Breaking News
July 18, 2018 - Researchers seek to understand role of APOE mutation in Alzheimer’s disease
July 18, 2018 - Animal studies reveal brain changes responsible for appetite effects of cannabis
July 18, 2018 - New ZEISS ZEN Intellesis machine allows segmentation of correlative microscopy
July 18, 2018 - Study findings highlight importance of early detection of SMA through newborn screening
July 18, 2018 - Results of Phase III (PIX306) Trial Evaluating Progression-Free Survival of Pixuvri (pixantrone) Combined with Rituximab in Patients with Aggressive B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
July 18, 2018 - Diabetes researchers find switch for fatty liver disease
July 18, 2018 - The future of the microbiome: A conversation
July 18, 2018 - States attacking ACA would hurt most if shield on preexisting conditions were axed
July 18, 2018 - Novel delivery system for bacteriophages could offer new way to battle lung infections
July 18, 2018 - PTSD may increase risk of stroke, heart attack in World Trade Center response crews
July 18, 2018 - Finding the right protective eyewear for young athletes
July 18, 2018 - Routine screening, treatment could help stem nationwide opioid epidemic
July 17, 2018 - AI and radar technologies could help diabetics manage their disease
July 17, 2018 - New Stanford algorithm could improve diagnosis of many rare genetic diseases
July 17, 2018 - Burdensome symptoms of eczema can lead to impaired quality of life, shows study
July 17, 2018 - Sartorius Stedim Biotech and Penn State partner to advance teaching, research in biotechnology
July 17, 2018 - Researchers map family trees of cancer cells to understand how AML responds to new drug
July 17, 2018 - Mortality from heart failure remains higher in women than men
July 17, 2018 - Can-Fite BioPharma receives Australian and Chinese patents for new drug to treat erectile dysfunction
July 17, 2018 - AAP: Lawnmowers Pose Serious Injury Risk to Children
July 17, 2018 - Fewer U.S. kids are getting cavities
July 17, 2018 - Differences in brain’s reward circuit may explain social deficits in autism
July 17, 2018 - YCC researchers suggest promising treatment for two rare inherited cancer syndromes
July 17, 2018 - FAU and partners receive NIH research grant to shed light on sleep loss and metabolic disorders
July 17, 2018 - Advanced MRI technique predicts risk of disease progression in MS
July 17, 2018 - Health Tip: Microwave Safely – Drugs.com MedNews
July 17, 2018 - New target for treating heart failure identified
July 17, 2018 - Biodesign fellows simplify heart rhythm monitoring
July 17, 2018 - Study reveals new risk genes for allergic rhinitis
July 17, 2018 - Community college education can increase physician diversity and access to primary care
July 17, 2018 - Inflection Biosciences’ dual mechanism inhibitor shows promise as treatment for CLL
July 17, 2018 - Researchers uncover how cells invite corrupted proteins inside
July 17, 2018 - Large international study finds new risk genes for hay fever
July 17, 2018 - Studies show HORIBA’s new hematology analyzer improves POCT and care of oncology patients
July 17, 2018 - New website aims to make yoga safer for everyone
July 17, 2018 - Long-term survival worse for black survivors of in-hospital cardiac arrest
July 17, 2018 - Stanford data analyst’s childhood inspires his research: A Q&A
July 17, 2018 - Preventability of hospital readmissions changes over time, study reveals
July 17, 2018 - Nursing notes can help predict if ICU patients will survive
July 17, 2018 - Most older adults with probable dementia found to be either undiagnosed or unaware of it
July 17, 2018 - Vallum receives FDA clearance to market PEEK spinal interbody fusion device
July 17, 2018 - Okayama University research could improve prognosis of diabetic kidney disease
July 17, 2018 - Researchers develop machine learning method to predict unknown gene functions of microbes
July 17, 2018 - Homogenous BTK occupancy assay used in tirabrutinib clinical studies
July 17, 2018 - Study identifies new genes linked to heart function and development
July 17, 2018 - NeuroTrauma Sciences and Henry Ford join hands to advance exosome technology
July 17, 2018 - Improved methods to measure enterococci concentrations in recreational water
July 17, 2018 - White adolescent boys experiencing early puberty have high risk for substance use
July 17, 2018 - Celgene and Acceleron Announce Luspatercept Achieved Primary and All Key Secondary Endpoints in Phase III ‘BELIEVE’ Study in Adults with Transfusion-Dependent Beta-Thalassemia
July 17, 2018 - Roots of leukemia reveal possibility of predicting people at risk
July 17, 2018 - Summer med program embraces low-income students’ potential
July 17, 2018 - New research lays foundation to create standards for RNA sequencing
July 17, 2018 - CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing can cause greater genetic damage than previously thought
July 17, 2018 - Democrats rally against threats to the ACA to block Trump’s Supreme Court nominee
July 17, 2018 - Staggering prices slow insurers’ coverage of CAR-T cancer therapy
July 17, 2018 - How proteins involved in neurodegeneration enter cells
July 17, 2018 - New super-resolution ‘nanoscope’ provides insight into progression of Alzheimer’s disease
July 17, 2018 - FDA Advisory Committee Endorses the Effectiveness and Safety of Single-Dose Tafenoquine for the Radical Cure of P. vivax Malaria
July 17, 2018 - Uncovering the evolutionary history of IBD-associated colorectal cancer
July 17, 2018 - Is nutrition research dependable? Stanford’s John Ioannidis weighs in
July 17, 2018 - New machine learning framework predicts effects of genetic mutations in ‘dark matter’ regions
July 17, 2018 - Plant-based products fail to have positive impact on blood pressure during clinical studies
July 17, 2018 - Electronic system to speed up facial pain diagnosis may improve quality of life and save money
July 17, 2018 - Study delves into the role played by Protein Kinase C in synaptic plasticity
July 17, 2018 - Women Often Unaware of Their Hospital’s Religious Affiliation
July 17, 2018 - New AASM guideline recommends use of actigraphy for sleep disorders
July 17, 2018 - CRISPR editing reduces repetitive behavior in mice with a form of autism
July 17, 2018 - Scientists use magnets to detect cancer
July 17, 2018 - Microfluidic chip to detect sepsis proves successful in clinical study
July 17, 2018 - Research provides better understanding of mechanisms underlying memory storage
July 17, 2018 - A Multi-Modal Approach for the Early Detection of Breast Cancer
July 17, 2018 - Mailing colorectal cancer tests to patients increases screening rates, report researchers
July 17, 2018 - Scientists find possible sources of medicinal and antimicrobial drugs
July 17, 2018 - Molecules formed when the body metabolizes omega-3 fatty acids may inhibit cancer
July 17, 2018 - Efficient communication between hospitals improves patient safety and reduces mortality
July 17, 2018 - Study highlights potential of fetal gene therapy to prevent lethal neurodegenerative disease
July 17, 2018 - For Americans, in Science They Trust
July 17, 2018 - Combating HIV/AIDS | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine
July 17, 2018 - Study shows minorities widely underrepresented in autism diagnoses
July 17, 2018 - Multigene testing replacing BRCA tests for breast cancer risk | News Center
Protein linked with Alzheimer’s disease affects different brain cells differently

Protein linked with Alzheimer’s disease affects different brain cells differently

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

Amyloid beta, a protein linked with Alzheimer’s disease, has different properties in different cell types in the brains of fruit flies. This is the conclusion of a study led by researchers at Linköping University in Sweden. While amyloid beta is highly toxic for nerve cells, it seems that certain other types of cell are hardly damaged at all by aggregates of the protein.

The study, which has been published in Cell Chemical Biology, describes investigations by Swedish researchers into the sensitivity of different cells in the brain for one of the proteins closely associated with Alzheimer’s disease. In advanced Alzheimer’s disease, huge numbers of nerve cells in the brain are dead. Research has long been focused onto the process by which nerve cells are damaged by erroneously folded forms of the amyloid beta protein. These forms build up and eventually form plaques in the brain. But the erroneously folded forms of amyloid beta do not accumulate only in nerve cells. Amyloid deposits are also found in the blood vessels of the brain, in the retina, and in cells known as glial cells. The latter have various support functions in the brain, and it is unclear whether this plays a role in the development of disease. For this reason, the researchers wanted to investigate whether amyloid beta can form in these different types of cell, and whether it is toxic for other cells than nerve cells.

The researchers used fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) in their work. These have been extensively used in research to understand neuronal development and diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease. They used fruit flies that had been modified, such that their cells produced high levels of human amyloid beta 1-42, which is the more harmful of the two most common variants. The researchers could control which cells expressed the amyloid, and compared flies in which it was expressed in different cell types. The group had previously shown that the higher the amount of amyloid aggregate present in the nerve cells, the more severe was the disease in the flies.

“In this study we expressed the amyloid beta 1-42 in glial cells instead, and observed that huge amounts of aggregate accumulated around these cells. The flies, however, were hardly affected by the disease. They were affected to a certain degree, compared with control groups, but nowhere like as much as flies with amyloid beta in their nerve cells. This was a great surprise,” says Maria Jonson, research student in the Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology and first author of the article.

The researchers wondered why amyloid did not harm the glial cells as much as nerve cells, and thus studied the structure of the aggregate in detail. Amyloid beta with faulty folding can be produced in various forms, and these are classified by, among other things, the degree of maturity. Mature amyloid appears in the microscope as thin, tightly packed strands, almost like a bundle of uncooked spaghetti. When immature, it looks more like cooked spaghetti, and forms tangles. Previous studies by the researchers in mice and humans have shown that both forms can be present, but this is the first time that neuron degradation was linked to the structure of the amyloid.

“We noted that glial cells seem to produce the mature, less harmful form of amyloid beta, while neurons cannot. The amyloid ends up outside the glial cells as bundles of fibers, while the same protein in its immature form gets stuck inside the neurons, and they die. This raises the question, of course, of the molecular mechanism that lies behind the high toxicity of amyloid beta for neurons, while glial cells can survive even with high levels, at least in fruit flies,” says Per Hammarström, professor in the Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, and leader of the study.

One important advantage of using fruit flies as experimental model, rather than mice, is that high levels of the amyloid beta aggregate in the flies leads to neurodegeneration and a considerably shorter lifetime, which is the same as in humans. Stefan Thor’s research group at the Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine has developed the fruit flies used in the study.

Source:

https://liu.se/en/news-item/alzheimerplack-inte-lika-farligt-for-alla-celler-i-hjarnan

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles