Breaking News
October 19, 2018 - A new approach identified to control Zika virus, dengue fever
October 19, 2018 - Head Blows Without Concussion May Not Damage Brain, Study Claims
October 19, 2018 - US opioid use not declined, despite focus on abuse and awareness of risk
October 19, 2018 - Next-generation RNA sequencing technology sheds new light on human mitochondrial diseases
October 19, 2018 - UT Southwestern biochemist receives 2019 Breakthrough Prize in Life Sciences for innate immunity discovery
October 19, 2018 - The immune system also plays a key role in day-to-day function of healthy organs
October 19, 2018 - New tool may reveal how the brain structure impacts brain activity, human behavior
October 19, 2018 - Trump Administration announces ‘Winning on Reducing Food Waste’ initiative
October 19, 2018 - For-profit nursing home residents more likely to experience health issues caused by substandard care
October 19, 2018 - Conceptual framework proposed to examine role of exercise in multiple sclerosis
October 19, 2018 - Near infrared spectroscopy technique for accurate evaluation of chondral injuries
October 19, 2018 - Scientists receive $5.1 million grant to develop stem cell-based therapy for blinding retinal conditions
October 19, 2018 - Shorter physician encounters associated with antibiotic prescribing
October 19, 2018 - In the Spotlight: Enjoying research and exploring opportunities
October 19, 2018 - Physical activity lowers cardiovascular mortality risk in frail older adults
October 19, 2018 - New imaging tool helps visualize how sound-induced vibrations travel through the ear
October 19, 2018 - Key insights into the application, production of bioactive materials
October 19, 2018 - New urea sorbent could speed up the development of wearable artificial kidney
October 19, 2018 - Intensive care patients’ muscles less able to use fats for energy
October 19, 2018 - FDA Advisory Committee Recommends Approval of Dsuvia for the Treatment of Moderate-to-Severe Acute Pain
October 19, 2018 - 48,XXXY syndrome – Genetics Home Reference
October 19, 2018 - Physical exercise improves the elimination of toxic proteins from muscles
October 19, 2018 - How a new system improved wait times for Stanford kidney transplant patients
October 19, 2018 - Nutrition has bigger positive impact on bone mass and strength than exercise
October 19, 2018 - Study finds lack of progress in media representation of nurses over last 20 years
October 19, 2018 - Many people have trouble understanding differences between OCD and OCPD
October 19, 2018 - New family planning app found to be as effective as modern methods
October 19, 2018 - Gastric Banding, Metformin Similar for Improving Glycemia
October 19, 2018 - Physiologist publishes findings on the role of the protein titin in muscle contraction
October 19, 2018 - What digital health companies need to do to succeed
October 19, 2018 - N. Carolina Sees Alarming Spike in Heart Infections Among Opioid Users
October 19, 2018 - Video monitoring of TB therapy works well in urban and rural areas
October 19, 2018 - Determining acid-neutralizing capacity for OTC antacids
October 19, 2018 - Males who spend more time taking care of kids have greater reproductive success
October 18, 2018 - Study to explore bioethics of brain organoids
October 18, 2018 - Environmental conditions may drive development of multiple sclerosis
October 18, 2018 - Genetically modifying zebrafish provides more accurate disease models
October 18, 2018 - Purdue Pharma, Eisai announce positive topline results from Phase 3 study of lemborexant
October 18, 2018 - 5 Strength-Training Mistakes to Avoid
October 18, 2018 - Immune system’s balancing act keeps bowel disease in check
October 18, 2018 - Anti-inflammatory drug effective for treating lymphedema symptoms | News Center
October 18, 2018 - Keeping Your Voice Young
October 18, 2018 - One-time universal screening recommended to tackle increase in hepatitis C
October 18, 2018 - Researchers to develop new stem cell-based strategies for treating vision disorders
October 18, 2018 - Detecting epigenetic signature may help people stay ahead of inflammatory bowel disease
October 18, 2018 - Understanding AFib: Slowing down the dancing heart
October 18, 2018 - Using NMR to Reduce Fraud
October 18, 2018 - New automated model identifies dense breast tissue in mammograms
October 18, 2018 - Mysterious polio-like illness baffles medical experts while frightening parents
October 18, 2018 - Cases of Acute Flaccid Myelitis on the rise across U.S.
October 18, 2018 - Dietary fiber reduces brain inflammation during aging
October 18, 2018 - New tool could help prioritize recovery efforts for the poorest hit by natural disasters
October 18, 2018 - Hundreds of dietary supplements shown to contain unapproved drugs
October 18, 2018 - Active Pharmaceuticals ID’d in >700 Dietary Supplements
October 18, 2018 - Cell death protein also damps inflammation
October 18, 2018 - AI pathology diagnostic tool developed using deep learning technology from Olympus
October 18, 2018 - Health Highlights: Oct. 15, 2018
October 18, 2018 - Largest study of ‘post-treatment controllers’ reveals clues about HIV remission
October 18, 2018 - Bad Blood in Silicon Valley: A conversation with John Carreyrou
October 18, 2018 - ANTRUK’s Annual Lecture sends out message on shortage of funds for antibiotic research
October 18, 2018 - NAM special publication outlines steps to ensure interoperability of health care systems
October 18, 2018 - Novel method uses just a drop of blood to monitor effect of lung cancer therapy
October 18, 2018 - New blood test could spare cancer patients from unnecessary chemotherapy
October 18, 2018 - Training young researchers to work with data volumes arising in the health sector
October 18, 2018 - New Metrohm IC method is reliable and convenient to use for zinc oxide assay
October 18, 2018 - Global AIDS, TB fight needs more money: health fund
October 18, 2018 - Understanding the forces that cause sports concussions
October 18, 2018 - Research points to new target for treating periodontitis
October 18, 2018 - New tool improves assessment of postpartum depression symptoms
October 18, 2018 - From Biopsy to Diagnosis
October 18, 2018 - Sexual harassment and assault linked to worse physical/mental health among midlife women
October 18, 2018 - Stumped by medical school? A Q&A with a learning specialist
October 18, 2018 - Report predicts life expectancy in 2040, Spain comes out on top
October 18, 2018 - Self-lubricating condoms may help raise condom usage
October 18, 2018 - Targeting immune checkpoints in microglia could reduce out-of-control neuroinflammation
October 18, 2018 - Study finds changes in antiepileptic drug metabolism during different trimesters of pregnancy
October 18, 2018 - Autonomic nervous system directly controls stem cell proliferation, study shows
October 18, 2018 - FDA Approves Talzenna (talazoparib) for gBRCAm HER2-Negative Locally Advanced or Metastatic Breast Cancer
October 18, 2018 - Sleeping Beauty technique helps identify genes responsible for NAFLD-associated liver cancer
October 18, 2018 - Many U.S. adults confused about primary care, study shows
Scientists find reason why malarial parasites are faster than immune cells

Scientists find reason why malarial parasites are faster than immune cells

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

Elementary cytoskeleton protein is different in parasites and represents a starting point for a possible new therapy against malaria infections. Researchers from the Heidelberg University Hospital, the Centre for Molecular Biology at the University of Heidelberg (ZMBH), and the Heidelberg Institute for Theoretical Studies (HITS) have published these findings in the journal “PLOS Biology”.

Malaria parasites of the genus Plasmodium move ten times faster through the skin than immune cells, whose job it is to capture such pathogens. Heidelberg scientists have now found a reason why the parasite is faster than its counterpart. They did this by studying actin, a protein that is important to the structure and movement of cells and that is built differently in parasites and mammals. The findings of Ross Douglas and his colleagues at the Centre for Infectious Diseases (Department of Parasitology) at Heidelberg University Hospital, the Centre for Molecular Biology at the University of Heidelberg (ZMBH), and the Heidelberg Institute for Theoretical Studies (HITS) are not only changing our understanding of a key component of all living cells, but they also provide information that could help in the discovery of new drugs.

How does the malaria parasite move so fast?

Like Lego blocks, which can be put together into long chains, actin is assembled into long rope-like structures called filaments. These filaments are important for the proper functioning of cells – such as muscle cells – and enable each of our movements. However, they also serve to enable immune system cells to move and capture invading pathogens. Likewise, they are of great importance for the movement of the malaria parasite. “Strangely enough, malaria parasites are ten times nimbler than the fastest of our immune cells and literally outrun our immune defences. If we understand this important difference in movement, we can target and stop the parasite,” says Dr. Ross Douglas from the Heidelberg Centre for Infectious Diseases. A key issue in the paper published in the journal “PLOS Biology” is how the rate at which actin filaments are formed and broken down differs between parasites and mammals.

Mammal-parasite protein hybrids lead to new insights

It was known that certain sections of the actin protein differ between the parasite and mammals. To investigate the reasons behind the difference in speed, scientists replaced parts of the parasite protein with corresponding sections of protein from mammalian actin in the laboratory. “When we made these changes in the parasite, we noticed that some parasites could not survive at all and others suddenly hesitated when they moved,” says Dr. Ross Douglas. To investigate the underlying mechanism, the participating scientists performed experiments and computer simulations ranging from modeling at the molecular level to observing the parasites in live animals. “High-performance computers were required for simulations to observe how the structure and dynamics of actin filaments change when individual sections are swapped,” says Prof. Rebecca Wade, who heads research groups at the Heidelberg Institute for Theoretical Studies (HITS) and at the Centre for Molecular Biology (ZMBH) at Heidelberg University that investigate protein interactions via computer simulations and mathematical modelling. At HITS, Dr. Prajwal Nandekar and Dr. Kashif Sadiq also contributed to the study.

These findings could now be used to discover chemical compounds that selectively target parasite actin and affect either the building or breakdown of the filament. “In this way, it could be possible to effectively stop the entire parasite,” Dr. Ross Douglas summarizes. An example for this approach is tubulin, another type of protein which is involved in the building of the cytoskeleton via so-called microtubules. Medicines that target parasite microtubules – such as mebendazole – have been successfully used for decades to treat humans and animals for parasitic worms. This joint research project was partially funded by the innovation fund FRONTIER at Heidelberg University.

Source:

https://www.h-its.org/scientific-news/malaria_actin_en/

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles