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ANA (Antinuclear Antibody) Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

ANA (Antinuclear Antibody) Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

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What is an ANA (Antinuclear Antibody) Test?

An ANA test looks for antinuclear antibodies in your blood. If the test finds antinuclear antibodies in your blood, it may mean you have an autoimmune disorder. An autoimmune disorder causes your immune system to attack your own cells, tissues, and/or organs by mistake. These disorders can cause serious health problems.

Antibodies are proteins that your immune system makes to fight foreign substances like viruses and bacteria. But an antinuclear antibody attacks your own healthy cells instead. It’s called “antinuclear” because it targets the nucleus (center) of the cells.

Other names: antinuclear antibody panel, fluorescent antinuclear antibody, FANA, ANA

What is it used for?

An ANA test is used to help diagnose autoimmune disorders, including:

  • Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This is the most common type of lupus, a chronic disease affecting multiple parts of the body, including the joints, blood vessels, kidneys, and brain.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis, a condition that causes pain and swelling of the joints, mostly in the hands and feet
  • Scleroderma, a rare disease affecting the skin, joints, and blood vessels
  • Sjogren’s syndrome, a rare disease affecting the body’s moisture-making glands

Why do I need an ANA test?

Your health care provider may order an ANA test if you have symptoms of lupus or another autoimmune disorder. These symptoms include:

What happens during an ANA test?

A health care professional will take a blood sample from a vein in your arm, using a small needle. After the needle is inserted, a small amount of blood will be collected into a test tube or vial. You may feel a little sting when the needle goes in or out. This usually takes less than five minutes.

Will I need to do anything to prepare for the test?

You don’t need any special preparations for an ANA test.

Are there any risks to the test?

There is very little risk to having a blood test. You may have slight pain or bruising at the spot where the needle was put in, but most symptoms go away quickly.

What do the results mean?

A positive result on an ANA test means that antinuclear antibodies were found in your blood. You may get a positive result if:

  • You have SLE (lupus).
  • You have a different type of autoimmune disease.
  • You have a viral infection.

A positive result doesn’t necessarily mean you have a disease. Some healthy people have antinuclear antibodies in their blood. In addition, certain medicines can affect your results.

If your ANA test results are positive, your health care provider will likely order more tests, especially if you have symptoms of disease. If you have questions about your results, talk to your health care provider.

Is there anything else I need to know about an ANA test?

Antinuclear antibody levels tend to increase with age. As many as one-third of healthy adults over the age of 65 may have a positive ANA test result.

References

  1. American College of Rheumatology [Internet]. Atlanta: American College of Rheumatology; c2017. Antinuclear Antibodies (ANA) [updated 2017 Mar; cited 2017 Nov 17]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: https://www.rheumatology.org/I-Am-A/Patient-Caregiver/Diseases-Conditions/Antinuclear-Antibodies-ANA
  2. Hinkle J, Cheever K. Brunner & Suddarth’s Handbook of Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests. 2nd Ed, Kindle. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2014. Antinuclear Antibodies (ANAS); 53 p.
  3. Lab Tests Online [Internet]. Washington D.C.: American Association for Clinical Chemistry; c2001–2018. Antinuclear Antibody (ANA); [updated 2018 Feb 1; cited 2018 Feb 8]; [about 2 screens]. Available from: https://labtestsonline.org/understanding/analytes/ana/tab/test
  4. Lab Tests Online [Internet]. Washington D.C.: American Association for Clinical Chemistry; c2001–2018. Scleroderma; [updated 2017 Sep 20; cited 2018 Feb 8]; [about 2 screens]. Available from: https://labtestsonline.org/understanding/conditions/scleroderma
  5. Lupus Research Alliance [Internet]. New York: Lupus Research Alliance; c2017. About Lupus [cited 2017 Nov 17]; [about 2 screens]. Available from: https://www.lupusresearch.org/understanding-lupus/what-is-lupus/about-lupus
  6. Lupus Research Alliance [Internet]. New York: Lupus Research Alliance; c2017. Symptoms [cited 2017 Nov 17]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: https://www.lupusresearch.org/understanding-lupus/what-is-lupus/symptoms
  7. Merck Manual Consumer Version [Internet]. Kenilworth (NJ): Merck & Co., Inc.; c2017. Sjögren’s Syndrome [cited 2017 Nov 17]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: https://www.merckmanuals.com/home/bone,-joint,-and-muscle-disorders/autoimmune-disorders-of-connective-tissue/sj%C3%B6gren-syndrome
  8. Merck Manual Consumer Version [Internet]. Kenilworth (NJ): Merck & Co., Inc.; c2017. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) [cited 2017 Nov 17]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: http://www.merckmanuals.com/home/bone,-joint,-and-muscle-disorders/autoimmune-disorders-of-connective-tissue/systemic-lupus-erythematosus-sle
  9. Mayo Clinic [Internet]. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; c1998–2017. ANA test: Overview; 2017 Aug 3 [cited Nov 17]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: https://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/ana-test/home/ovc-20344718
  10. Mayo Clinic [Internet]. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; c1998–2017. ANA test: Results; 2017 Aug 3 [cited Nov 17]; [about 7 screens]. Available from: https://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/ana-test/details/results/rsc-20344732
  11. Mayo Clinic [Internet]. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; c1998–2017. ANA test: Why it’s done; 2017 Aug 3 [cited Nov 17]; [about 4 screens]. Available from: https://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/ana-test/details/why-its-done/icc-20344722
  12. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Blood Tests; [cited 2018 Feb 8]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/blood-tests
  13. NIH U.S. National Library of Medicine: Genetics Home Reference [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; rheumatoid arthritis; 2017 Nov 14 [cited 2017 Nov 17]; [about 2 screens]. Available from: https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/rheumatoid-arthritis
  14. UF Health: University of Florida Health [Internet]. University of Florida; c2017. Antinuclear antibody panel: Overview [updated 2017 Nov 17; cited 2017 Nov 17]; [about 2 screens]. Available from: https://ufhealth.org/antinuclear-antibody-panel
  15. University of Rochester Medical Center [Internet]. Rochester (NY): University of Rochester Medical Center; c2017. Health Encyclopedia: Antinuclear Antibody [cited 2017 Nov 17]; [about 2 screens]. Available from: https://www.urmc.rochester.edu/encyclopedia/content.aspx?contenttypeid=167&contentid=antinuclear_antibodies
  16. UW Health [Internet]. Madison (WI): University of Wisconsin Hospitals and Clinics Authority; c2017. Antinuclear Antibodies (ANA): Results [updated 2016 Oct 31; cited 2017 Nov 17]; [about 8 screens]. Available from: https://www.uwhealth.org/health/topic/medicaltest/antinuclear-antibodies/hw2297.html#hw2323
  17. UW Health [Internet]. Madison (WI): University of Wisconsin Hospitals and Clinics Authority; c2017. Antinuclear Antibodies (ANA): Test Overview [updated 2016 Oct 31; cited 2017 Nov 17]; [about 2 screens]. Available from: https://www.uwhealth.org/health/topic/medicaltest/antinuclear-antibodies/hw2297.html
  18. UW Health [Internet]. Madison (WI): University of Wisconsin Hospitals and Clinics Authority; c2017. Antinuclear Antibodies (ANA): Why It’s Done [updated 2016 Oct 31; cited 2017 Nov 17]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: https://www.uwhealth.org/health/topic/medicaltest/antinuclear-antibodies/hw2297.html#hw2304
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