Breaking News
November 19, 2018 - Nabriva Therapeutics Completes Submission of New Drug Application to U.S. Food and Drug Administration for Intravenous Contepo to Treat Complicated Urinary Tract Infections
November 19, 2018 - Beating breast cancer only to die of opioid use – a sad Appalachian story
November 19, 2018 - Workplace bullying or violence linked to higher risk of cardiovascular problems
November 19, 2018 - Changes in Risk Indicators of MetS Severity Tied to T2DM Risk
November 19, 2018 - ‘Game-changing’ skin sensor could improve life for a million hydrocephalus patients
November 19, 2018 - Alcohol ads on social media sites with pro-drinking comments increase desire to drink
November 19, 2018 - Neural networks could replace marker genes in RNA sequencing
November 19, 2018 - Obese adolescents feel less food enjoyment than those with normal weight, study reveals
November 18, 2018 - Goodbye ‘Gluten-Free’? Celiac Disease Vaccine May Make It Possible
November 18, 2018 - Skin ages when the main cells in the dermis lose their identity and function
November 18, 2018 - Rainforest vine compound makes pancreatic cancer cells susceptible to nutrient starvation
November 18, 2018 - A new mechanism in the control of inflammation
November 18, 2018 - Age-related decline in abstract reasoning ability predicts depressive symptoms over time
November 18, 2018 - Scientists succeed in increasing stability, biocompatibility of light-transducing nanoparticles
November 18, 2018 - Sugar, a ‘sweet’ tool to understand brain injuries
November 18, 2018 - Pharmacist-Led Effort Cuts Inappropriate Rx in Older Adults
November 18, 2018 - Novel discovery could lead to new cancer, autoimmune disease therapy
November 18, 2018 - AHA and ADA launch new initiative to help people with type 2 diabetes reduce heart disease risk
November 18, 2018 - Balanced production of pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines at two years of age protects against malaria
November 18, 2018 - New pharmacological agent shows promise for prevention of heart rhythm disorders
November 18, 2018 - All That Social Media May Boost Loneliness, Not Banish It
November 18, 2018 - Scientists shine new light on link between obesity and cancer
November 18, 2018 - Risk factors for cardiovascular disease closely track with changes in diet patterns
November 18, 2018 - Biogen Scoops Sixth Prix Galien Award with UK Win for Life-Changing Rare Disease Medicine
November 18, 2018 - Detectable HIV-1 in treated human liver cells found to be inert
November 18, 2018 - Using light to control crucial step in embryonic development
November 18, 2018 - Unusual case of father-to-son HIV transmission reported
November 18, 2018 - FDA Approves Aemcolo (rifamycin) to Treat Travelers’ Diarrhea
November 18, 2018 - Poverty blamed on widening north-south gap in young adult deaths in England
November 18, 2018 - Progress in meningitis lags far behind other vaccine-preventable diseases, analysis shows
November 18, 2018 - Consensus Statement Issued on Management of Foot, Ankle Gout
November 18, 2018 - Fine particle air pollution is a public health emergency hiding in plain sight
November 18, 2018 - In-hospital mortality higher among patients with drug-resistant infections
November 17, 2018 - Research shines new, explanatory light on link between obesity and cancer
November 17, 2018 - FIND explores new diagnostic assays for confirmatory HCV diagnosis in community settings
November 17, 2018 - Tracking Preemies’ Head Size May Yield IQ Clues
November 17, 2018 - Scientists call for unified standards in 3-D genome and epigenetic data
November 17, 2018 - Lab Innovations 2018 has beaten all records by attracting 3,113 attendees
November 17, 2018 - New strategy to hinder emergence of antimicrobial-resistant pathogens
November 17, 2018 - Sexuality education before age 18 may reduce risk of sexual assault in college
November 17, 2018 - Reducing cellular proliferation could help deplete HIV reservoir and lead to a functional cure
November 17, 2018 - New model of FSHD could be useful to study effectiveness of experimental therapeutics
November 17, 2018 - FDA approves antibacterial drug to treat travelers’ diarrhea
November 17, 2018 - Lab Innovations 2018 confirmed as a major hit with visitors, exhibitors and speakers
November 17, 2018 - Largest parasitic worm genetic study hatches novel treatment possibilities
November 17, 2018 - UCLA biologists uncover how head injuries can lead to serious brain disorders
November 17, 2018 - Static and dynamic physical activities offer varying protection against heart disease
November 17, 2018 - Obesity significantly increases risk of Type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease
November 17, 2018 - New method to analyze cell membrane complexes could revolutionize the way we study diseases
November 17, 2018 - Researchers show how proteins interact in hypoxic conditions to facilitate mitochondrial fission
November 17, 2018 - People with rare cancers can benefit from genomic profiling, shows research
November 17, 2018 - NIH awards over $1.8 million to husband-and-wife doctors to test new breast cancer approach
November 17, 2018 - Four-in-one antibody used to fight flu shows promise in mice
November 17, 2018 - New approach allows pathogens to be starved by blocking important enzymes
November 17, 2018 - Higher body mass index could cause depression even without health problems
November 17, 2018 - Protein which plays role in sensing cell damage serves as new target to treat pulmonary hypertension
November 17, 2018 - FDA Approves Adcetris (brentuximab vedotin) in Combination with Chemotherapy for Adults with Previously Untreated Systemic Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma or Other CD30-Expressing Peripheral T-Cell Lymphomas
November 17, 2018 - ID specialist input improves outcomes for outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy
November 17, 2018 - UT Southwestern scientists selected to receive 2019 Edith and Peter O’Donnell Awards
November 17, 2018 - New clinical algorithm to help individuals manage type 2 diabetes when fasting during Ramadan
November 17, 2018 - Researchers identify LZTR1 as evolutionarily conserved component of RAS pathway
November 17, 2018 - Heart Disease Leading Cause of Death in Low-Income Counties
November 17, 2018 - Estrogen Levels Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information
November 17, 2018 - Research reveals link between immunity, diabetes
November 17, 2018 - Research shows how to achieve improved smoking cessation outcomes within California’s Medicaid population
November 17, 2018 - New study finds less understanding and implementation of patient engagement
November 17, 2018 - New shoe insole technology could help diabetic ulcers heal better while walking
November 17, 2018 - New method to extend cell division and immortalization of avian-derived cells
November 17, 2018 - Australian Academy of Science urges parents to vaccinate children against meningococcal disease
November 17, 2018 - Hot water treatment may help improve inflammation and metabolism in sedentary people
November 17, 2018 - Researchers produce 3D chemical maps of small biological samples
November 17, 2018 - Must Blood Pressure Rise Wth Age? Remote Tribes Hold Clues
November 17, 2018 - Noonan Syndrome
November 17, 2018 - Interventions to delay and prevent type 2 diabetes are underused, researchers say
November 17, 2018 - Hackathon prize winner seeks to remotely monitor patient skin conditions
November 17, 2018 - Research team identifies Ashkenazi Jewish founder mutation for Leigh syndrome
November 17, 2018 - Gene editing could be used to halt kidney disease in patients with Joubert syndrome
November 17, 2018 - Study uncovers link between gut disruption and aging
November 17, 2018 - Teens more likely to pick up smoking after exposure from friends and family
November 17, 2018 - Nicoya designate the Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine as the OpenSPR Centre of Excellence
Researchers understand the role of brain’s ‘reward circuit’ in autism spectrum disorder

Researchers understand the role of brain’s ‘reward circuit’ in autism spectrum disorder

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

A pair of recent studies performed by researchers at Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) and the University of Pennsylvania represents a significant step forward in understanding the role of the brain’s “reward circuit” and certain hallmarks of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), namely difficulty interpreting or engaging in typical social behavior and restricted or repetitive interests or behaviors.

For years, researchers have attempted to use fMRI brain imaging studies to find a link between these behavioral traits and the way the brain processes rewards among people with and without ASD. Many of these studies sought evidence to support the social motivation hypothesis, which suggests that early in development, children with ASD attend less to social information such as faces or gaze direction, and thus have fewer opportunities for learning through observing others and developing critical social skills.

A team of researchers at CHOP’s Center for Autism Research (CAR) applied a newly-developed research method known as seed-based d mapping meta-analysis to combine the results of 13 fMRI studies on how people with ASD process rewards in the brain. In total, these studies included 259 individuals with ASD and 246 typically developing individuals. This meta-analysis revealed that individuals with ASD process social and nonsocial rewards differently than people not diagnosed with ASD. The study is the first to show conclusive imaging evidence that people with ASD find social and nonsocial images less rewarding, with the authors suggesting that future studies examine how the brain processes different types of nonsocial rewards, and how reward processing in ASD changes with age.

The results were published in the journal JAMA Psychiatry and were accompanied by an editorial.

“This study represents one of the first efforts to apply this new meta-analysis method of combining brain activity data from multiple neuroimaging studies to ASD,” said Caitlin Clements, a member of the Center for Autism Research (CAR) at CHOP, a doctoral student at the University of Pennsylvania Psychology Department and lead author of the paper. “By analyzing many studies, we hoped to show how the brain processes social and nonsocial rewards in a way that no single study has been able to do on its own. The results suggest that we broaden our understanding of the social motivation hypothesis to include atypical motivation for both social and nonsocial rewards.”

This meta-analysis complements neuroimaging research published earlier this year by CAR in the journal Molecular Autism. That paper studied the role of the reward system in repetitive behavior and restricted interests, another hallmark behavior of ASD. Children with ASD activated the reward circuit more for videos of a restricted interest (like the game Minecraft) than for videos of people smiling and giving them a “thumbs up” sign (a social reward). The reward circuit in typically developing children showed the opposite pattern -;more activation for social rewards than interests. This study was one of the largest to-date in ASD, and the findings suggest that the social motivation hypothesis may be expanded to explain the presence of repetitive behaviors and restricted interests.

“These two studies demonstrate a growing body of evidence supporting the idea that there are key differences in how people with ASD process rewarding information in their brain,” said Dr. Benjamin Yerys, a psychologist in the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at CHOP, senior author of the Molecular Autism study and a co-author of the JAMA Psychiatry study. “By strategically targeting the reward system, we may be able to create more personalized and effective treatment practices that improve outcomes for individuals with ASD and their families.”

Source:

https://www.chop.edu/news/chop-s-center-autism-research-shows-how-brain-s-reward-circuit-plays-key-role-symptoms-autism

Posted in: Child Health News | Medical Science News | Medical Research News

Tags: Adolescents, Autism, Brain, Children, Healthcare, Hospital, Mental Health, Neuroimaging, Pfizer, Psychiatry, Psychology, Research

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles