Breaking News
August 18, 2018 - Researchers describe promising strategy to remove melanoma’s most powerful defenses
August 18, 2018 - Women with polycystic ovary syndrome dissatisfied with medical care
August 18, 2018 - Research discoveries reveal insights behind neurological degeneration
August 18, 2018 - Researchers win multi-million Euro award to conduct research into liver disease
August 18, 2018 - Survey highlights variations in practice of airway management in pediatric intensive care units
August 18, 2018 - UK students win sponsorship from Promega Corporation
August 18, 2018 - Janssen Reports Positive Topline Results for ATLAS Phase III Study of a Novel, Long Acting Injectable Two-Drug Regimen for the treatment of HIV-1
August 18, 2018 - PSD as a molecular platform for understanding synapse formation and plasticity
August 18, 2018 - Improved visual communication could help patients to make informed health-care decisions
August 18, 2018 - New algorithm helps identify and manage diabetic patients at increased fracture risk
August 18, 2018 - Microscopic insect odour detecting mechanisms discovered
August 18, 2018 - Researchers develop new approach to study how tuberculosis infects people
August 18, 2018 - FDA Approves Kalydeco (ivacaftor) for Cystic Fibrosis in Children Ages 12 to
August 18, 2018 - An ion channel differentiates newborn and mature neurons in the adult brain
August 18, 2018 - Socio-economic position associated with pregnant women’s exposure to environmental hazards
August 18, 2018 - Voters to settle dispute over ambulance employee break times
August 18, 2018 - AGA urges policymakers and stakeholders to improve affordability of drugs
August 18, 2018 - Increasing dietary protein may lower risk of diabetes in people with NAFLD
August 18, 2018 - New HIV therapy suppresses viral replication and increases immune cells in drug-resistant patients
August 18, 2018 - Broad Genetic Testing for NSCLC May Not Improve Survival
August 18, 2018 - Discovery opens door for synthetic opioids with less addictive qualities
August 18, 2018 - Transgenic rice plant extracts could help stop the spread of HIV
August 18, 2018 - Hologic’s Cynosure division partners with Porter Instrument to distribute nitrous oxide and oxygen system
August 18, 2018 - Two thyroid medications recalled by FDA
August 18, 2018 - Forecast Sees Abnormal Heat Worldwide Through 2022
August 18, 2018 - Childhood absence epilepsy – Genetics Home Reference
August 18, 2018 - Fearing hard Brexit, UK drugmakers stockpile to protect lives
August 18, 2018 - Discovery may help broaden the scope of defenses against HPV
August 18, 2018 - When they start thinking green, they see green
August 18, 2018 - Scientists introduce microfluidics-based chip for manipulation and analysis of single cells
August 18, 2018 - Researchers design new way to grow nose cells for treating spinal cord injuries
August 18, 2018 - New light shed on relationship between calorie-burning fat and muscle function
August 18, 2018 - Surgery Saturday Instagram series takes you inside Stanford’s OR
August 18, 2018 - Researchers uncover surprising new role for inhibition in the cerebellum
August 18, 2018 - Children have better nutrition when they live near forests, global study shows
August 18, 2018 - OHSU professor conducts clinical trial with artificial pancreas using Xeris’ liquid glucagon
August 18, 2018 - HSS takes young patients with physical challenges on a surfing trip
August 18, 2018 - Study shows electronic health records leave doctors and patients unsatisfied
August 18, 2018 - Study uncovers mechanism that affects multiplication of dengue virus lineage
August 18, 2018 - Theravance Biopharma Reports Positive Top-Line Four-Week Data from Phase 2 Trial of TD-9855 for the Treatment of Symptomatic Neurogenic Orthostatic Hypotension
August 18, 2018 - Animations prove effective in accurately measuring pain
August 18, 2018 - Three faculty members appointed to endowed positions | News Center
August 18, 2018 - New technique detects, measures, analyzes unevenly charged biomolecules
August 18, 2018 - Brief exposures to stressors can be beneficial to cells, shows study
August 18, 2018 - UTHealth-led survey shows much work remains to increase safety of e-health records
August 18, 2018 - Researchers use super-resolution microscope to unravel secrets of deadly Nipah virus
August 18, 2018 - Scientists identify pathways that reveal insights into mechanism of lung cancer etiology
August 18, 2018 - Rush’s health care IT leaders reach White House
August 18, 2018 - FDA approves marketing of brainsway deep transcranial magnetic stimulation system for OCD
August 17, 2018 - OUHSC gets $20 million grant to advance research and patient care for Oklahomans
August 17, 2018 - Sperm morphology differs depending on qualities of male bird
August 17, 2018 - Texas A&M researchers develop clay-based platform to grow blood vessels
August 17, 2018 - FDA Approves Expanded Indication for Orkambi (lumacaftor/ivacaftor) in Children Ages 2-5 Years
August 17, 2018 - Caring for Concussions | NIH News in Health
August 17, 2018 - Team explores diabetes drug’s ability to treat RSV infection
August 17, 2018 - New imaging technique can spot tuberculosis infection in an hour | News Center
August 17, 2018 - PolyU researchers design new self-fitting scaffold to induce bone regeneration
August 17, 2018 - CartiHeal and LSU Health successfully enroll first two patients in Agili-C IDE pivotal study
August 17, 2018 - Less-invasive options are slowing disease progression in glaucoma patients
August 17, 2018 - Researchers discover new promising target point for cancer and diabetes therapies
August 17, 2018 - Podcast: KHN’s ‘What the Health?’ See you in court!
August 17, 2018 - New mobile phone application enables early detection of cerebral ictus
August 17, 2018 - AJMC addresses role of community pharmacies in boosting adult vaccination rates
August 17, 2018 - UK’s leading sight loss charity invites applications from brightest minds in ophthalmic research
August 17, 2018 - Alternative devices can help when autoinjectors are unavailable
August 17, 2018 - Researchers produce artificial placenta model that closely resembles natural organ
August 17, 2018 - Study offers possibility of squelching a focal epilepsy seizure before symptoms appear
August 17, 2018 - FDA Alert: Temporary Total Artificial Heart Companion 2 Driver System by SynCardia Systems: Letter to Health Care Providers
August 17, 2018 - New statewide program in North Dakota aims to stem opioid misuse
August 17, 2018 - Researchers discover why sepsis from a staph infection causes organ failure
August 17, 2018 - Stony Brook University’s new medical students start a transformative journey
August 17, 2018 - Revealed: The molecular mechanism underlying hypertrophic cardiomyopathy | News Center
August 17, 2018 - New modeling studies highlight urgent need for effective drug policy reforms to prevent HIV
August 17, 2018 - Research explores relationship between personal history of infectious fever and cancer risk
August 17, 2018 - Study finds rise in cases of progressive massive fibrosis among U.S. coal miners
August 17, 2018 - NEDBELS project examines impact of neurodiversity concept on legal systems
August 17, 2018 - Seeking solutions to treat scleroderma
August 17, 2018 - Statins may improve conditions of people with rare lung disease
August 17, 2018 - Study finds why some people with brain markers of Alzheimer’s never develop dementia
August 17, 2018 - Life Biosciences contributes $100,000 to fund its biomedical innovation course on aging
Origins of bread found 14,400 years ago in Jordan

Origins of bread found 14,400 years ago in Jordan

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

Scientists have found the remnants of a meal shared by a group of Natufian hunter-gatherers around 14,400 years ago. They noted the expected varieties of meat including those from a gazelle, waterfowl and hare and were surprised with three to four types of flat bread made up of mixed grain.

Scanning electron microscope images of bread-like remains from Shubayqa 1. (A) Sample number 6 showing the typical porous matrix of bread with small closed voids. (B) Detail of an aleurone layer from sample number 17 (at least single celled). (C) Sample number 12 showing vascular tissue, the arrow marks the xylem vessels in longitudinal section. Image Credit: PNAS

Scanning electron microscope images of bread-like remains from Shubayqa 1. (A) Sample number 6 showing the typical porous matrix of bread with small closed voids. (B) Detail of an aleurone layer from sample number 17 (at least single celled). (C) Sample number 12 showing vascular tissue, the arrow marks the xylem vessels in longitudinal section. Image Credit: PNAS

This gives the archaeologists a picture of the dietary habits in the Stone Age and also reveals that bread making was practiced even before the rise of agriculture some 4,000 years after the time of this meal.

Researchers belonging to the University of Copenhagen, University College London and University of Cambridge worked to excavate a couple of stone fireplaces at the northeastern Jordanian site of Shubayqa 1 between 2012 and 2015. They found the remnants of this meal at the excavation site and have published their findings in a study in the latest issue of the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

The researchers write that Nstufians were people who lived in the Eastern Mediterranean region between 12,500 and 9,500 B.C. approximately. They were baking bread several hundreds of centuries before their descendants created permanent settlements where they could grow crops.

The study leader Amaia Arranz Otaegui, a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Copenhagen said that they stumbled upon the crumbs and initially thought the bread crumbs were nuts or seeds or charred wood. They went on to analyse 24 of the charred samples she said to discover the samples had a porous texture which is uniquely found in bread.

She explained that thereafter they found tissues similar to rye, millets, barley, wheat, root tubers and einkorn in the charred remains using scanning electron microscope and were certain that these were bread crumbs made from these cereals. She speculated that these cereals could have been grinded along with club rush tubers which are a form of starchy roots.

The final mixture mostly likely resulted in a fine dough that would be mixed with water to form a dough. This dough most likely was baked on a fire place or on a hot flat stone to produce something similar to unleavened flatbread.

Arranz Otaegui says that this study shows that much before actual agriculture was in place people were making bread from wild grains. University of Copenhagen archaeologist and study co-author Tobias Richter in a statement said that it is possible that making bread from wild grains was time consuming and tedious and this prompted the advent of agricultural revolution where these wild grains could be grown and cultivated to provide a more convenient source of staple grains and food.

Before this, an earlier archaeological find dates bread making to around 9,000 years back. An excavation in Turkey shows use of flour and bread making from wheat, barley, ground beans, chickpeas and lentils. These breads were cooked in an oven unlike the present find that finds flatbreads cooked on hot stones or over fireplaces.

Source:

http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2018/07/10/1801071115

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles