Breaking News
December 13, 2018 - International investigators fight against the negative campaign on benzodiazepines
December 13, 2018 - Targeting biochemical pathway may lead to new therapies for alleviating symptoms of anxiety disorders
December 13, 2018 - FDA Approves Tolsura (SUBA®-itraconazole capsules) for the Treatment of Certain Fungal Infections
December 13, 2018 - Are scientists studying the wrong kind of mice?
December 13, 2018 - Computer memory: A scientific team builds a virtual model of a key brain region
December 13, 2018 - Visual inspection alone is insufficient to diagnose skin cancer
December 13, 2018 - Paternal grandfather’s access to food associated with grandson’s mortality risk
December 13, 2018 - Our brain senses angry voices in a flash, study shows
December 13, 2018 - PM2.5 Exposure Linked to Asthma Rescue Medication Use
December 13, 2018 - Can’t exercise? A hot bath may help improve inflammation, metabolism, study suggests
December 13, 2018 - Can artificial intelligence help doctors with the human side of medicine?
December 13, 2018 - Virginia Tech and UC San Diego researchers team up to develop nonopioid drug for chronic pain
December 13, 2018 - NIH offers support for HIV care and prevention research in the southern United States
December 12, 2018 - Activating brain region could revive the urge to socialize among opioid addicts
December 12, 2018 - Relationship impairment appears to interfere with seeking mental health treatment in men
December 12, 2018 - Sleep, Don’t Cram, Before Finals for Better Grades
December 12, 2018 - Effective treatments for urticarial vasculitis
December 12, 2018 - Gun violence is a public health issue: One physician’s story
December 12, 2018 - The Science of Healthy Aging
December 12, 2018 - Yes to yoghurt and cheese: New improved Mediterranean diet
December 12, 2018 - Researchers uncover a number of previously unknown insecticide resistance mechanisms
December 12, 2018 - Regulating the immune system’s ‘regulator’
December 12, 2018 - In breaking bad news, the comfort of silence
December 12, 2018 - Study finds upward link between alcohol consumption and physical activity in college students
December 12, 2018 - FDA issues warning letter to Zhejiang Huahai Pharmaceutical involved in valsartan recall
December 12, 2018 - Weight history at ages 20 and 40 could help predict patients’ future risk of heart failure
December 12, 2018 - Presence of antiphospholipid antibodies tied to first-time MI
December 12, 2018 - DNA analysis finds that stethoscopes are teaming with bacteria
December 12, 2018 - New study could help inform research on preventing falls
December 12, 2018 - Women and men with heart attack symptoms receive different care from EMS
December 12, 2018 - Disrupted biological clock can contribute to onset of diseases, USC study shows
December 12, 2018 - New publications generate controversy over the value of reducing salt consumption in populations
December 12, 2018 - New data from TAILORx trial confirms lack of chemo benefit regardless of race or ethnicity
December 12, 2018 - Specific class of biomarkers can accurately indicate the severity of cancer
December 12, 2018 - Meds Taken Do Not Vary With ADL Impairment in Heart Failure
December 12, 2018 - Long-term study shows that HIV-2 is deadlier than previously thought
December 12, 2018 - People living near oil and gas wells show early signs of cardiovascular disease
December 12, 2018 - IONTAS founder and pioneer in phage display technology attends Nobel Prize Award Ceremony
December 12, 2018 - People who eat red meat have high levels of chemical associated with heart disease, study finds
December 12, 2018 - New method uses water molecules to unlock neurons’ secrets
December 12, 2018 - Genetics study offers hope for new acne treatment
December 12, 2018 - New computer model predicts prostate cancer progression
December 12, 2018 - Nobel Laureates lecture about immune checkpoint therapy for cancer treatment
December 12, 2018 - More Illnesses From Tainted Romaine Lettuce Reported
December 12, 2018 - Aspirin could reduce HIV infections in women
December 12, 2018 - The EORTC Brain Tumor Group and Protagen AG collaborate to study immuno-competence of long-term glioblastoma survivors
December 12, 2018 - Insights into magnetotactic bacteria could guide development of biological nanorobots
December 12, 2018 - Sacrificial immune cells alert body to infection
December 12, 2018 - Low-salt diet may be more beneficial for females than males
December 12, 2018 - Major soil organic matter compound battles chronic wasting disease
December 12, 2018 - Findings may open up new ways to treat dwarfism and other ER-stress-related conditions
December 12, 2018 - New computational model provides clearer picture of shape-changing cells’ structure and mechanics
December 12, 2018 - 10 Facts on Patient Safety
December 12, 2018 - Poorest dying nearly 10 years younger than the rich in ‘deeply worrying’ trend for UK
December 12, 2018 - Innovative care model for children with ASD reduces use of behavioral drugs in ED
December 12, 2018 - Spending time in and around Hong Kong’s waters linked to better health and wellbeing
December 12, 2018 - Simple measures to prevent weight gain over Christmas
December 12, 2018 - Research advances offer hope for patient-tailored AML treatment
December 12, 2018 - Researchers discover a ‘blind spot’ in atomic force microscopy
December 12, 2018 - Sprayable gel could help prevent recurrences of cancer after surgery
December 12, 2018 - SLU researchers explore how fetal exposure to inflammation can alter immunity in newborns
December 12, 2018 - How do patients want to discuss symptoms with clinicians?
December 12, 2018 - Zinc chelation may be able to deliver drug to insulin-producing cells
December 12, 2018 - Brigham researchers develop automated, low-cost tool to predict a woman’s ovulation
December 12, 2018 - Some people with Type 2 diabetes may be testing their blood sugar more often than needed
December 12, 2018 - Slow-growing type of glioma may be vulnerable to immunotherapy, suggests study
December 12, 2018 - Study provides new information regarding microRNA function in cellular homeostasis of zebrafish
December 12, 2018 - Study provides new understanding of mysterious ‘hereditary swelling’
December 12, 2018 - Researchers shed new light on how to combat Shiga and ricin toxins
December 12, 2018 - Pregnant Women Commonly Refuse Vaccines
December 12, 2018 - Drug treatment could offer new hope for some patients with brain bleeding
December 12, 2018 - Health care financial burden of animal-related injuries is growing, study says
December 12, 2018 - Macrophage cells could help repair the heart following a heart attack, study finds
December 12, 2018 - Researchers develop new system for efficiently producing human norovirus
December 12, 2018 - New artificial intelligence-based system to differentiate between different types of cancer cells
December 11, 2018 - Brazilian professors propose guidelines for therapeutic use of melatonin
December 11, 2018 - Healthy Lifestyle Lowers Odds of Breast Cancer’s Return
December 11, 2018 - New research identifies two genes linked to serious congenital heart condition
December 11, 2018 - NIH Director talks science, STEM careers with preteens
December 11, 2018 - Disabling a Cellular Antivirus System Could Improve Gene Therapy
The skeletal muscle inflammation enigma

The skeletal muscle inflammation enigma

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print
The skeletal muscle inflammation enigma
Credit: polymanu, Shutterstock

Exercise is associated with skeletal muscle inflammation, yet physical activity has beneficial effects on type 2 diabetes (T2D). Recent EU research has looked at the molecules that result in this contradiction.

Skeletal muscle inflammation is emerging as a potential contributor to T2D. Inflammation occurs during exercise and repair and it is also a hallmark of myopathies, a number of conditions that cause muscle weakness. This suggests that exercise has a crucial role in keeping the glucose levels balanced in skeletal muscle.

Patients with T2D have elevated blood glucose levels due to insulin resistance. Despite the fact that exercise is associated with inflammation, physical activity has beneficial effects on T2D, which highlights the ambivalent role of muscle inflammation in controlling glucose levels.

To unravel the processes at work, the SMILED project has characterised the inflammatory responses in skeletal muscle to exercise and metabolic diseases. “Because inflammatory responses can significantly differ between rodents and humans, we proposed to work only on human material,” explained project coordinator, Prof. Juleen Zierath.

Two distinct processes in immune activation

Activation of the immune system during exercise is beneficial and necessary for adaptation to exercise, whereas uncontrolled inflammation during obesity and T2D is deleterious. As such, this damaging inflammation contributes to the development of complications like cardiovascular diseases.

Whether there is a link between local inflammation of muscle and T2D is still unknown and no therapeutic strategies target skeletal muscle for T2D treatment. “We believe that understanding these fundamental differences in immune activation can open new perspectives targeting skeletal muscle to prevent or treat metabolic diseases,” stresses fellow Dr. Nicolas Pillon, lead researcher with the project.

The genetics of insulin sensitivity

SMILED researchers characterised and compared muscle inflammation in humans during exercise and T2D. Both situations have their own chemical pathways and the scientists wanted to target molecular cascades that could improve insulin sensitivity. To achieve this, they developed strategies to emulate diabetes and exercise in vitro. Inflammatory responses were then modulated to improve insulin sensitivity or alleviate insulin resistance.

Exercise, like any environmental change, has a lasting effect on muscle and this is reflected in epigenetic changes. The team compared and recorded modifications to the epigenetic exercise memory with that of diabetes to determine the effects on inflammation and resistance.

Massive skeletal muscle database

All the data generated and collected by the SMILED researchers, as well as by other investigators from their published studies, has been compiled into the most complete database yet. This “meta-analysis” of all exercise studies, MetaMEx has enabled a powerful analysis of the adaptive response of muscle in different populations.

The young/elderly and male/female are categorised into different health status such as T2D and chronic kidney disease. The user-friendly interface provides the possibility of searching for a single gene to get a complete overview of its behaviour across all exercise studies. Regimes include acute aerobic exercise, training resistance exercise down to physical inactivity.

“Using MetaMEx and data from our own clinical studies, we have identified a different response to exercise in metabolically impaired individuals (obese/type 2 diabetic) compared to healthy volunteers,” stresses Dr. Pillon. This is of particular importance to understand how to potentiate the metabolic benefits of exercise and opens exciting new avenues of research.

Building on SMILED data

SMILED has built a substantial knowledge platform for future studies on the impact of different exercise regimes on muscle metabolism and on T2D. “We have identified several genes that are selectively deregulated in skeletal muscle of obese or type 2 diabetic individuals and we are in the process of characterising their metabolic effects and therapeutic potential,” states Dr. Pillon.

As a start, SMILED research results are under review in a paper ‘Transcriptomic Meta-Analysis of Skeletal Muscle Responses to Physical Inactivity and Exercise’. In the long run, Prof. Zierath predicts that “links between exercise and inflammation can be translated into anti-inflammatory intervention strategies to improve insulin sensitivity and treatment of metabolic diseases in the personalised medicine arena.”


Explore further:
Resistance exercise improves insulin resistance, glucose levels

About author

Related Articles