Breaking News
September 26, 2018 - Blood-brain barrier can be important biomarker for early diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease
September 26, 2018 - Scientists discover and characterize human skeletal stem cells
September 26, 2018 - Repeat CT Common in Peds Traumatic Epidural Hematoma
September 26, 2018 - Genetics Home Reference: bunion
September 26, 2018 - Increase observed in hearts from drug-intoxicated donors
September 26, 2018 - For Heart Failure Patients, Mitral Valve Procedure Improved Outcomes
September 26, 2018 - TINY cancer detection device shows promise as point-of-care detector of KSHV
September 26, 2018 - Women with non-small cell lung cancers live longer than their male counterparts
September 26, 2018 - KTU researchers engineer experimental bone to help treat osteoarthritis patients
September 26, 2018 - Foundation for a Smoke-Free World calls for proposals to implement Smoke-Free Index
September 26, 2018 - Functional Imagery Training helps lose five times more weight than talking therapy
September 26, 2018 - Fewer American Teens Having Sex, Most Using Birth Control
September 26, 2018 - We are predisposed to forgive, new research suggests
September 26, 2018 - Insomnia Exacts Heavy Toll on Quality of Life
September 26, 2018 - Clinical study shows efficacy, safety of novel drug-eluting stent with improved radiographic visibility
September 26, 2018 - Cytox, AIBL announce expanded agreement to assess genetic risk for Alzheimer’s
September 26, 2018 - Study finds persistent rate of lawnmower injury-related emergency department visits
September 26, 2018 - Researchers find molecule that halts, reverts neurodegeneration caused by Parkinson’s disease
September 26, 2018 - Novartis announces winners of 2018 eXcellence in Ophthalmology Vision Award
September 26, 2018 - New spinout company to tackle drug-resistant infections with novel antibiotics
September 26, 2018 - In depression the brain region for stress control is larger
September 26, 2018 - Smuggling RNA into cells can activate the immune system to fight cancer
September 26, 2018 - Special Focus Issue takes wide view of complementary and integrative medicine in cancer
September 26, 2018 - Researchers now confirm that genome duplication drives evolution of species
September 25, 2018 - Study provides evidence of beta lactamase producing, antimicrobial resistant E. coli in U.S. retail meat
September 25, 2018 - UCI study finds new cause of cerebral microbleeds
September 25, 2018 - Researchers propose mechanism by which ASTN2 protein defects lead to brain disorders
September 25, 2018 - Chinese and German researchers to cooperate more closely in future for better food
September 25, 2018 - Recent study helps predict probability of pregnant mothers to have child with autism
September 25, 2018 - New online, sound matching tool offers tinnitus sufferers potential treatment options
September 25, 2018 - UC Davis researchers take critical step in developing more effective Salmonella vaccine
September 25, 2018 - Antibiotics best paediatric treatment for children’s chronic wet cough
September 25, 2018 - Looking beyond opioids: Stanford pain psychologist briefs Congress
September 25, 2018 - Organs actively fighting back against autoimmune diseases, finds study
September 25, 2018 - Lancaster professor aims to understand how genes affect smoking cessation
September 25, 2018 - Human-oriented perspective needed to better understand Parkinson’s disease
September 25, 2018 - Physical activity may have beneficial effects for people with rare Alzheimer’s disease
September 25, 2018 - FDA Updates on Valsartan Recalls
September 25, 2018 - 3-D-printed tracheal splints used in groundbreaking pediatric surgery
September 25, 2018 - Who is the designated driver, or proxy, for your health decisions?
September 25, 2018 - New chemo-optogenetic method enables multi-directional activity control of cellular processes
September 25, 2018 - Study explores link between genetic predisposition to Alzheimer’s and cardiometabolic risk factors
September 25, 2018 - NeoTract presents new clinical data from studies of UroLift System for patients with BPH
September 25, 2018 - Patients with paralysis manage to walk thanks to new technology
September 25, 2018 - Statins Improve Long-Term Survival After AAA Repair
September 25, 2018 - Novel brain network linked to chronic pain in Parkinson’s disease
September 25, 2018 - Researchers reassess negative pressure wound therapy as its benefit and harm remain unclear
September 25, 2018 - Older adults with ‘fall plan of care’ less likely to suffer fall-related hospitalizations
September 25, 2018 - FDA lifts partial clinical hold that paused enrollment of new patients in tazemetosta clinical trials
September 25, 2018 - IME Medical Electrospinning establishes state-of-the-art manufacturing lab facilities
September 25, 2018 - Phase 1 and 2 clinical trials of entrectinib drug in ROS1-positive NSCLC show promising results
September 25, 2018 - How to Protect Your Eyesight
September 25, 2018 - Novel approach allows researchers to define how cells in the retina respond to diabetes
September 25, 2018 - Columbia University announces winners of 2018 Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize
September 25, 2018 - New model enables anyone to run powerful simulations, complex calculations easily
September 25, 2018 - Clinical trial investigators found non-compliant with requirement to report results on EU register
September 25, 2018 - Study analyzes quality of protein supplements in function of source, treatment and storage
September 25, 2018 - FDA grants Orphan Drug Designation to Myelo001 for treatment of Acute Radiation Syndrome
September 25, 2018 - U.S. Alzheimer’s Cases to Nearly Triple by 2060
September 25, 2018 - Improving cell replacement therapy for Parkinson’s disease
September 25, 2018 - Genervon reports new findings that drug candidate GM6 attenuates Alzheimer’s disease in mice model
September 25, 2018 - FDA approves new 5 mm diameter drug-eluting stent from Cook Medical
September 25, 2018 - New $17.8 million grant ensures USC at forefront of research on tobacco-related health risks
September 25, 2018 - Researchers analyze response to combination immunotherapy for patients with rare skin cancer
September 25, 2018 - Study sheds light on how brain protein may be involved neurodevelopmental disorders
September 25, 2018 - Where to draw the line on incentives
September 25, 2018 - Solid fuel use linked with increased risk of hospitalization or death from respiratory diseases
September 25, 2018 - ‘Trouble Brewing’ report highlights steps that governments can take to reduce alcohol-related harms
September 25, 2018 - Recurrence risk of VTE appears similar for patients with cancer and those with unprovoked VTE
September 25, 2018 - Global leaders must make bold commitments at first-ever UN tuberculosis summit
September 25, 2018 - Brief sleep intervention works long-term to prevent child obesity
September 25, 2018 - Vaping among kids and teens a growing concern
September 25, 2018 - Public launch of products and application solutions from Porvair Laboratory Division
September 25, 2018 - Harmful H. pylori may play a role in Parkinson’s disease
September 25, 2018 - Researchers develop way to measure different types of fear of falling in patients with Parkinson’s
September 25, 2018 - Fracture causes bone density losses throughout the body
September 25, 2018 - Researchers highlight potential therapy for treating rare, deadly blood-clotting disorder
September 25, 2018 - Hybrid theranostic complex shows high therapeutic efficacy against tumor cells
September 25, 2018 - FDA Issues Statement Reaffirming the Positive Benefit-Risk Profile of Nuplazid (pimavanserin) for Patients with Hallucinations and Delusions Associated with Parkinson’s Disease Psychosis
September 25, 2018 - Toxicological evaluation and dosimetry estimation of potential PET radiotracer
Lifetime risks of developing Alzheimer’s dementia vary by age, gender

Lifetime risks of developing Alzheimer’s dementia vary by age, gender

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

Lifetime risks of developing Alzheimer’s disease dementia vary considerably by age, gender and whether any signs or symptoms of dementia are present, according to a new study published online by Alzheimer’s & Dementia: The Journal of the Alzheimer’s Association.

According to the authors, these are the first lifetime risk estimates for Alzheimer’s that take into account what are believed to be biological changes in the brain that occur 10 to 20 years before the well-known memory and thinking symptoms appear. These early changes, prior to overt clinical symptoms, are referred to as preclinical Alzheimer’s disease. This designation is currently only for research use until more scientific evidence is produced to determine if it can accurately predict the progression to symptoms.

The prevalence of this research-only stage of the Alzheimer’s continuum, known as preclinical Alzheimer’s disease, in the U.S. has been estimated at nearly 47 million people in a previous study. An example from this newly published report is of a 70-year-old male who has just amyloid, but no signs of neurodegeneration and no memory loss, has a lifetime risk of 19.9 percent. But, if he also had neurodegeneration in addition to amyloid, the lifetime risk rises to 31.3 percent. If, in addition, he had mild cognitive impairment (MCI) plus amyloid plus neurodegeneration, the risk rises to 86 percent.

“What we found in this research is that people with preclinical Alzheimer’s disease dementia may never experience any clinical symptoms during their lifetimes because of its long and variable preclinical period,” said Ron Brookmeyer, Ph.D., from the UCLA School of Public Health, Los Angeles. “The high mortality rates in elderly populations are also an important factor as individuals are likely to die of other causes.”

Brookmeyer provides an example of a 90-year-old female with amyloid plaques having a lifetime risk of Alzheimer’s disease of only 8.4 percent, compared to a 65-year-old female with amyloid plaques who has a lifetime risk of 29.3 percent. The lower lifetime risk for the 90-year-old versus the 65-year-old is explained by the shorter life expectancy of the older person.

That same 65-year-old female with amyloid plaques has a 10-year risk of Alzheimer’s disease dementia of 2.5 percent. Lifetime risks for females are generally higher than males because they live longer. Brookmeyer and his co-author Nada Abdalla, M.S., also of UCLA, state that the lifetime and 10-year risks provide an indication of the potential that someone will develop Alzheimer’s disease dementia based on their age and screenings for amyloid deposits, neurodegeneration and presence or absence of MCI or any combination of those three. For men and women, having the combination of all three puts them at the highest risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease.

“Just as there are risk predictors for whether you might have a heart attack, it will be important in the future to measure the likelihood that someone will develop Alzheimer’s disease,” said Maria Carrillo, Ph.D., Alzheimer’s Association chief science officer. “In the future, when treatments are available, this would be helpful, especially for people in the stages before the clinical symptoms appear. For example, those people with the highest 10-year risk of getting Alzheimer’s dementia would be high priority to volunteer for clinical trials evaluating Alzheimer’s medications or other therapies.”

After reviewing the existing scientific literature, including some of the largest longitudinal studies available that have measured biomarkers with data from thousands of people, (e.g., The Mayo Clinic Study of Aging) the authors created a computerized mathematical model to ascertain how likely a person would progress in the continuum of the disease. They based their calculations on the transition rates from the published studies and from U.S. death rates data based on age and gender. They acknowledge that future studies looking at transition rates need to be in ethnically diverse populations and also need to consider whether genetic variants such as the Apolipoprotein (APOE) ?4, which puts people at much higher likelihood for developing Alzheimer’s disease, would affect the lifetime risk estimates. And future studies will need to be based on research that is more conclusive than the current scientific literature about risk in relation to early biomarkers like presence of amyloid decades before symptoms appear.

“There are still many things to consider when assessing the value of screening people for Alzheimer’s disease biomarkers. Lifetime risks will help in formulating screening guidelines to identify those who would be most helped by screening, especially in the preclinical stage,” the authors conclude.

The model used in this study differs from the recently announced NIA-AA Research Framework Towards a Biological Definition of Alzheimer’s Disease. Under the framework, if a person does not have amyloid plaques, then they do not have Alzheimer’s pathology. Amyloid is one of the biomarkers along with tau tangles considered to be hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease. In this model, two of the states of progression (state 3 which is neurodegeneration alone and state 6 which is MCI and neurodegeneration alone) do not include amyloid and would not be considered Alzheimer’s under the research framework.

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles