Breaking News
July 19, 2018 - Compounds found in green tea and wine may block formation of toxic metabolites
July 19, 2018 - Gene regulator associated with protein pileup in exfoliation glaucoma
July 19, 2018 - Trump administration summons immigrant infants
July 19, 2018 - FDA grants approval for first breast cancer drug through ‘Real-Time Oncology Review’
July 19, 2018 - Five tips for men seeking plastic surgery
July 19, 2018 - Researchers discover the reasons why some people get dizzy when hearing certain sounds
July 19, 2018 - Research project investigates snake venom treatment as antibiotic alternative for eye infections
July 19, 2018 - Melanoma could soon be detected using a blood test
July 19, 2018 - Exposure to bright light may have big impact on sleep-related behavior in children
July 19, 2018 - Deleting single gene in gut bacteria affects metabolism, reduces weight gain in mice
July 19, 2018 - New proteomics studies help gain more insights into Alzheimer’s, cancer and listeriosis
July 19, 2018 - Study finds major discrepancies in prescription drug labeling pregnancy information across four countries
July 19, 2018 - Cellectar’s CLR 131 Receives FDA Orphan Drug Designation for Treatment of Ewing’s Sarcoma
July 19, 2018 - Watching the immune system in action reveals what happens when things goes wrong
July 19, 2018 - Increasing blood sugar levels improves memory and performance in older adults
July 19, 2018 - Connection between self-regulation and obesity appears to be different for girls and boys
July 19, 2018 - Researchers develop new, less destructive method for whitening teeth
July 19, 2018 - Revving up innate control of viral infection requires a three-cell ignition
July 19, 2018 - Inaccurate direct-to-consumer raw genetic data can harm patients, new research suggests
July 19, 2018 - Weight loss surgery is effective under the right situations
July 19, 2018 - BioTek awarded patent for autofocus feature on microplate reader
July 19, 2018 - Low-carb diets reduce stiffness of arteries in women and promote weight loss in men
July 19, 2018 - New review examines cannabinoids’ potential for direct treatment of cancer
July 19, 2018 - Allergic responses may help protect the skin against cancer, research suggests
July 19, 2018 - Inappropriate Prescribing of Abx High in Urgent Care Centers
July 19, 2018 - Many at risk for HIV despite lifesaving pill
July 19, 2018 - Tips for doctors and parents on the harms of marijuana use for teens
July 18, 2018 - Researchers detect presence of IgE antibodies after kidney transplantation
July 18, 2018 - New technique allows researchers to create large scale, personalized bone grafts
July 18, 2018 - Smoking May Boost Atrial Fibrillation Risk
July 18, 2018 - Genome editing method targets AIDS virus
July 18, 2018 - These things matter: Medical complications are not inevitable, a physician writes
July 18, 2018 - Cognitive functions often wilt as water departs the body, shows study
July 18, 2018 - Origins of bread found 14,400 years ago in Jordan
July 18, 2018 - Low-dose ketamine found to be as effective as opioids for treating acute pain
July 18, 2018 - Novel bioengineering technique could help repair bone defects
July 18, 2018 - Researchers identify new potential target protein for colon cancer
July 18, 2018 - Air pollution contributes significantly to diabetes globally
July 18, 2018 - Cell membrane’s importance offers new strategy to fight infections
July 18, 2018 - Researchers identify key protein involved in irregular brain cell activity
July 18, 2018 - 3D modeling of drug resistance could lead to more effective cancer treatment
July 18, 2018 - Hunger hormones could be key to new treatments for drug, alcohol addiction
July 18, 2018 - Nitrate-cured meats may contribute to mania, study finds
July 18, 2018 - Why men may recover more quickly from influenza infections than women
July 18, 2018 - Study finds discharge against medical advice as predictor of readmissions in heart attack patients
July 18, 2018 - KemPharm Announces Top Line Results from KP415.E01 Efficacy and Safety Trial in Children With ADHD
July 18, 2018 - Self-control and obesity: Gender matters in children
July 18, 2018 - Bioengineers, diabetes researchers convene to discuss future concepts for precision medicine
July 18, 2018 - New findings support more conservative use of ED neuroimaging for non-index seizures
July 18, 2018 - Practicing yoga benefits pregnant women, study suggests
July 18, 2018 - New strategy may lead to more accurate breast cancer diagnoses
July 18, 2018 - FDA Approves Symtuza (D/C/F/TAF), the First and Only Complete Darunavir-Based Single-Tablet Regimen for the Treatment of HIV-1 Infection
July 18, 2018 - New guide helps hospitals pick right partner to handle hospitalist services
July 18, 2018 - Deep data dive helps predict cerebral palsy
July 18, 2018 - Stricter firearm legislation associated with reduced murder and suicide rates
July 18, 2018 - Physical and sexual abuse in childhood associated with endometriosis risk
July 18, 2018 - Omega 3 supplements do not reduce risk of heart disease, stroke or death
July 18, 2018 - GSA’s new publication provides support for safe use of OTC analgesics by older adults
July 18, 2018 - Researchers receive grant from U.S. Department of Education to study children with HFASD
July 18, 2018 - Early childhood adversity increases sensitivity of the body’s immune response to cocaine
July 18, 2018 - Parental incarceration affects health behaviors of children in adulthood
July 18, 2018 - Researchers find that yellow fever and Asian tiger mosquitoes can carry new virus
July 18, 2018 - Two Regimens Fail to Stop Declines in β-Cell Function
July 18, 2018 - Researchers apply computing power to track the spread of cancer
July 18, 2018 - Olfactory receptors play pathophysiological role in all organs than merely smell perception
July 18, 2018 - Fish consumption associated with lower risk of early death
July 18, 2018 - MR Solutions’ 7T MRI imaging system installed at University of Hawaii
July 18, 2018 - Humorous ads screened around World Cup game achieve higher biometric response than sporty ads
July 18, 2018 - New study demonstrates little effect of hormone therapy on artery thickness
July 18, 2018 - A 3-Pronged Plan to Cut Type 2 Diabetes Risk
July 18, 2018 - New clues to sepsis may speed diagnosis
July 18, 2018 - Stars of Stanford Medicine: Improving cardiovascular health in Africa and beyond
July 18, 2018 - Heart attack risk continues to increase among pregnant women, study finds
July 18, 2018 - Few tips to help avoid sunburns in summer
July 18, 2018 - High-fat diet and systemic inflammation contribute to progression of prostate cancer
July 18, 2018 - Researchers develop 3D map of gene interactions that play key role in heart disease
July 18, 2018 - Conservative management of lung subsolid nodules reduces overtreatment and unnecessary surgery
July 18, 2018 - Report warns of dog illness that can spread to owners
July 18, 2018 - A winning essayist’s tips for keeping track of scientific facts
July 18, 2018 - Researchers seek to understand role of APOE mutation in Alzheimer’s disease
Researchers find ATM protein that can trigger production of antioxidants

Researchers find ATM protein that can trigger production of antioxidants

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

One reason we’re supposed to eat a variety of colorful fruits and vegetables is because they contain nutritious compounds called antioxidants. These molecules counteract the damage to our bodies from harmful products of normal cells called reactive oxygen species (ROS).

Now, research led by a Salk Institute professor along with collaborators from Yale, Appalachian State University and other institutions found that a protein called ATM (short for ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) can sense the presence of ROS and responds by sounding the alarm to trigger the production of antioxidants.

The work, which appears in Science Signaling on July 10, 2018, could have implications for a disease in which ATM is dysfunctional–and could also help reveal ways to boost cellular health overall.

“In ataxia-telangiectasia, the disease caused when the ATM is gene is mutated, people are prone to DNA damage because one of ATM’s functions is to repair DNA,” says Salk Professor Gerald Shadel, the paper’s co-corresponding author. “But we also see signs in this disease of damage caused by ROS, and it hasn’t been clear why that would be connected to dysfunctional ATM.”

Shadel studies mitochondria, the powerhouses of cells, which convert our food into chemical energy cells use. In the process, mitochondria produce the ROS that not only damage cells but also are danger signals. To better understand the role of ATM, Shadel began by investigating ATM’s response to ROS produced by mitochondria.

His team exposed laboratory cells in culture dishes to a chemical that encourages mitochondria to produce ROS. As expected, they saw increased ROS, but they also observed ATM molecules pairing up into what scientists call a dimer, which is not what ATM does when responding to DNA damage. These observations corroborate other research suggesting that ATM has two modes for responding to different types of cellular threats–DNA damage and ROS from mitochondria.

Treating the cells with a chemical that causes DNA damage did not induce ATM to form dimers, and the non-dimerized ATM went on to prompt damage-repair mechanisms. The scientists figured ATM’s formation of dimers in the presence of ROS represents a type of ROS-sensing function. Dimerized ATMs induced an entirely different mechanism than non-dimerized ATM: the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), which is a series of biochemical steps that generates cellular antioxidants.

ATM is like a smoke detector that also has a carbon monoxide sensor. Either a fire (DNA damage) or carbon monoxide (ROS) will cause the detector (ATM) to sound the alarm to protect your health.

“ATM is well known for its role in repair of DNA damage, but why it forms dimers in response to reactive oxygen species has been a mystery,” says co-corresponding author Brooke E. Christian of Appalachian State University. “This work is exciting because it reveals a functional consequence of ATM dimerization: to increase cellular antioxidant capacity through activation of the pentose phosphate pathway. It makes sense for ATM to have this function as a way to protect the genome from the damaging effects of reactive oxygen species.”

“We went into the study wanting to know the mechanism and function of the ATM-mediated mitochondrial ROS signaling pathway,” says Yichong Zhang, a graduate student researcher at Yale University and the paper’s first author. “The most exciting moment for me was when we discovered the details of the mechanism by which ROS signaling through ATM regulates cellular antioxidant responses.”

The revelation how ATM and the production of antioxidants are connected via this pentose phosphate pathway could lead to ways to develop new treatments for the disease ataxia-telangiectasia.

Source:

An ATM that dispenses antioxidants

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles