Breaking News
February 23, 2019 - Surprise rheumatoid arthritis discovery points to new treatment for joint inflammation
February 23, 2019 - A just-right fix for a tiny heart
February 23, 2019 - Owlstone Medical and Shanghai Renji Hospital collaborate to initiate breath biopsy lung cancer trial
February 23, 2019 - AMSBIO’s comprehensive portfolio of knock-out cell lines and lysates
February 23, 2019 - New app reliably determines physicians’ skills in forming accurate, efficient diagnoses
February 23, 2019 - Peripheral nerve injury can trigger the onset and spread of ALS, shows study
February 23, 2019 - Researchers uncover mechanisms that prevent tooth replacement in mice
February 23, 2019 - Once-a-day capsule offers new way to reduce symptoms of chronic breathlessness
February 23, 2019 - FDA Adds Boxed Warning for Increased Risk of Death with Gout Medicine Uloric (febuxostat)
February 23, 2019 - Phone-based intervention aids rheumatoid arthritis care
February 23, 2019 - Opioid epidemic makes eastern inroads and targets African-Americans
February 23, 2019 - New identified biomarker predicts patients who might benefit from HER2-targeted agents
February 23, 2019 - Study offers new insights into mechanisms of changes in erythrocytes under stress
February 23, 2019 - Antipsychotic polypharmacy may be beneficial for schizophrenia patients
February 23, 2019 - Researchers investigate how marijuana and tobacco co-use affects quit attempts by smokers
February 23, 2019 - Patients with diabetes mellitus have high risk of stable ischemic heart disease
February 23, 2019 - Transparency on healthcare prices played key role in Arizona health system’s turnaround
February 23, 2019 - A comprehensive, multinational review of peppers around the world
February 23, 2019 - Study finds modest decrease in burnout among physicians
February 23, 2019 - A simple change can drastically reduce unnecessary tests for urinary tract infections
February 23, 2019 - Deep Learning-Enhanced Device Detects Diabetic Retinopathy
February 23, 2019 - Researchers discover new binding partner for amyloid precursor protein
February 23, 2019 - Modest decrease seen in burnout among physicians, researchers say | News Center
February 23, 2019 - Transplanting bone marrow of young mice into old mice prevents cognitive decline
February 23, 2019 - Mogrify to accelerate novel IP and cell therapies using $3.7m USD funding
February 23, 2019 - Johns Hopkins study describes cells that may help speed bone repair
February 23, 2019 - Scientists demonstrate influence of food odors on proteostasis
February 23, 2019 - Researchers unlock the secret behind reproduction of fish called ‘Mary’
February 23, 2019 - Acupuncture Could Help Ease Menopausal Symptoms
February 23, 2019 - Researchers use AI to detect early signs of Alzheimer’s
February 23, 2019 - On recovery, vulnerability and ritual: An exhibit in white | News Center
February 23, 2019 - Memory Stored in Unexpected Region of the Brain
February 23, 2019 - Several health experts worldwide gather at EUDONORGAN event
February 23, 2019 - Discovery of potent compound in native California shrub may lead to treatment for Alzheimer’s
February 22, 2019 - Researchers create new map of the brain’s own immune system
February 22, 2019 - ICHE’s reviews on surgical infections, unnecessary urine tests, and nurses’ role in antibiotic stewardship
February 22, 2019 - UK Research and Innovation invests £200 million to create new generation of AI leaders
February 22, 2019 - Takeda collaboration to boost fight against Alzheimer’s and other neurodegenerative diseases
February 22, 2019 - Heavy drinking may change DNA, leading to increased craving for alcohol
February 22, 2019 - U.S. opioid deaths jump fourfold in 20 years; epidemic shifts to Eastern states | News Center
February 22, 2019 - 5 Questions with William Turner on Diversity in Medicine
February 22, 2019 - HHS Finalizes Rule Seeking To Expel Planned Parenthood From Family Planning Program
February 22, 2019 - Researchers uncover biochemical pathway that may help identify drugs to treat Alzheimer’s
February 22, 2019 - Biologist uses new grant to find ways to eliminate schistosomiasis
February 22, 2019 - Bag-mask ventilation to help patients breathe during intubation prevents complications
February 22, 2019 - AbbVie Announces New Drug Application Accepted for Priority Review by FDA for Upadacitinib for Treatment of Moderate to Severe Rheumatoid Arthritis
February 22, 2019 - Nature versus nurture and addiction
February 22, 2019 - New website connects researchers with data experts, resources | News Center
February 22, 2019 - Today’s Concerns About Drug Prices Echo The Past
February 22, 2019 - CT and Doppler equipment have low accuracy in detecting cerebral vasospasm and ischemia
February 22, 2019 - Study finds out similarity in function between healthy retina cell and tumor cell
February 22, 2019 - CWRU awarded NIH grant to identify effective treatments for intimate partner violence
February 22, 2019 - Oncotype DX Not Cost-Effective for Low-Risk Breast Cancer
February 22, 2019 - Scientists discover new type of immune cells that are essential for forming heart valves
February 22, 2019 - Talk About Déjà Vu: Senators Set To Re-Enact Drug Price Hearing Of 60 Years Ago
February 22, 2019 - Genetic defect linked to pediatric liver disease identified
February 22, 2019 - New cellular atlas could provide a deeper insight into blinding diseases
February 22, 2019 - Growing number of cancer survivors, fewer providers point to challenge in meeting care needs
February 22, 2019 - Innovative compound offers a new therapeutic approach to treat multiple sclerosis
February 22, 2019 - $1.5 million grant to develop opioid treatment program for jail detainees
February 22, 2019 - FDA’s new proposed rule would update regulatory requirements for sunscreen products in the U.S
February 22, 2019 - Most Hip, Knee Replacements Last Decades, Study Finds
February 22, 2019 - Wellness problems prevalent among ob-gyn residents
February 22, 2019 - In the Spotlight: “The world is your oyster in geriatrics”
February 22, 2019 - Successful testing of multi-organ “human-on-a-chip” could replace animals as test subjects
February 22, 2019 - Analysis of cervical precancer shows decline in two strains of HPV
February 22, 2019 - Sugary stent eases suturing of blood vessels
February 22, 2019 - From surgery to psychiatry: A medical student reevaluates his motivations
February 22, 2019 - Is New App From Feds Your Answer To Navigating Medicare Coverage? Yes And No
February 22, 2019 - New pacemakers powered by heartbeats could reduce need for surgery
February 22, 2019 - The United States records highest drug overdose death rates
February 22, 2019 - Heart attacks more likely to be fatal in women and rates are rising
February 22, 2019 - Morning walks could be better than drugs at lowering blood pressure
February 22, 2019 - Phase 1 data reinforce safety profile of new drug for treating Duchenne muscular dystrophy
February 22, 2019 - Vitamin D supplementation less effective in the presence of obesity, shows study
February 22, 2019 - Novostia raises CHF 6.5 million to advance its aortic, mitral heart valve to clinical trials
February 22, 2019 - CPRIT awards nearly $20 million to The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center
February 22, 2019 - Sarepta Announces FDA Acceptance of Golodirsen (SRP-4053) New Drug Application for Patients with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Amenable to Skipping Exon 53
February 22, 2019 - An institutional effort to reduce the amount of opioids prescribed following lumbar surgery
February 22, 2019 - Family-history-based models perform better than non-family-history based models
UCLA researchers uncover gene that controls equilibrium of bone and fat in bone marrow

UCLA researchers uncover gene that controls equilibrium of bone and fat in bone marrow

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

In an unexpected discovery, UCLA researchers have found that a gene previously known to control human metabolism also controls the equilibrium of bone and fat in bone marrow as well as how an adult stem cell expresses its final cell type. The findings could lead to a better understanding of the disruption of bone-to-fat ratio in bone marrow as well as its health consequences, and also point to the gene as a promising therapeutic target in the treatment of osteoporosis and skeletal aging.

Until now, the PGC-1α gene, a gene activator, was primarily known to regulate reactions that convert and sustain energy for human cells. The study -; led by Dr. Cun-Yu Wang, chair and professor of oral biology and medicine, and Dr. Bo Yu, assistant professor of restorative dentistry, both from the UCLA School of Dentistry -; has shown that PGC-1α may actually impact whether stem cells turn into fat cells or bone marrow cells and in turn control the bone-to-fat balance in bone marrow.

The research is published online in the journal Cell Stem Cell.

Bone marrow tissue is composed of blood cells, marrow adipose tissue (or fat) and supportive stromal cells (connective tissue cells of any organ). For years, clinicians have noted an inverse relationship between bone mass and fat cells in bone marrow in various medical conditions. An increase in marrow fat is often accompanied by a decrease in bone mass in aging as well as osteoporosis and other metabolic disorders.

Osteoblasts, or bone-forming cells, and adipocytes, or fat-forming cells, derive from a common pool of mesenchymal stem cells, which are stromal cells that can become several different types of cells. This composition suggests a tradeoff between the two cell types and an abnormality in how a cell expresses its final type of mesenchymal stem cell in skeletal aging and osteoporosis. The molecular basis of this phenomenon is poorly understood. Further study of and insights into the inverse relationship of bone loss to fat formation may lead to new treatments for these conditions.

Wang and Yu noticed in both human and mouse bone marrow that the expression of the PGC-1α gene decreased dramatically with advanced age. The researchers initially wanted to better understand the role of this gene in age-induced bone loss. The pair began their study by creating a mouse model that had the PGC-1α proteins removed from mesenchymal stem cells. They found something unexpected when these mice underwent a procedure that simulated osteoporosis -; there was a significant increase in marrow fat along with the expected decrease in bone mass.

“What we found was particularly intriguing, given that PGC-1α has previously only been linked with metabolism but not with adult stem cells,” said Wang, who is also the dental school’s associate dean for graduate studies. “This revelation suggests that PGC-1α could influence how stem cells differentiate into bone and not fat cells, and it could also lead to new therapeutics in osteoporosis.”

To test their findings, they created a mouse model in which the PGC-1α gene expression was increased. What occurred was the opposite of what happened with their first model -; there was a slowdown in bone loss and a decrease in bone marrow fat, which suggests that PGC-1α may play a protective role in maintaining the bone-to-fat balance.

The team found that PGC-1α directly activated the expression of TAZ, a master regulator previously reported to promote bone formation while inhibiting fat cell differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

“You could compare PGC-1α to a river that nourishes or maintains bone mass as it winds through the marrow landscape,” Yu said. “The river runs dry as we age, prompting more fat cells to form at the expense of bone.”

Physical exercise has been found to induce PGC-1α expression. This study also suggests that regular physical exercise might help to maintain bone health and prevent skeletal aging, as well as provide other health benefits.

Source:

http://newsroom.ucla.edu/releases/ucla-researchers-discover-gene-that-controls-bone-to-fat-ratio-in-bone-marrow

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles