Breaking News
November 18, 2018 - Scientists succeed in increasing stability, biocompatibility of light-transducing nanoparticles
November 18, 2018 - Sugar, a ‘sweet’ tool to understand brain injuries
November 18, 2018 - Pharmacist-Led Effort Cuts Inappropriate Rx in Older Adults
November 18, 2018 - Novel discovery could lead to new cancer, autoimmune disease therapy
November 18, 2018 - AHA and ADA launch new initiative to help people with type 2 diabetes reduce heart disease risk
November 18, 2018 - Balanced production of pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines at two years of age protects against malaria
November 18, 2018 - New pharmacological agent shows promise for prevention of heart rhythm disorders
November 18, 2018 - All That Social Media May Boost Loneliness, Not Banish It
November 18, 2018 - Scientists shine new light on link between obesity and cancer
November 18, 2018 - Risk factors for cardiovascular disease closely track with changes in diet patterns
November 18, 2018 - Biogen Scoops Sixth Prix Galien Award with UK Win for Life-Changing Rare Disease Medicine
November 18, 2018 - Detectable HIV-1 in treated human liver cells found to be inert
November 18, 2018 - Using light to control crucial step in embryonic development
November 18, 2018 - Unusual case of father-to-son HIV transmission reported
November 18, 2018 - FDA Approves Aemcolo (rifamycin) to Treat Travelers’ Diarrhea
November 18, 2018 - Poverty blamed on widening north-south gap in young adult deaths in England
November 18, 2018 - Progress in meningitis lags far behind other vaccine-preventable diseases, analysis shows
November 18, 2018 - Consensus Statement Issued on Management of Foot, Ankle Gout
November 18, 2018 - Fine particle air pollution is a public health emergency hiding in plain sight
November 18, 2018 - In-hospital mortality higher among patients with drug-resistant infections
November 17, 2018 - Research shines new, explanatory light on link between obesity and cancer
November 17, 2018 - FIND explores new diagnostic assays for confirmatory HCV diagnosis in community settings
November 17, 2018 - Tracking Preemies’ Head Size May Yield IQ Clues
November 17, 2018 - Scientists call for unified standards in 3-D genome and epigenetic data
November 17, 2018 - Lab Innovations 2018 has beaten all records by attracting 3,113 attendees
November 17, 2018 - New strategy to hinder emergence of antimicrobial-resistant pathogens
November 17, 2018 - Sexuality education before age 18 may reduce risk of sexual assault in college
November 17, 2018 - Reducing cellular proliferation could help deplete HIV reservoir and lead to a functional cure
November 17, 2018 - New model of FSHD could be useful to study effectiveness of experimental therapeutics
November 17, 2018 - FDA approves antibacterial drug to treat travelers’ diarrhea
November 17, 2018 - Lab Innovations 2018 confirmed as a major hit with visitors, exhibitors and speakers
November 17, 2018 - Largest parasitic worm genetic study hatches novel treatment possibilities
November 17, 2018 - UCLA biologists uncover how head injuries can lead to serious brain disorders
November 17, 2018 - Static and dynamic physical activities offer varying protection against heart disease
November 17, 2018 - Obesity significantly increases risk of Type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease
November 17, 2018 - Researchers show how proteins interact in hypoxic conditions to facilitate mitochondrial fission
November 17, 2018 - People with rare cancers can benefit from genomic profiling, shows research
November 17, 2018 - NIH awards over $1.8 million to husband-and-wife doctors to test new breast cancer approach
November 17, 2018 - Four-in-one antibody used to fight flu shows promise in mice
November 17, 2018 - New approach allows pathogens to be starved by blocking important enzymes
November 17, 2018 - Higher body mass index could cause depression even without health problems
November 17, 2018 - Protein which plays role in sensing cell damage serves as new target to treat pulmonary hypertension
November 17, 2018 - FDA Approves Adcetris (brentuximab vedotin) in Combination with Chemotherapy for Adults with Previously Untreated Systemic Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma or Other CD30-Expressing Peripheral T-Cell Lymphomas
November 17, 2018 - ID specialist input improves outcomes for outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy
November 17, 2018 - UT Southwestern scientists selected to receive 2019 Edith and Peter O’Donnell Awards
November 17, 2018 - New clinical algorithm to help individuals manage type 2 diabetes when fasting during Ramadan
November 17, 2018 - Researchers identify LZTR1 as evolutionarily conserved component of RAS pathway
November 17, 2018 - Heart Disease Leading Cause of Death in Low-Income Counties
November 17, 2018 - Estrogen Levels Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information
November 17, 2018 - Research reveals link between immunity, diabetes
November 17, 2018 - Research shows how to achieve improved smoking cessation outcomes within California’s Medicaid population
November 17, 2018 - New study finds less understanding and implementation of patient engagement
November 17, 2018 - New shoe insole technology could help diabetic ulcers heal better while walking
November 17, 2018 - New method to extend cell division and immortalization of avian-derived cells
November 17, 2018 - Australian Academy of Science urges parents to vaccinate children against meningococcal disease
November 17, 2018 - Hot water treatment may help improve inflammation and metabolism in sedentary people
November 17, 2018 - Researchers produce 3D chemical maps of small biological samples
November 17, 2018 - Must Blood Pressure Rise Wth Age? Remote Tribes Hold Clues
November 17, 2018 - Noonan Syndrome
November 17, 2018 - Interventions to delay and prevent type 2 diabetes are underused, researchers say
November 17, 2018 - Hackathon prize winner seeks to remotely monitor patient skin conditions
November 17, 2018 - Research team identifies Ashkenazi Jewish founder mutation for Leigh syndrome
November 17, 2018 - Gene editing could be used to halt kidney disease in patients with Joubert syndrome
November 17, 2018 - Study uncovers link between gut disruption and aging
November 17, 2018 - Teens more likely to pick up smoking after exposure from friends and family
November 17, 2018 - Nicoya designate the Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine as the OpenSPR Centre of Excellence
November 17, 2018 - new horizon in dental, oral and craniofacial research
November 17, 2018 - How does poor air quality affect your health?
November 17, 2018 - New device can regulate children’s blood glucose more like natural pancreas
November 17, 2018 - Game-Changers in Western Blotting and Protein Analysis
November 17, 2018 - FDA announces new actions to limit sale of e-cigarettes to youth
November 17, 2018 - Warmer winter temperatures related to higher crime rates
November 17, 2018 - MCO places increasing emphasis on helping people find and access healthy food
November 17, 2018 - Group of students aim to improve malaria diagnosis using old smartphones
November 17, 2018 - Transplantation of feces may protect preterm children from deadly bowel disease
November 17, 2018 - Researchers explore whether low-gluten diets can be recommended for people without allergies
November 17, 2018 - New and better marker for assessing patients after cardiac arrest
November 17, 2018 - For 7-year-old with failing bone marrow, a life-saving transplant | News Center
November 17, 2018 - New first-line treatment for peripheral T-cell lymphoma approved by FDA
November 17, 2018 - Artificial intelligence could be valuable tool to help young victims disclose traumatic testimony
Researchers identify a new cause of chronic stress in the brain

Researchers identify a new cause of chronic stress in the brain

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

In an international collaboration between MedUni Vienna, Semmelweis University in Budapest, the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm and Yale University in the USA, researchers have identified a new process in the brain that is responsible for the delayed stress response and the long-term effects of stress: with a delay of 10 minutes after the “danger”, the area of the brain that reacts to stress and responsible for further action is activated via the cerebral fluid. The findings could open up new perspectives for understanding the neuronal processes at play in post-traumatic stress disorder, chronic stress and burnout.

“Hitherto we were aware of two main stress mechanisms in the brain”, explains Tibor Harkany from the Division of Molecular Neurosciences at MedUni Vienna’s Center for Brain Research: “A group of neurons located in the hypothalamus is responsible for triggering both mechanisms. The one process is a hormonal pathway, which leads to hormones being released from the adrenal glands into the bloodstream within a few seconds of the stress event. The other process is the nerve pathway, which is even quicker. Within fractions of a second, a direct neural connection is made to the prefrontal cortex and this determines our behavior.”

Third stress mechanism identified in brain

In the recent investigations led by Alán Alpár (Semmelweis University), Tamás Horváth (Yale), Tomas Hökfelt (Karolinska Institute) and Tibor Harkany (MedUni Vienna), it has now been discovered that these same neurons are also capable of triggering a stress response in a third way, the effect of which occurs slightly later and is sustained.

The completely new mechanism that has now been described proceeds via the cerebrospinal fluid. This also involves a molecule that is important for the development and maintenance of the nervous system, the so-called ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), reaches the stress center by traveling in the cerebrospinal fluid.

Since this is a mechanism that spreads with the cerebrospinal fluid, it is much slower than the process that occurs via the bloodstream. The substance is diluted more slowly and can therefore have a longer-lasting effect. Conversely, CNTF molecules in the cerebrospinal fluid constantly bombard the neurons of the stress center, keeping the prefrontal cortex on permanent alert. This means that the nervous system remains in a heightened state of alert with greater reactivity.

According to lead author Alán Alpár from Semmelweis University in Budapest, it is very probable that all three known mechanisms are deployed in the event of severe stress. This third type of process identified by the researchers plays a major role in producing the delayed, and hence lasting effect.

“We know from the work of the world-famous Hungarian-born stress researcher, János Selye, which areas of the brain are responsible for responses to external stressors. He also described what happens in a stress situation, how the hypothalamus activates the pituitary gland, and this in turn activates the adrenal glands,” explains Tomas Hökfelt from the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm. However, stress is a longer-lasting process. The potential for a threat from outside might also be protracted, thus requiring the body to adopt not only an immediate but also a prolonged state of alertness.

Better understanding of neuronal processes

According to the research team, the discovery of the new process can also open up new perspectives for understanding the development of post-traumatic stress disorder. The fact that acute stress can metamorphose into chronic stress, manifesting itself in burnout, for example, represents a serious challenge to today’s society. “Understanding the neural processes that lead to it can open up new options for treating this neuropsychiatric condition, particularly since we identified several molecular steps that might become targets for pharmacological development in the future”emphasizes Tibor Harkany.

Source:

https://www.meduniwien.ac.at/web/en/about-us/news/detailsite/2018/news-im-september-2018/new-cause-of-chronic-stress-identified-in-the-brain/

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles