Breaking News
July 17, 2018 - White adolescent boys experiencing early puberty have high risk for substance use
July 17, 2018 - Celgene and Acceleron Announce Luspatercept Achieved Primary and All Key Secondary Endpoints in Phase III ‘BELIEVE’ Study in Adults with Transfusion-Dependent Beta-Thalassemia
July 17, 2018 - Roots of leukemia reveal possibility of predicting people at risk
July 17, 2018 - Summer med program embraces low-income students’ potential
July 17, 2018 - New research lays foundation to create standards for RNA sequencing
July 17, 2018 - CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing can cause greater genetic damage than previously thought
July 17, 2018 - Democrats rally against threats to the ACA to block Trump’s Supreme Court nominee
July 17, 2018 - Staggering prices slow insurers’ coverage of CAR-T cancer therapy
July 17, 2018 - How proteins involved in neurodegeneration enter cells
July 17, 2018 - New super-resolution ‘nanoscope’ provides insight into progression of Alzheimer’s disease
July 17, 2018 - FDA Advisory Committee Endorses the Effectiveness and Safety of Single-Dose Tafenoquine for the Radical Cure of P. vivax Malaria
July 17, 2018 - Uncovering the evolutionary history of IBD-associated colorectal cancer
July 17, 2018 - Is nutrition research dependable? Stanford’s John Ioannidis weighs in
July 17, 2018 - New machine learning framework predicts effects of genetic mutations in ‘dark matter’ regions
July 17, 2018 - Plant-based products fail to have positive impact on blood pressure during clinical studies
July 17, 2018 - Electronic system to speed up facial pain diagnosis may improve quality of life and save money
July 17, 2018 - Study delves into the role played by Protein Kinase C in synaptic plasticity
July 17, 2018 - Women Often Unaware of Their Hospital’s Religious Affiliation
July 17, 2018 - New AASM guideline recommends use of actigraphy for sleep disorders
July 17, 2018 - CRISPR editing reduces repetitive behavior in mice with a form of autism
July 17, 2018 - Scientists use magnets to detect cancer
July 17, 2018 - Microfluidic chip to detect sepsis proves successful in clinical study
July 17, 2018 - Research provides better understanding of mechanisms underlying memory storage
July 17, 2018 - A Multi-Modal Approach for the Early Detection of Breast Cancer
July 17, 2018 - Mailing colorectal cancer tests to patients increases screening rates, report researchers
July 17, 2018 - Scientists find possible sources of medicinal and antimicrobial drugs
July 17, 2018 - Molecules formed when the body metabolizes omega-3 fatty acids may inhibit cancer
July 17, 2018 - Efficient communication between hospitals improves patient safety and reduces mortality
July 17, 2018 - Study highlights potential of fetal gene therapy to prevent lethal neurodegenerative disease
July 17, 2018 - For Americans, in Science They Trust
July 17, 2018 - Combating HIV/AIDS | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine
July 17, 2018 - Study shows minorities widely underrepresented in autism diagnoses
July 17, 2018 - Multigene testing replacing BRCA tests for breast cancer risk | News Center
July 17, 2018 - Pre-clinical pilot study shows promising results of ‘concussion pill’
July 17, 2018 - Researchers reduce size of tumors in mice by artificially activating the brain’s reward system
July 17, 2018 - New study documents symptoms of people before they acquire multiple sclerosis
July 17, 2018 - Researchers discover why CRISPR gene editing sometimes fails
July 17, 2018 - New finding may hold key to better understand the complexities of neurological disorders
July 17, 2018 - The Current issue of “The view from here” is concerned with Novel Targets.
July 17, 2018 - Fighting the Flu with a Universal Vaccine
July 17, 2018 - Key social reward circuit in the brain impaired in kids with autism | News Center
July 17, 2018 - Insight into causes, types and treatment of aphasia
July 16, 2018 - Quark Pharmaceuticals, Inc Announces First Patient Dosed in Phase 3 Clinical Trial of QPI-1002 for Prevention of Acute Kidney Injury Following Cardiac Surgery
July 16, 2018 - NSAIDs shown to have causal role in cardiovascular risk of patients with osteoarthritis
July 16, 2018 - PET scan tracer predicts success of cancer ‘vaccine’ | News Center
July 16, 2018 - Parents struggle with what to do when their child has headache, shows study
July 16, 2018 - Outrageous or overblown? HHS announces another round of ACA navigator funding cuts
July 16, 2018 - Weight loss surgery may impact individual’s risk of developing cancer, shows study
July 16, 2018 - Alexion Submits Application for Priority Review and Approval of ALXN1210 as a Treatment for Patients with Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria (PNH) in the U.S.
July 16, 2018 - Restoring epigenetic balance reinstates memory in flies with Alzheimer’s disease symptoms
July 16, 2018 - Magnetized wire could be used to detect cancer in people | News Center
July 16, 2018 - Non-surgical management found to be feasible option for penetrating kidney trauma
July 16, 2018 - California clinic screens asylum seekers for honesty
July 16, 2018 - FDA Approves Xtandi (enzalutamide) for the Treatment of Men with Non-Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer (CRPC)
July 16, 2018 - Can nanotechnology help treat Alzheimer’s?
July 16, 2018 - Researchers identify protein essential for making stem cells | News Center
July 16, 2018 - Severe childhood infections linked with lower school achievement in adolescence
July 16, 2018 - Radiologist discusses causes, treatments of varicose veins
July 16, 2018 - Researchers develop nanostructured surface to accelerate wound healing after dental implants
July 16, 2018 - New non-invasive procedure to reposition kidney stones could benefit astronauts
July 16, 2018 - Attending Surgeon Influences Genetic Testing in Breast Cancer
July 16, 2018 - Medical doctors with addictions fear professional repercussions if they seek treatment
July 16, 2018 - 5 Questions: John Ioannidis calls for more rigorous nutrition research | News Center
July 16, 2018 - University of Illinois buys 3D-Bioplotter for regenerative biology, tissue engineering research
July 16, 2018 - Charité’s researchers integrate open-source platform into the ‘Human Brain Project’
July 16, 2018 - SUSU scientists develop rehabilitation device for people with lower limbs injuries
July 16, 2018 - Researchers find definite increase in scooter-related injuries
July 16, 2018 - Researchers solve mystery of final blood group system
July 16, 2018 - Researchers develop near-infrared fluorophores-based PDT to cure cancer with less side effects
July 16, 2018 - Traumatic brain injury biomarker could help predict patient prognosis
July 16, 2018 - Researchers to investigate role of hormones in mosquito’s ability to use human blood for egg production
July 16, 2018 - AHA: Doctor Makes Lifesaving House Call in His Own Home
July 16, 2018 - Nearsightedness – Genetics Home Reference
July 16, 2018 - Study shows biomarker panel boosts lung cancer risk assessment for smokers
July 16, 2018 - Researchers find link between bereavement during pregnancy, child’s mental health | News Center
July 16, 2018 - Legalizing same-sex marriage has meaningful effects on health care access for sexual-minority men
July 16, 2018 - New York to allow medical marijuana as substitute to opioids
July 16, 2018 - Reducing tapeworm infection could improve academic performance, reduce poverty | News Center
July 16, 2018 - Researchers describe key role of enzyme in regulating immune response against Chagas disease parasite
July 16, 2018 - Johnson & Johnson Announces Publication in The Lancet Highlighting Robust Immune Response to Janssen’s Mosaic-based Preventive Vaccine Regimen for HIV
Researchers create vaccine that protects against malaria in mouse models

Researchers create vaccine that protects against malaria in mouse models

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

A Yale-led team of researchers have created a vaccine that protects against malaria infection in mouse models, paving the way for the development of a human vaccine that works by targeting the specific protein that parasites use to evade the immune system. The study was published by Nature Communications.

Malaria is the second leading cause of infectious disease worldwide, and took more than a half million lives in 2013. To date, no completely effective vaccine exists, and infected individuals only develop partial immunity against disease symptoms. In a prior study, senior author Richard Bucala, M.D. described a unique protein produced by malaria parasites, Plasmodium macrophage migration inhibitory factor (PMIF), which suppresses memory T cells, the infection-fighting cells that respond to threats and protect the body against reinfection.

In the new study, Bucala and his co-authors collaborated with Novartis Vaccines, Inc. to test an RNA-based vaccine designed to target PMIF. First, using a strain of the malaria parasite with PMIF genetically deleted, they observed that mice infected with that strain developed memory T cells and showed stronger anti-parasite immunity.

Next, the research team used two mouse models of malaria to test the effectiveness of a vaccine using PMIF. One model had early-stage liver infection from parasites carried by mosquitos, and the other, a severe, late-stage blood infection. In both models, the vaccine protected against reinfection. As a final test, the researchers transferred memory T cells from the immunized mice to “naïve” mice never exposed to malaria. Those mice were also protected.

The research shows, first, that PMIF is critical to the completion of the parasite life cycle because it ensures transmission to new hosts, said the scientists, noting it also demonstrates the effectiveness of the anti-PMIF vaccine.

“If you vaccinate with this specific protein used by the malaria parasite to evade an immune response, you can elicit protection against re-infection,” said Bucala. “To our knowledge, this has never been shown using a single antigen in fulminant blood-stage infection.”

The next step for the research team is to develop a vaccine for individuals who have never had malaria, primarily young children. “The vaccine would be used in children so that they would already have an immune response to this particular malaria product, and when they became infected with malaria, they would have a normal T cell response, clear the parasite, and be protected from future infection,” he stated.

The researchers also noted that because the PMIF protein has been conserved by evolution in different malaria strains and targets a host pathway, it would be virtually impossible for the parasite to develop resistance to this vaccine. Numerous other parasitic pathogens also produce MIF-like proteins, said the scientists, suggesting that this approach may be generalizable to other parasitic diseases — such as Leishmaniasis, Hookworm, and Filariais — for which no vaccines exist.

Other authors are Alvaro Baeza Garcia, Edwin Siu, Tiffany Sun, Valerie Exler, Luis Brito, Armin Hekele, Gib Otten, Kevin Augustijn, Chris J. Janse, Jeff Ulmer, Ju?rgen Bernhagen, Erol Fikrig, and Andrew Geall.

This work was funded by National Institutes of Health grants and Novartis Vaccines, Inc.

Yale University and Novartis AG have filed a joint patent application describing the potential utility of a PMIF encoding RNA replicon. R.B. and A.G. are co-inventors on this application.

Source:

https://news.yale.edu/2018/07/13/yale-researchers-identify-target-novel-malaria-vaccine

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles