Breaking News
February 23, 2019 - Surprise rheumatoid arthritis discovery points to new treatment for joint inflammation
February 23, 2019 - A just-right fix for a tiny heart
February 23, 2019 - Owlstone Medical and Shanghai Renji Hospital collaborate to initiate breath biopsy lung cancer trial
February 23, 2019 - AMSBIO’s comprehensive portfolio of knock-out cell lines and lysates
February 23, 2019 - New app reliably determines physicians’ skills in forming accurate, efficient diagnoses
February 23, 2019 - Peripheral nerve injury can trigger the onset and spread of ALS, shows study
February 23, 2019 - Researchers uncover mechanisms that prevent tooth replacement in mice
February 23, 2019 - Once-a-day capsule offers new way to reduce symptoms of chronic breathlessness
February 23, 2019 - FDA Adds Boxed Warning for Increased Risk of Death with Gout Medicine Uloric (febuxostat)
February 23, 2019 - Phone-based intervention aids rheumatoid arthritis care
February 23, 2019 - Opioid epidemic makes eastern inroads and targets African-Americans
February 23, 2019 - New identified biomarker predicts patients who might benefit from HER2-targeted agents
February 23, 2019 - Study offers new insights into mechanisms of changes in erythrocytes under stress
February 23, 2019 - Antipsychotic polypharmacy may be beneficial for schizophrenia patients
February 23, 2019 - Researchers investigate how marijuana and tobacco co-use affects quit attempts by smokers
February 23, 2019 - Patients with diabetes mellitus have high risk of stable ischemic heart disease
February 23, 2019 - Transparency on healthcare prices played key role in Arizona health system’s turnaround
February 23, 2019 - A comprehensive, multinational review of peppers around the world
February 23, 2019 - Study finds modest decrease in burnout among physicians
February 23, 2019 - A simple change can drastically reduce unnecessary tests for urinary tract infections
February 23, 2019 - Deep Learning-Enhanced Device Detects Diabetic Retinopathy
February 23, 2019 - Researchers discover new binding partner for amyloid precursor protein
February 23, 2019 - Modest decrease seen in burnout among physicians, researchers say | News Center
February 23, 2019 - Transplanting bone marrow of young mice into old mice prevents cognitive decline
February 23, 2019 - Mogrify to accelerate novel IP and cell therapies using $3.7m USD funding
February 23, 2019 - Johns Hopkins study describes cells that may help speed bone repair
February 23, 2019 - Scientists demonstrate influence of food odors on proteostasis
February 23, 2019 - Researchers unlock the secret behind reproduction of fish called ‘Mary’
February 23, 2019 - Acupuncture Could Help Ease Menopausal Symptoms
February 23, 2019 - Researchers use AI to detect early signs of Alzheimer’s
February 23, 2019 - On recovery, vulnerability and ritual: An exhibit in white | News Center
February 23, 2019 - Memory Stored in Unexpected Region of the Brain
February 23, 2019 - Several health experts worldwide gather at EUDONORGAN event
February 23, 2019 - Discovery of potent compound in native California shrub may lead to treatment for Alzheimer’s
February 22, 2019 - Researchers create new map of the brain’s own immune system
February 22, 2019 - ICHE’s reviews on surgical infections, unnecessary urine tests, and nurses’ role in antibiotic stewardship
February 22, 2019 - UK Research and Innovation invests £200 million to create new generation of AI leaders
February 22, 2019 - Takeda collaboration to boost fight against Alzheimer’s and other neurodegenerative diseases
February 22, 2019 - Heavy drinking may change DNA, leading to increased craving for alcohol
February 22, 2019 - U.S. opioid deaths jump fourfold in 20 years; epidemic shifts to Eastern states | News Center
February 22, 2019 - 5 Questions with William Turner on Diversity in Medicine
February 22, 2019 - HHS Finalizes Rule Seeking To Expel Planned Parenthood From Family Planning Program
February 22, 2019 - Researchers uncover biochemical pathway that may help identify drugs to treat Alzheimer’s
February 22, 2019 - Biologist uses new grant to find ways to eliminate schistosomiasis
February 22, 2019 - Bag-mask ventilation to help patients breathe during intubation prevents complications
February 22, 2019 - AbbVie Announces New Drug Application Accepted for Priority Review by FDA for Upadacitinib for Treatment of Moderate to Severe Rheumatoid Arthritis
February 22, 2019 - Nature versus nurture and addiction
February 22, 2019 - New website connects researchers with data experts, resources | News Center
February 22, 2019 - Today’s Concerns About Drug Prices Echo The Past
February 22, 2019 - CT and Doppler equipment have low accuracy in detecting cerebral vasospasm and ischemia
February 22, 2019 - Study finds out similarity in function between healthy retina cell and tumor cell
February 22, 2019 - CWRU awarded NIH grant to identify effective treatments for intimate partner violence
February 22, 2019 - Oncotype DX Not Cost-Effective for Low-Risk Breast Cancer
February 22, 2019 - Scientists discover new type of immune cells that are essential for forming heart valves
February 22, 2019 - Talk About Déjà Vu: Senators Set To Re-Enact Drug Price Hearing Of 60 Years Ago
February 22, 2019 - Genetic defect linked to pediatric liver disease identified
February 22, 2019 - New cellular atlas could provide a deeper insight into blinding diseases
February 22, 2019 - Growing number of cancer survivors, fewer providers point to challenge in meeting care needs
February 22, 2019 - Innovative compound offers a new therapeutic approach to treat multiple sclerosis
February 22, 2019 - $1.5 million grant to develop opioid treatment program for jail detainees
February 22, 2019 - FDA’s new proposed rule would update regulatory requirements for sunscreen products in the U.S
February 22, 2019 - Most Hip, Knee Replacements Last Decades, Study Finds
February 22, 2019 - Wellness problems prevalent among ob-gyn residents
February 22, 2019 - In the Spotlight: “The world is your oyster in geriatrics”
February 22, 2019 - Successful testing of multi-organ “human-on-a-chip” could replace animals as test subjects
February 22, 2019 - Analysis of cervical precancer shows decline in two strains of HPV
February 22, 2019 - Sugary stent eases suturing of blood vessels
February 22, 2019 - From surgery to psychiatry: A medical student reevaluates his motivations
February 22, 2019 - Is New App From Feds Your Answer To Navigating Medicare Coverage? Yes And No
February 22, 2019 - New pacemakers powered by heartbeats could reduce need for surgery
February 22, 2019 - The United States records highest drug overdose death rates
February 22, 2019 - Heart attacks more likely to be fatal in women and rates are rising
February 22, 2019 - Morning walks could be better than drugs at lowering blood pressure
February 22, 2019 - Phase 1 data reinforce safety profile of new drug for treating Duchenne muscular dystrophy
February 22, 2019 - Vitamin D supplementation less effective in the presence of obesity, shows study
February 22, 2019 - Novostia raises CHF 6.5 million to advance its aortic, mitral heart valve to clinical trials
February 22, 2019 - CPRIT awards nearly $20 million to The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center
February 22, 2019 - Sarepta Announces FDA Acceptance of Golodirsen (SRP-4053) New Drug Application for Patients with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Amenable to Skipping Exon 53
February 22, 2019 - An institutional effort to reduce the amount of opioids prescribed following lumbar surgery
February 22, 2019 - Family-history-based models perform better than non-family-history based models
New method evaluates effectiveness of interventions in mitigating spread of HIV

New method evaluates effectiveness of interventions in mitigating spread of HIV

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

Using genetic sequencing to understand the evolutionary relationships among pathogens, an international team of researchers-;including several from the Center for Drug Use and HIV/HCV Research (CDUHR) at New York University-;has developed a new method to determine how effective interventions are against the spread of infectious diseases like HIV.

The study, published in the American Journal of Epidemiology, describes how the new method establishes the source of a disease and whether its transmission in the community can be traced back to individuals who were or were not part of an intervention.

Over the last decade our understanding of how pathogens spread has improved, but preventing the transmission of infectious diseases still remains a challenge. The introduction and spread of pathogens now occur more easily than ever due to the ease of international travel and people living in densely populated areas.

“Given globalization and other social phenomena, controlling the spread of infectious diseases is an imperative public health priority,” said Gkikas Magiorkinis of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens in Greece, the study’s lead author.

For scientists and public health practitioners, it can be difficult to determine whether an intervention-;such as a needle exchange program or treatment with antiretroviral therapy-;is actually effective in reducing disease transmission in the community. Evaluating the effectiveness of interventions that can mitigate the spread of pathogens is expensive, and in many circumstances unrealistic.

Importantly, most evaluations only measure those directly involved in an intervention but neglect the community effect, or the ability of the intervention to minimize the spread of disease from

people directly involved to other community members.

“Our research seeks to understand if an intervention has a community effect and can reduce disease transmission not only by the recruited individuals, but also by the contacts in their risk networks,” said Samuel R. Friedman, director of the Institute for Infectious Disease Research at National Development Research Institutes (NDRI), associate core director and senior theoretician at CDUHR, and the study’s senior author.

To better measure the community effect of an intervention, the research team developed a new method to evaluate an intervention for reducing HIV transmission. In order to examine the transmission of the virus from already-infected people to those newly infected, the researchers use phylogenetics, or the evolutionary relationships among organisms, to understand the evolutionary dynamics of HIV.

The method involves collecting blood samples from three groups of people: individuals with HIV who participate in an intervention study, others with HIV who are not part of the intervention (the control group), and-;at a later date-;individuals who are newly infected with HIV.

Performing genetic sequencing of HIV, they can then compare characteristics of the virus to determine the source of transmission and whether new infections can be linked to individuals who did or did not participate in the intervention.

“Due to the inability of traditional methods to trace infections back to a source, there are major gaps in our understanding on how to best reduce the spread of HIV within a community. This new method enables us to quantify the flow of transmissions within a community, evaluate whether an intervention reduces new transmissions in comparison to a control condition, and thus estimate the relative decrease in new infections in the community due to the intervention,” said Magiorkinis.

The researchers provide proof of concept through simulating an intervention to prevent HIV transmission among people who inject drugs. Comparing transmission from those with HIV who did or did not participate in the intervention, they calculated fewer people contracting HIV from individuals in the intervention, suggesting that the simulated intervention reduces disease transmission.

The researchers note that a key advantage of their method is that it can assess the wider community effect of an intervention without having to follow up with study participants. A one-time collection of blood samples is much easier than tracking participants long-term, especially in communities for which follow-up is a challenge, such as people who inject drugs. In addition, the method can be applied to evaluate interventions to reduce transmission of other infectious diseases beyond HIV.

Source:

https://www.nyu.edu/about/news-publications/news/2018/august/new-method-helps-determine-effectiveness-of-interventions-in-red.html

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles