Breaking News
March 21, 2019 - Mutations in noncoding genes could play big role in regulating cancer, study finds
March 21, 2019 - A medical student’s thoughts on Match Day
March 21, 2019 - Are eggs good or bad for you?
March 21, 2019 - New analysis reveals precision oncology insights for colorectal cancer
March 21, 2019 - Pollutants appear to weaken immune system and increase pathogen virulence
March 21, 2019 - Researchers develop and validate scale for rating severity of mononucleosis
March 21, 2019 - Scientists identify generation of key immune response in mice on introducing solid food
March 21, 2019 - New nanomaterial could restore internal structure of damaged bones
March 21, 2019 - Selective destruction of prostate tumor as effective as complete prostate removal
March 21, 2019 - 2011 to 2015 Saw Increase in Psychiatric ED Visits for Youth
March 21, 2019 - Tapeworm drug targets common vulnerability in tumor cells
March 21, 2019 - Off the beaten path for global health residency
March 21, 2019 - European Parliament’s report calls on EU to develop policies to regulate endocrine-disrupting chemicals
March 21, 2019 - Women with undiagnosed diabetes in pregnancy more likely to experience stillbirths
March 21, 2019 - Fish consumption can help prevent asthma, study reveals
March 21, 2019 - Royal Holloway professors to lead new to research into curing Neurofibromatosis type 1
March 21, 2019 - NSF offers grant to improve treatment approaches for pelvic organ prolapse
March 21, 2019 - Your Apple Watch Might Help Spot a Dangerous Irregular Heartbeat
March 21, 2019 - Research team uncovers critical new clues about what goes awry in autistic brains
March 21, 2019 - From March Madness to medicine with help from mentors
March 21, 2019 - Mental health disorders among young adults may be on the increase
March 21, 2019 - New study examines smarter automatic defibrillator
March 21, 2019 - UC Riverside research shows how natural selection favors cheaters
March 21, 2019 - Mother’s diet during pregnancy can impact lung-specific genes of her offspring
March 21, 2019 - AeroForm Tissue Expanders makes breast reconstruction after mastectomy more comfortable
March 21, 2019 - New project focuses on creating more responsive, intuitive prosthetics
March 21, 2019 - New case study describes adolescent patient with rapid-onset schizophrenia and Bartonella infection
March 21, 2019 - Umass Amherst food scientist honored with 2019 Young Scientist Research Award
March 21, 2019 - Smell of skin could lead to early diagnosis for Parkinson’s
March 21, 2019 - Difference in brain connectivity may explain autism spectrum disorder
March 21, 2019 - Untangling the microbiome — with statistics
March 21, 2019 - Human microbiome metabolites enhance colon injury by enterohemorrhagic E. coli, study shows
March 21, 2019 - Written media can improve citizens’ understanding of palliative care
March 21, 2019 - New research aims to find how asthma symptoms are aggravated
March 21, 2019 - New $9.7 million NIH grant project seeks to improve hearing restoration
March 21, 2019 - Researchers measure brain metabolite levels in people with mild memory problems
March 21, 2019 - FDA approves first drug for treatment of postpartum depression in adult women
March 20, 2019 - Gene editing and designer babies experiments face global moratorium
March 20, 2019 - Major scientific study of wound care dressings wins ‘Best Clinical or Preclinical Research Award’
March 20, 2019 - Biohaven Enrolls First Patient In Phase 3 Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) Trial Of Troriluzole
March 20, 2019 - Big data study identifies drugs that increase risk of psychosis in youth with ADHD
March 20, 2019 - Mystery novel and dream spur key scientific insight into heart defect | News Center
March 20, 2019 - Study measures impact of policies designed to reduce air pollution in two mega-cities
March 20, 2019 - Mild sleep apnea during pregnancy changes sugar levels and may affect infant growth patterns
March 20, 2019 - SSB and Novasep collaborate to develop new membrane chromatography systems
March 20, 2019 - Leaky valve repair improves quality of life in heart failure patients
March 20, 2019 - Diattenuation Imaging offers structural information of difficult to access brain regions
March 20, 2019 - Early sports specialization linked to increased injury rates during athletic career
March 20, 2019 - Study brings clarity about milk intake for children with Duarte galactosemia
March 20, 2019 - Allergan Announces FDA Acceptance of New Drug Application for Ubrogepant for the Acute Treatment of Migraine
March 20, 2019 - Maternal smoking during pregnancy increases risk of ADHD among offspring up to three-fold
March 20, 2019 - Pioneering pediatric kidney transplant surgeon Oscar Salvatierra dies at 83 | News Center
March 20, 2019 - F.D.A. Approves First Drug for Postpartum Depression
March 20, 2019 - TB remains a major public health challenge in the European region
March 20, 2019 - Most pills contain common allergens, warn experts
March 20, 2019 - Researchers discover previously unknown mechanism by which cells can sense oxygen
March 20, 2019 - World’s leading source of data on diagnosis, treatments for aortic dissection
March 20, 2019 - Breast cancer relapse predictor may soon be a reality
March 20, 2019 - Researchers identify origin of chronic pain in humans
March 20, 2019 - Two-drug combinations containing calcium channel blocker significantly lowers BP
March 20, 2019 - King’s scientists to monitor air quality exposure of 250 children
March 20, 2019 - Active substance from plant could turn into a ray of hope against eye tumors
March 20, 2019 - Preventative cardioverter defibrillator implantation is of little benefit to kidney dialysis patients
March 20, 2019 - New method based on neurofeedback may reduce anxiety
March 20, 2019 - Study explores whether alcohol consumption can have an effect on arthritis
March 20, 2019 - Merck to collaborate with GenScript for plasmid and virus manufacturing in China
March 20, 2019 - FDA Approves Zulresso (brexanolone) for the Treatment of Postpartum Depression
March 20, 2019 - Study examines long-term opioid use in patients with severe osteoarthritis
March 20, 2019 - Retired Stanford professor Edward Rubenstein, pioneer in intensive care medicine, dies at 94 | News Center
March 20, 2019 - Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center to Join Columbia University
March 20, 2019 - Call for halt to human gene editing and designer babies experiments
March 20, 2019 - Study illuminates how hot spots of genetic variation evolved in the human genome
March 20, 2019 - Roundworm study suggests alternatives for treatment of schizophrenia
March 20, 2019 - Sphingotec reports new applications of bio-ADM at 39th ISICEM
March 20, 2019 - Preventing falls through free community-based screenings for older adults
March 20, 2019 - AAOS: Supplement Use Low in Patients With Osteoporosis, Hip Fracture
March 20, 2019 - Does intensive blood pressure control reduce dementia?
March 20, 2019 - Nut consumption could be key to better cognitive health in older people
March 20, 2019 - Drinking hot tea associated with increased risk of esophageal cancer
March 20, 2019 - Androgen receptor plays vital role in regulating multiple mitochondrial processes
Protein linked with Alzheimer’s disease affects different brain cells differently

Protein linked with Alzheimer’s disease affects different brain cells differently

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

Amyloid beta, a protein linked with Alzheimer’s disease, has different properties in different cell types in the brains of fruit flies. This is the conclusion of a study led by researchers at Linköping University in Sweden. While amyloid beta is highly toxic for nerve cells, it seems that certain other types of cell are hardly damaged at all by aggregates of the protein.

The study, which has been published in Cell Chemical Biology, describes investigations by Swedish researchers into the sensitivity of different cells in the brain for one of the proteins closely associated with Alzheimer’s disease. In advanced Alzheimer’s disease, huge numbers of nerve cells in the brain are dead. Research has long been focused onto the process by which nerve cells are damaged by erroneously folded forms of the amyloid beta protein. These forms build up and eventually form plaques in the brain. But the erroneously folded forms of amyloid beta do not accumulate only in nerve cells. Amyloid deposits are also found in the blood vessels of the brain, in the retina, and in cells known as glial cells. The latter have various support functions in the brain, and it is unclear whether this plays a role in the development of disease. For this reason, the researchers wanted to investigate whether amyloid beta can form in these different types of cell, and whether it is toxic for other cells than nerve cells.

The researchers used fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) in their work. These have been extensively used in research to understand neuronal development and diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease. They used fruit flies that had been modified, such that their cells produced high levels of human amyloid beta 1-42, which is the more harmful of the two most common variants. The researchers could control which cells expressed the amyloid, and compared flies in which it was expressed in different cell types. The group had previously shown that the higher the amount of amyloid aggregate present in the nerve cells, the more severe was the disease in the flies.

“In this study we expressed the amyloid beta 1-42 in glial cells instead, and observed that huge amounts of aggregate accumulated around these cells. The flies, however, were hardly affected by the disease. They were affected to a certain degree, compared with control groups, but nowhere like as much as flies with amyloid beta in their nerve cells. This was a great surprise,” says Maria Jonson, research student in the Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology and first author of the article.

The researchers wondered why amyloid did not harm the glial cells as much as nerve cells, and thus studied the structure of the aggregate in detail. Amyloid beta with faulty folding can be produced in various forms, and these are classified by, among other things, the degree of maturity. Mature amyloid appears in the microscope as thin, tightly packed strands, almost like a bundle of uncooked spaghetti. When immature, it looks more like cooked spaghetti, and forms tangles. Previous studies by the researchers in mice and humans have shown that both forms can be present, but this is the first time that neuron degradation was linked to the structure of the amyloid.

“We noted that glial cells seem to produce the mature, less harmful form of amyloid beta, while neurons cannot. The amyloid ends up outside the glial cells as bundles of fibers, while the same protein in its immature form gets stuck inside the neurons, and they die. This raises the question, of course, of the molecular mechanism that lies behind the high toxicity of amyloid beta for neurons, while glial cells can survive even with high levels, at least in fruit flies,” says Per Hammarström, professor in the Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, and leader of the study.

One important advantage of using fruit flies as experimental model, rather than mice, is that high levels of the amyloid beta aggregate in the flies leads to neurodegeneration and a considerably shorter lifetime, which is the same as in humans. Stefan Thor’s research group at the Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine has developed the fruit flies used in the study.

Source:

https://liu.se/en/news-item/alzheimerplack-inte-lika-farligt-for-alla-celler-i-hjarnan

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles