there is a critical window in development for providing iron, and that window is immediately after birth,” Mudd said. More research must be done to determine if this is also true for human infants, he said.

Source:

https://news.illinois.edu/view/6367/614620

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles