Breaking News
January 22, 2019 - Blood test may detect early signs of lung-transplant rejection
January 22, 2019 - Blood marker could aid in early prediction of Alzheimer’s progression
January 22, 2019 - Orthodontic treatment does not guarantee future dental health
January 22, 2019 - Rutgers researchers discover cause of bone loss in people with joint replacements
January 22, 2019 - Diversity among rural Africans extends to their gut microbiomes
January 22, 2019 - Newly developed biological system lets cells to create self-curving cornea
January 22, 2019 - VTv Therapeutics Announces Publication of Comprehensive Data in Science Translational Medicine Detailing the Discovery and Clinical Development of TTP399, including Results of Phase 2 AGATA Study
January 22, 2019 - about one in three adults with prediabetes has arthritis
January 22, 2019 - A look at how data is democratizing health care
January 22, 2019 - Alcohol-Linked Disease Overtakes Hep C As Top Reason For Liver Transplant
January 22, 2019 - Researchers identify new genes linked with age-related macular degeneration
January 22, 2019 - MPFI researchers identify synaptic logic for connections between two brain hemispheres
January 22, 2019 - New study extends our knowledge of the link between miRNAs and cancer
January 22, 2019 - Genetic changes may predict likelihood of relapse in breast cancer patients
January 22, 2019 - Antiepileptic drug use by people with Alzheimer’s disease linked to accumulation of hospital days
January 22, 2019 - IUPUI researcher receives $2.85 million grant to find ways to improve bone strength
January 22, 2019 - Precision medicine can help keep astronauts healthy during deep space missions
January 22, 2019 - Detecting signs of neurodegeneration earlier and more accurately
January 22, 2019 - Mouse studies challenge ‘inhibition’ theory of autism
January 22, 2019 - SSB launches BIOSTAT RM TX single-use bioreactor for producing consistent quality cellular products
January 22, 2019 - Experimental drug can positively modify key characteristic behavior in FXS patients
January 22, 2019 - Low-Income Women Lack Menstrual Hygiene Supplies
January 22, 2019 - Better mouse model built to enable precision-medicine research for Alzheimer’s
January 22, 2019 - Molecular profiling of precancerous lung lesions could lead to early detection and new treatments
January 22, 2019 - Genetic factors influence where fat is stored in our bodies
January 22, 2019 - The Psychology Behind Sticking to Your New Year’s Resolutions
January 22, 2019 - Scientists aim to find genetic causes of developmental abnormalities in the vagina and uterus
January 22, 2019 - New survey reveals scale of preventative healthcare challenge in the UK
January 22, 2019 - Looming Global Crisis Means People’s Diets Must Change: Experts
January 22, 2019 - Excessive social media use is comparable to drug addiction
January 22, 2019 - Researchers show how mechanical stress affects bone development
January 22, 2019 - Study takes a step closer to understanding the body’s response to opioid painkillers
January 22, 2019 - Unexpected connection found between feeding and memory centers of the brain
January 22, 2019 - A revolutionary approach transforms bone trauma treatment
January 22, 2019 - Early studies and recent clinical trials on nerve growth factor
January 22, 2019 - Dry Mouth and Older Adults: Information for Caregivers
January 22, 2019 - Are your grandparents getting tipsy at the holiday party?
January 22, 2019 - New machine learning algorithms identify early symptoms of urinary tract infections
January 22, 2019 - Young women skipping the Pap smear test due to embarrassment
January 22, 2019 - A global influenza pandemic high on the WHO’s agenda
January 22, 2019 - Amgen Makes All Repatha (evolocumab) Device Options Available In The US At A 60 Percent Reduced List Price
January 22, 2019 - Elastronics—hydrogel-based microelectronics for localized low-voltage neuromodulation
January 22, 2019 - Branched-chain amino acids in tumors can be targeted to prevent and treat cancer
January 22, 2019 - Fueling macrophages with energy to attack and eat cancer cells
January 22, 2019 - Amgen And UCB Receive Positive Vote From FDA Advisory Committee In Favor Of Approval For Evenity (romosozumab)
January 22, 2019 - Does being bilingual make children more focused? Study says no
January 22, 2019 - Study reveals new genes and biological pathways linked to osteoarthritis
January 22, 2019 - FSU study provides better understanding of spinal cord injuries
January 22, 2019 - Delaying bath for newborn babies increases breastfeeding rates, finds study
January 21, 2019 - WHO identifies non-communicable diseases as major threat to human health
January 21, 2019 - Many parents still try non-evidence-based cold prevention methods for children
January 21, 2019 - High Levels of Activity, Motor Ability Linked to Better Cognition
January 21, 2019 - Killer blows? Knockout study of pair of mouse MicroRNA provides cancer insight
January 21, 2019 - Buffalo researchers receive grant to quicken development of generic equivalents of contraceptives
January 21, 2019 - One-third of pregnant women do not believe cannabis is harmful to their fetus
January 21, 2019 - Fiderstat could be used as chemopreventative drug for intestinal cancers caused by APC gene mutations
January 21, 2019 - Modifying healthcare delivery practices may improve discussions between youth and healthcare providers
January 21, 2019 - UNIST researcher named as recipient of Merck’s 2018 Life Science Awards
January 21, 2019 - How Getting a Flu Shot Could Save Your Life
January 21, 2019 - Surgical adhesions can be treated, prevented in mice
January 21, 2019 - Increased physician-targeted marketing associated with higher opioid overdose deaths
January 21, 2019 - Researchers uncover specific microbial signatures of intestinal disease
January 21, 2019 - Researchers discover new blood vessel system in bones
January 21, 2019 - Simple blood test reliably detects signs of Alzheimer’s damage before symptoms
January 21, 2019 - Study to investigate new targeted oral treatments for severe asthma
January 21, 2019 - Plan Your Plate | NIH News in Health
January 21, 2019 - Fecal occult blood test may improve CRC outcomes in some
January 21, 2019 - Blood test detects Alzheimer’s disease years before symptoms develop
January 21, 2019 - Mount Sinai joins with Paradigm and ReqMed to repurpose drug for treatment of MPS
January 21, 2019 - FDA Advisory Committee Votes on Zynquista (sotagliflozin) as Treatment for Adults with Type 1 Diabetes
January 21, 2019 - The causes and complications of snoring
January 21, 2019 - Placenta adapts and compensates when pregnant mothers have poor diets or low oxygen
January 21, 2019 - New implant could restore the transmission of electrical signals in injured central nervous system
January 21, 2019 - Rapid-acting fentanyl test strips found to be effective at reducing overdose risk
January 21, 2019 - Coronary Artery Calcium May Help Predict CVD in South Asians
January 21, 2019 - The mystery of the super-ager
January 21, 2019 - Scientists develop smart microrobots that can change shape depending on their surroundings
January 21, 2019 - Keep Moving to Keep Brain Sharp in Old Age
January 21, 2019 - Despite progress, gay fathers and their children still structurally stigmatized
January 21, 2019 - New drug for treating liver parasites in vivax malaria
Researchers examining Parkinson’s resilience

Researchers examining Parkinson’s resilience

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print
C. elegans, seen here as hundreds living on a plate viewed through the lens of a microscope, share roughly half their genes with humans. Credit: University of Alabama in Tuscaloosa

Diseases have a spectrum of risk, even those partially embedded in genes such as Parkinson’s disease.

Less than 10 percent of those with Parkinson’s can pinpoint their genes as the only culprit, while scores of others with some genetic markers are diagnosed with the disease. Still others have markers to develop Parkinson’s, but do not.

Why? Research underway at The University of Alabama, supported by the National Institutes of Health, hopes to identify factors and methods through which individuals are either resilient or susceptible to the neurodegeneration in the brain as part of the disease.

“If we can pinpoint some of the factors that cause this distinction in resilience, then we can use them as a new therapeutic angle,” said Dr. Guy Caldwell, University Distinguished Research Professor in biological sciences.

Caldwell, along with doctoral student Brucker Nourse, a native of Nashville, Tennessee, will work with tiny roundworms known as C. elegans, which share roughly half their genes with humans. Its basic features allow inexpensive and rapid testing for a range of neurological diseases, and UA researchers can induce Parkinson’s-like effects in the worm for testing.

Even though the worms are essentially clones of each other from hermaphroditic reproduction, some animals develop Parkinson’s-related effects while others do not, Caldwell said.

“We can learn from both the healthy and non-healthy,” he said. “We hope we find genes that would potentially be part of a protective program.”

Parkinson’s disease, a neurodegenerative disorder, is estimated to afflict between 7 and 10 million people worldwide with approximately 60,000 Americans diagnosed each year. Current therapies include treating the symptoms of the disease such as tremor and involuntary shakes, but there is no cure or treatment to halt the disease’s progression.

Hallmarks of Parkinson’s disease are the loss of cells, or neurons, that send information to other parts of the brain, specifically neurons that produce a type of chemical known as dopamine, along with the accumulation, or clumping, of proteins in the neurons.

To work, proteins must fold properly within cells. When extra copies or mutations of the protein alpha-synuclein are present in dopamine-producing neurons, a series of misfoldings can occur, leading to aggregation of proteins. Such protein aggregation within the brain’s dopamine-producing neurons can lead to their malfunction or cell death, triggering the symptoms of Parkinson’s.

When a Parkinson’s patient begins to exhibit symptoms of the disease, they have likely lost up to 80 percent of the dopamine neurons in their bodies, Caldwell said.

Since the worms all have an identical genetic code, Caldwell and Nourse are investigating how the genes of the worm are modified, or expressed. The turning off and on of genes from outside forces is known as epigenetics, and how external factors influence genetic performance is a big part of disease research, Caldwell said.

The research does not attempt to identify the external influences – after all, a worm has different stresses than a human – rather Caldwell hopes to determine which of the worm’s genes, among those shared with humans, are associated with resilience to dopamine neuron loss.

“We’re looking to bring together the unknown environmental causes and the known genetic causes in ways to potentially identify previously unknown protective factors and a previously unknown protective mechanism,” Caldwell said.

Previous research published in the journal Science that Caldwell participated in uncovered a protein that regulated dopamine neuron survival. In fact, the research led to the discovery of a small molecule that protected neurons from dying. The molecule worked in several animal models and in human cells in the lab, but was later found not to cross what’s known as the blood-brain barrier in humans, a sort of filter protecting the brain from unneeded materials.

In this newly funded research, Caldwell explores an exciting relationship he discovered whereby the same protective protein known to regulate dopamine function might also influence gene expression.

“That combination of regulating epigenetics and regulating dopamine levels and functions is the big mystery of Parkinson’s. We really think this is a nexus of what might happen,” Caldwell said. “There’s promise there that if you can find a molecule to modulate that mechanism, and it crosses the blood-brain barrier, it might work at halting progression of the disease.”


Explore further:
Researchers find new path to promising Parkinson’s treatment

Journal reference:
Science

Provided by:
University of Alabama in Tuscaloosa

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles