Breaking News
October 23, 2018 - Drugs approved for breast cancer treatment are effective and well tolerated in men
October 23, 2018 - EKF introduces new hand-held lactate analyzer for rapid sports performance monitoring
October 23, 2018 - Researchers identify common genetic connection in lung conditions
October 23, 2018 - Forbius initiates Phase 2a trial evaluating efficacy, safety of AVID100 in patients with squamous NSCLC
October 23, 2018 - Immunotherapy achieves major pathological response in early-stage mismatch repair deficient colon cancer
October 23, 2018 - New discovery may lead to better treatment options for pancreatic cancer patients
October 23, 2018 - FDA Approves Dupixent (dupilumab) for Moderate-to-Severe Asthma
October 23, 2018 - Researchers identify immune culprits linked to inflammation and bone loss in gum disease
October 23, 2018 - Despite lower risk factors, black men have higher rates of recidivism
October 23, 2018 - Study finds why pregnant women in mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan prefer cesarean delivery
October 23, 2018 - AbbVie’s U-ACHIEVE Phase 2b/3 dose-ranging study improves outcomes in patients with ulcerative colitis
October 23, 2018 - NCI grant awarded to Abramson Cancer Center to study CAR T cells In solid tumors
October 23, 2018 - Scientists use electron microscope to study chemical transformation in catalytic cross-coupling reaction
October 23, 2018 - Research offers new hope to men who received childhood cancer treatment
October 23, 2018 - Adverse Childhood Experiences Tied to Burnout in BSN Students
October 23, 2018 - High levels of oral disease among elite athletes affecting performance
October 23, 2018 - Study examines effect of immediate vs delayed pushing during labor on delivery outcomes
October 23, 2018 - LU-RRTC to spearhead capacity-building efforts for racial and ethnic populations
October 23, 2018 - Maintenance therapy with olaparib improves progression-free survival in advanced ovarian cancer patients
October 23, 2018 - Organic food may protect against cancers finds study
October 23, 2018 - Interweaving anxiety disorder associated with stuttering remains unrecognized
October 23, 2018 - Cannabis oil shown to significantly improve Crohn’s disease symptoms
October 23, 2018 - Knowledge of sex differences in lower urinary tract may help stimulate breakthroughs in diagnosis, management
October 23, 2018 - Common antibodies associated with myocardial infarction
October 23, 2018 - Study reveals new treatment option for women with advanced breast cancer resistant to hormone therapy
October 23, 2018 - Brain’s ‘Self-Control’ Center May Be Key to Weight-Loss Success
October 23, 2018 - Prosthetic valve mismatches common in transcatheter valve replacement, ups risk of death
October 23, 2018 - Can virtual reality help people become more compassionate?
October 23, 2018 - Screen time eclipsed outdoor time for most students, shows study
October 23, 2018 - SLU researcher seeks to find solutions for ‘chemo brain’ symptoms and side effects of opioids
October 23, 2018 - Plastics now commonly found in human stools
October 23, 2018 - Zoledronic acid increases disease-free survival in premenopausal women with HR+ early breast cancer
October 23, 2018 - Cancer survivors at risk for heart failure during, after pregnancy
October 23, 2018 - Stanford project brings health education videos to mothers in South Africa
October 23, 2018 - HIV-infected Hispanics at higher risk of developing HPV-related cancers, finds study
October 23, 2018 - Politicians hop aboard ‘Medicare-for-all’ train, destination unknown
October 23, 2018 - Study suggests rising childhood obesity rates as cause for serious hip disease in adolescents
October 23, 2018 - Study highlights existence of barriers to early clinical trial access for adolescents and young adults
October 23, 2018 - Protein sequencing technique could revolutionize biomedical research
October 23, 2018 - Canon Medical to showcase world’s first Ultra-High Resolution CT system at ASTRO 2018
October 23, 2018 - Spectrum Pharmaceuticals Announces Release of Updated Poziotinib Data From MD Anderson Phase 2 Study in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients
October 23, 2018 - Cancer stem cells use ‘normal’ genes in abnormal ways
October 23, 2018 - Bad Blood: A conversation with investigative reporter John Carreyrou | News Center
October 23, 2018 - As U.S. fertility rates collapse, finger-pointing and blame follow
October 23, 2018 - Researchers develop promising targeted strategy to treat chemo-resistant blood cancer
October 23, 2018 - Pilot clinical trial shows effectiveness of bioelectronic medicine device for lupus
October 23, 2018 - Genentech’s combination therapy improves outcome in patients with non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer
October 23, 2018 - 11th World Stroke Congress examines high stroke impact in low- and middle-income countries
October 22, 2018 - Breast cancer survival could be extended with two new drug combinations
October 22, 2018 - Researchers discover how acne-causing bacteria resist treatment
October 22, 2018 - Cancer trial shows treating the prostate with radiotherapy improves survival
October 22, 2018 - New hope for a drug to treat lymphedema symptoms
October 22, 2018 - Immune-Based Treatment Helps Fight Aggressive Breast Cancer, Study Finds
October 22, 2018 - Takeda announces positive Phase 3 ALTA-1L data in first-line therapy for advanced ALK+ NSCLC
October 22, 2018 - Paternal exercise has significant impact on child’s lifelong metabolic health
October 22, 2018 - Targeting specific genomic mutation in breast cancer improves survival
October 22, 2018 - Loss of tumor protein p53 helps cancer cells grow in hostile environment
October 22, 2018 - IDT to demonstrate CRISPR expertise at European-focused events
October 22, 2018 - Breathing through the nose improves memory consolidation
October 22, 2018 - Recreational Marijuana Now Legal in Canada
October 22, 2018 - Scientists reveal drumming helps schoolchildren diagnosed with autism
October 22, 2018 - A stage IV cancer patient discusses what it means to live well with serious illness
October 22, 2018 - In Kids with Autism, Short Questionnaire May Detect GI Disorders
October 22, 2018 - Innovative strategy opens up new avenue of treatment for anthrax infections
October 22, 2018 - Merck presents MK-1454 Phase 1 data for treatment of advanced solid tumors or lymphomas
October 22, 2018 - Aspirin may be effective in preventing blood clots after knee replacement
October 22, 2018 - Drug cocktail that increases lifespan discovered
October 22, 2018 - Gilead Sciences presents Phase 3 results of filgotinib in biologic-experienced rheumatoid arthritis at 2018 ACR/ARHP Annual Meeting
October 22, 2018 - Study shows potential positive impact of group prenatal care on birth outcomes
October 22, 2018 - Immunotherapy with pembrolizumab extends survival in metastatic or recurrent head and neck cancer
October 22, 2018 - Health Tip: Keep Ticks Away
October 22, 2018 - Obsessive-compulsive disorder – Genetics Home Reference
October 22, 2018 - Researchers find disrupted functional connectivity in cerebellum of adults with HF-ASD
October 22, 2018 - Deciphera presents Phase 1 clinical results of DCC-2618 in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors
October 22, 2018 - Combination of Opdivo and Yervoy shows four-year survival benefits in patients with advanced melanoma
October 22, 2018 - Overcoming bottlenecks in early drug discovery with the power of sound
October 22, 2018 - Scientists discover genes that contribute to ADHD development
October 22, 2018 - Incyte announces Phase 2 FIGHT-202 trial data in patients with cholangiocarcinoma
October 22, 2018 - FDA approves update to Rituxan label to include information on treatment of rare forms of vasculitis
October 22, 2018 - At-home biofeedback therapy effective in relieving difficult-to-treat constipation
New insight may allow researchers to design drugs that improve immune responses to vaccines

New insight may allow researchers to design drugs that improve immune responses to vaccines

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

Memory T cells are a critical element of our immune system’s historical archive. To prevent repeat infections, these cells retain a record of germs they’ve fought before.

But for all their importance, the origins of memory T cells have remained a mystery. Now, a new study from the laboratory of immunologist Matthew Pipkin, PhD, of The Scripps Research Institute’s Florida campus, lays out the opening chapter of this enigma.

Researchers found a transcription factor protein called Runx3 puts dividing T cells on track to becoming memory T cells. This new insight may allow researchers to design drugs that improve immune responses to vaccines, Pipkin says. The discovery could also have implications for chronic diseases such as cancer, in which responding T cells sometimes become “exhausted” and unable to rally an effective defense.

“There are instances such as chronic infection and tumors where the T cells differentiate in an aberrant way that shortens their life span and decreases their function,” Pipkin says. “Because our study found that Runx3 is one of the earliest players during an immune response, manipulating it might be an avenue to basically turn back the clock and reprogram dysfunctional T cells into a format that is conducive to them developing into genuine memory cells that are protective.

The study, “The transcription factor Runx3 establishes chromatin accessibility of cis-regulatory landscapes that drive memory cytotoxic T lymphocyte formation,” appears online in the journal Immunity on April 17, 2018.

Runx3 coordinates a rapid memory cell response

Runx3’s control of T cell differentiation is important because when our bodies fight off viruses and cancers-;and our T cells burst into action-;the vast majority tend to become effector cells. These effector cells are short-lived and do not persist once the infection resolves.

The amount of Runx3 has a deterministic effect on the outcome of the differentiation of the T cells, Pipkin says. Runx3 controls that burst of activity and ensures the cells are directed toward a different fate, that of memory T cells, which can live for decades.

“This finding provides molecular evidence that the programming of memory is established very rapidly, and that it’s kind of a push and pull to restrain the developing memory cells from differentiating into effector cells, which is a dead-end road,” says Pipkin.

The team studied what happened when Runx3 expression was partially suppressed using RNA interference. “All those experiments showed you lost the known precursors that give rise to memory T cells,” Pipkin says. Conversely, cells with experimentally increased Runx3 produced more memory T cells.

Cells with increased Runx3 were also better at regenerating new rounds of memory cells than normal cells after repeated infections with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and Listeria monocytogenes. This indicated that Runx3 enhances memory T cell potential, Pipkin says.

“Our work demonstrates that Runx3 turns down another transcription factor that commits the cells to becoming these terminal effector cells, and it slows down proliferation. That keeps the cells on a trajectory into the memory lineage.”

The new study also sheds light on the timeline when immune memory is established against an invader. Researchers found molecular evidence that the programming of memory T cells happens very rapidly after the immune system first encounters new threats. At this time, naïve CD8+ T cells must begin developing into specialists called cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), that can kill infected or malignant cells. Pipkin’s lab found that Runx3 coordinates the memory T cell differentiation program within the first few hours of infection.

Pipkin and his colleagues discovered the critical role of Runx3 in T cell differentiation by challenging naïve T cells with an antibody signal that mimicked infection, and then mapping the areas of the newly exposed genome. This revealed that the locations on our chromosomes where Runx3 binds became receptive to binding immediately after infection, and before the first CD8+ T cell division. These regions were also receptive in fully developed memory T cells, but less so in the terminal effector cells.

The findings raise many questions, Pipkin adds. He wants to determine if some type of therapeutic could rescue naturally occurring Runx3 deficiencies. He also wants to identify the other players that cooperate with Runx3.

“We know that Runx3 is working with a number of additional transcription factors and chromatin regulatory proteins,” Pipkin says. “So, we are currently trying to identify them and determine how they collaborate with Runx3 to turn on and off different regions of the genome to promote memory development.”

Source:

https://www.scripps.edu/news/press/2018/20180417-infection-immune-cell.html

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles