Breaking News
February 23, 2019 - Hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis, prognosis and treatment may improve by identifying a protein
February 23, 2019 - The American Heart Association issues new reference toolkit for healthcare providers
February 23, 2019 - Studies explore physiological dangers that climate change will have on animal life
February 23, 2019 - Penn study reveals increase in health-related internet searches before ER visits
February 23, 2019 - Intensive therapy during early stages of MS leads to better long-term outcomes
February 23, 2019 - Prenatal Fluconazole Exposure Increases Neonatal Risks
February 23, 2019 - Mental Health Screening: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information
February 23, 2019 - Study suggests birth mechanics are part of the process that leads to autism
February 23, 2019 - Unhealthy diet linked to poor mental health
February 23, 2019 - Study gives a snapshot of crocodile evolution
February 23, 2019 - Research finds steep rise in self-poisonings among young people
February 23, 2019 - American Gastroenterological Association announces “AGA Future Leaders Program”
February 23, 2019 - Scientists uncover new mechanisms regulating neural stem cells
February 23, 2019 - Combinations of certain insecticides turn out to be lethal for honeybees
February 23, 2019 - AHA News: Why Are Black Women at Higher Risk of Dying From Pregnancy Complications?
February 23, 2019 - NIMH » Anxiety Disorders
February 23, 2019 - Autistic people urgently need access to tailored mental health support
February 23, 2019 - Newly designed molecule could benefit people with Friedrich’s Ataxia
February 23, 2019 - Chinese CRISPR twins may have better cognition and memory
February 23, 2019 - Study finds new genetic clues associated with asthma in African ancestry populations
February 23, 2019 - Fetal signaling pathways may offer future opportunities to treat lung damage
February 23, 2019 - Early-stage osteoarthritis drug wins prestigious innovation award
February 23, 2019 - Researchers report positive findings with dasotraline for ADHD in children ages 6-12
February 23, 2019 - News study reanalyzes the effects of noncaloric sweeteners on gut microbiota
February 23, 2019 - New device allows scientists to reproduce blow effects on the heart in lab
February 23, 2019 - Holy herb identified as a potential treatment for Alzheimer’s disease
February 23, 2019 - New technology platform digitally counts growth factors in single cells
February 23, 2019 - Surgery and other treatments offer viable options for adult scoliosis
February 23, 2019 - Reduced antibody adaptability may make the elderly more vulnerable to influenza
February 23, 2019 - Researchers find increased rates of CRC screening in Kentucky after Medicaid expansion
February 23, 2019 - Neighborhood income, education associated with risk of disability progression in MS patients
February 23, 2019 - Endocrine Society opposes new rule that restricts access to Title X Family Planning Program
February 23, 2019 - 2019 guidelines for management of patients with atrial fibrillation
February 23, 2019 - Surprise rheumatoid arthritis discovery points to new treatment for joint inflammation
February 23, 2019 - A just-right fix for a tiny heart
February 23, 2019 - UMass Amherst scientist explores role of citrus peel in decreasing gut inflammation
February 23, 2019 - Owlstone Medical and Shanghai Renji Hospital collaborate to initiate breath biopsy lung cancer trial
February 23, 2019 - AMSBIO’s comprehensive portfolio of knock-out cell lines and lysates
February 23, 2019 - New app reliably determines physicians’ skills in forming accurate, efficient diagnoses
February 23, 2019 - Peripheral nerve injury can trigger the onset and spread of ALS, shows study
February 23, 2019 - Researchers uncover mechanisms that prevent tooth replacement in mice
February 23, 2019 - Once-a-day capsule offers new way to reduce symptoms of chronic breathlessness
February 23, 2019 - FDA Adds Boxed Warning for Increased Risk of Death with Gout Medicine Uloric (febuxostat)
February 23, 2019 - Phone-based intervention aids rheumatoid arthritis care
February 23, 2019 - Opioid epidemic makes eastern inroads and targets African-Americans
February 23, 2019 - New identified biomarker predicts patients who might benefit from HER2-targeted agents
February 23, 2019 - Study offers new insights into mechanisms of changes in erythrocytes under stress
February 23, 2019 - Antipsychotic polypharmacy may be beneficial for schizophrenia patients
February 23, 2019 - Researchers investigate how marijuana and tobacco co-use affects quit attempts by smokers
February 23, 2019 - Patients with diabetes mellitus have high risk of stable ischemic heart disease
February 23, 2019 - Transparency on healthcare prices played key role in Arizona health system’s turnaround
February 23, 2019 - A comprehensive, multinational review of peppers around the world
February 23, 2019 - Study finds modest decrease in burnout among physicians
February 23, 2019 - A simple change can drastically reduce unnecessary tests for urinary tract infections
February 23, 2019 - Deep Learning-Enhanced Device Detects Diabetic Retinopathy
February 23, 2019 - Researchers discover new binding partner for amyloid precursor protein
February 23, 2019 - Modest decrease seen in burnout among physicians, researchers say | News Center
February 23, 2019 - Transplanting bone marrow of young mice into old mice prevents cognitive decline
February 23, 2019 - Mogrify to accelerate novel IP and cell therapies using $3.7m USD funding
February 23, 2019 - Johns Hopkins study describes cells that may help speed bone repair
February 23, 2019 - Scientists demonstrate influence of food odors on proteostasis
February 23, 2019 - Researchers unlock the secret behind reproduction of fish called ‘Mary’
February 23, 2019 - Acupuncture Could Help Ease Menopausal Symptoms
February 23, 2019 - Researchers use AI to detect early signs of Alzheimer’s
February 23, 2019 - On recovery, vulnerability and ritual: An exhibit in white | News Center
February 23, 2019 - Memory Stored in Unexpected Region of the Brain
February 23, 2019 - Several health experts worldwide gather at EUDONORGAN event
February 23, 2019 - Discovery of potent compound in native California shrub may lead to treatment for Alzheimer’s
February 22, 2019 - Researchers create new map of the brain’s own immune system
February 22, 2019 - ICHE’s reviews on surgical infections, unnecessary urine tests, and nurses’ role in antibiotic stewardship
February 22, 2019 - UK Research and Innovation invests £200 million to create new generation of AI leaders
February 22, 2019 - Takeda collaboration to boost fight against Alzheimer’s and other neurodegenerative diseases
February 22, 2019 - Heavy drinking may change DNA, leading to increased craving for alcohol
February 22, 2019 - U.S. opioid deaths jump fourfold in 20 years; epidemic shifts to Eastern states | News Center
February 22, 2019 - 5 Questions with William Turner on Diversity in Medicine
February 22, 2019 - HHS Finalizes Rule Seeking To Expel Planned Parenthood From Family Planning Program
February 22, 2019 - Researchers uncover biochemical pathway that may help identify drugs to treat Alzheimer’s
February 22, 2019 - Biologist uses new grant to find ways to eliminate schistosomiasis
February 22, 2019 - Bag-mask ventilation to help patients breathe during intubation prevents complications
February 22, 2019 - AbbVie Announces New Drug Application Accepted for Priority Review by FDA for Upadacitinib for Treatment of Moderate to Severe Rheumatoid Arthritis
Researchers develop new approach to study how tuberculosis infects people

Researchers develop new approach to study how tuberculosis infects people

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

Tuberculosis is one of the top 10 causes of death worldwide. Nearly 2 million people die every year from this infectious disease, and an estimated 2 billion people are chronically infected. The only vaccine, developed almost 100 years ago, offers limited protection and patients are becoming increasingly resistant to available drugs.

Despite this significant impact on humankind, very little is known about how tuberculosis develops and spreads in the body.

A group of researchers from the Gladstone Institutes, UC San Francisco (UCSF), and UC Berkeley used a systematic approach to get an entirely new look at the way tuberculosis infects people. Their study, published in the scientific journal Molecular Cell, uncovered interactions between tuberculosis and human proteins that could provide new approaches to combat infection.

“With a better understanding of the mechanisms used by tuberculosis to disrupt our immune response, we could eventually optimize vaccine strategies, as well as explore therapies to supplement antibiotics,” said Nevan J. Krogan, PhD, senior investigator at the Gladstone Institutes and director of the Quantitative Biosciences Institute at UCSF.

A New Way to Fight Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis is a complex disease, given that it’s caused by bacteria made up of 4,000 genes, as compared to viruses that generally have 10 or 15 genes. During infection, these genes produce approximately 100 proteins inside human cells. But until now, scientists knew virtually nothing about what these proteins do in the body.

Krogan, along with his colleague Jeffery S. Cox, PhD, from UC Berkeley, employed a mass spectrometry-based approach to identify interactions between tuberculosis proteins and human proteins.

“It’s the first time this approach has been applied to tuberculosis,” explained Cox, professor in molecular and cell biology and director of the Center for Emerging and Neglected Diseases at UC Berkeley. “Essentially, this technology works by placing a hook on the tuberculosis proteins. When we fish them out of the human cells, the human proteins to which they’re attached come with them, so we can see what they interact with.”

Using this method, the team of scientists targeted 34 tuberculosis proteins, very few of which had been studied before.

“We found 187 interactions between these tuberculosis proteins and human proteins,” said Krogan, who is also a professor of cellular and molecular pharmacology at UCSF. “Each one of those connections could ultimately represent a drug target–a new way to fight tuberculosis.”

One Connection Responds to Both Bacterial and Viral Infections

After their initial discovery, Krogan and Cox focused their attention on one specific connection. They studied the physical interaction between the human protein CBL and a tuberculosis protein called LpqN.

They showed that when they remove the LpqN protein, tuberculosis can’t infect human cells as well. However, when the CBL protein is also deleted, the tuberculosis infection can resume its regular growth. This suggests that CBL is involved in limiting bacterial infections.

“Interestingly, we discovered that when CBL is removed, cells also become more resistant to infections by viruses, such as herpes,” said Cox. “We believe that CBL acts as a switch to toggle between anti-bacterial and anti-viral responses in the cell. That’s why it’s important to study the interactions between proteins in an unbiased way; you never know what you’ll find!”

A Holistic View of Complex Problems

By studying how proteins interact and work together, scientists can begin to map proteins onto pathways and find unexpected connections. They can then compare the protein interactions across many pathogens and identify similarities.

To this end, Krogan and Cox recently founded the Host Pathogen Mapping Initiative with investigators from Gladstone, UCSF, UC Berkeley, and UC San Diego. Through this initiative, they will comprehensively map the gene and protein networks underlying infectious disease and develop technologies to lead to novel and targeted therapies.

The two scientists also helped launch the BioFulcrum Viral and Infectious Disease Research Program at Gladstone in 2017. The goal of this program is to develop host-directed therapies.

“Most therapies to fight infection currently target the virus or bacteria,” said Krogan. “But viruses and bacteria mutate quickly and develop resistance to existing treatments. Instead, we want to target human host proteins involved in common pathways. This could allow us to develop therapies that use a single drug to treat multiple pathogens.”

The scientists have already identified commonly hijacked pathways in human cells. The human genes hijacked by tuberculosis, for instance, are the same genes mutated in many other disease states, including cancer and autism.

Krogan added, “It’s about finding the cell’s Achilles’ heel, and targeting it to fight many diseases at once.”

Source:

https://gladstone.org/about-us/press-releases/new-approach-fight-tuberculosis-leading-cause-death-worldwide

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles