Breaking News
January 21, 2019 - High Levels of Activity, Motor Ability Linked to Better Cognition
January 21, 2019 - Killer blows? Knockout study of pair of mouse MicroRNA provides cancer insight
January 21, 2019 - Buffalo researchers receive grant to quicken development of generic equivalents of contraceptives
January 21, 2019 - One-third of pregnant women do not believe cannabis is harmful to their fetus
January 21, 2019 - Fiderstat could be used as chemopreventative drug for intestinal cancers caused by APC gene mutations
January 21, 2019 - Modifying healthcare delivery practices may improve discussions between youth and healthcare providers
January 21, 2019 - UNIST researcher named as recipient of Merck’s 2018 Life Science Awards
January 21, 2019 - How Getting a Flu Shot Could Save Your Life
January 21, 2019 - Surgical adhesions can be treated, prevented in mice
January 21, 2019 - Increased physician-targeted marketing associated with higher opioid overdose deaths
January 21, 2019 - Researchers uncover specific microbial signatures of intestinal disease
January 21, 2019 - Study to investigate new targeted oral treatments for severe asthma
January 21, 2019 - Plan Your Plate | NIH News in Health
January 21, 2019 - Fecal occult blood test may improve CRC outcomes in some
January 21, 2019 - Blood test detects Alzheimer’s disease years before symptoms develop
January 21, 2019 - Mount Sinai joins with Paradigm and ReqMed to repurpose drug for treatment of MPS
January 21, 2019 - FDA Advisory Committee Votes on Zynquista (sotagliflozin) as Treatment for Adults with Type 1 Diabetes
January 21, 2019 - The causes and complications of snoring
January 21, 2019 - Placenta adapts and compensates when pregnant mothers have poor diets or low oxygen
January 21, 2019 - New implant could restore the transmission of electrical signals in injured central nervous system
January 21, 2019 - Rapid-acting fentanyl test strips found to be effective at reducing overdose risk
January 21, 2019 - Coronary Artery Calcium May Help Predict CVD in South Asians
January 21, 2019 - The mystery of the super-ager
January 21, 2019 - Scientists develop smart microrobots that can change shape depending on their surroundings
January 21, 2019 - Keep Moving to Keep Brain Sharp in Old Age
January 21, 2019 - Despite progress, gay fathers and their children still structurally stigmatized
January 21, 2019 - New drug for treating liver parasites in vivax malaria
January 21, 2019 - Merck recognized with 2018 Life Science Industry Award for best use of social media
January 21, 2019 - Coeur Wallis equips the canton of Valais with 260 SCHILLER defibrillators
January 21, 2019 - Scientists propose quick and pain-free method for diagnosing kidney cancer
January 21, 2019 - Signs of memory loss could point to hearing issues
January 21, 2019 - HeartFlow Analysis shows highest diagnostic performance for detecting coronary artery disease
January 21, 2019 - How Much Caffeine is Too Much?
January 21, 2019 - Take a timeout before you force your child to apologize
January 21, 2019 - Scientists design two AI algorithms to improve early detection of cognitive impairment
January 21, 2019 - Novel therapy for children with chronic hormone deficiency provides lifeline for parents
January 21, 2019 - Bioethicists call for oversight of poorly regulated, consumer-grade neurotechnology products
January 21, 2019 - Study shows hereditary hemochromatosis behind many cancers and joint diseases
January 21, 2019 - Short bouts of stairclimbing throughout the day can improve cardiovascular health
January 20, 2019 - Liver Transplant Survival May Improve With Race Matching
January 20, 2019 - Study implicates hyperactive immune system in aging brain disorders
January 20, 2019 - Cancer Diagnosis May Quadruple Suicide Risk
January 20, 2019 - Parkinson’s disease experts devise a roadmap
January 20, 2019 - Research brings new hope to treating degenerative brain diseases
January 20, 2019 - Scientists pinpoint a set of molecules that wire the body weight center of the brain
January 20, 2019 - Researchers get close to developing elusive blood test for Alzheimer’s disease
January 20, 2019 - UCLA researchers demonstrate new technique to develop cancer-fighting T cells
January 20, 2019 - Researchers discover how cancer cells avoid genetic meltdown
January 20, 2019 - Exercise makes even the ‘still overweight’ healthier: study
January 20, 2019 - University of Utah to establish first-of-its-kind dark sky studies minor in the US
January 20, 2019 - School-based nutritional programs reduce student obesity
January 20, 2019 - Improved maternity care practices in the southern U.S. reduce racial inequities in breastfeeding
January 20, 2019 - New enzyme biomarker test indicates diseases and bacterial contamination
January 20, 2019 - Republican and Democratic governors have different visions to transform health care, say researchers
January 20, 2019 - Researchers discover that spin flips happen in only half a picosecond in the course of a chemical reaction
January 20, 2019 - Suicide Risk Up More Than Fourfold for Cancer Patients
January 20, 2019 - Doctors find 122 nails in Ethiopian’s stomach
January 20, 2019 - UV disinfection technology eliminates up to 97.7% of pathogens in operating rooms
January 20, 2019 - Researchers discover mechanism which drives leukemia cell growth
January 20, 2019 - AHA: Infection as a Baby Led to Heart Valve Surgery for Teen
January 20, 2019 - Injection improves vision in a form of childhood blindness
January 20, 2019 - Multiple sclerosis therapies delay progression of disability
January 20, 2019 - New study finds infrequent helmet use among bike share riders
January 20, 2019 - Clearing up information about corneal dystrophies
January 20, 2019 - Researchers describe new behavior in energy metabolism that refutes existing evidence
January 20, 2019 - New study takes first step toward treating endometriosis
January 20, 2019 - Researchers find how GREB1 gene promotes resistance to prostate cancer treatments
January 20, 2019 - Replacing Sitting Time With Activity Lowers Mortality Risk
January 20, 2019 - A simple, inexpensive intervention makes birth safer for moms and babies in parts of Africa
January 19, 2019 - New anti-inflammatory compound acts as ‘surge protector’ to reduce cancer growth
January 19, 2019 - Significant flaws found in recently released forensic software
January 19, 2019 - New Leash on Life? Staying Slim Keeps Pooches Happy, Healthy
January 19, 2019 - Men and women remember pain differently
January 19, 2019 - Rising air pollution linked with increased ER visits for breathing problems
January 19, 2019 - Study uses local data to model food consumption patterns among Seattle residents
January 19, 2019 - The brain’s cerebellum plays role in controlling reward and social behaviors, study shows
January 19, 2019 - Relationship between nurse work environment and patient safety
January 19, 2019 - Pioneering surgery restores movement to children paralyzed by acute flaccid myelitis
January 19, 2019 - Genetic variants linked with risk tolerance and risky behaviors
January 19, 2019 - New research provides better understanding of our early human ancestors
New clinical trial initiated on experimental vaccine to stop the spread of glioblastoma

New clinical trial initiated on experimental vaccine to stop the spread of glioblastoma

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

Rush University Medical Center is part of a new clinical trial testing whether an experimental vaccine can help patients’ immune systems stop the spread of glioblastoma — an aggressive form of brain cancer with very few current treatment options.

Led by neuro-oncologist Clement Pillainayagam, MD, the phase II clinical trial is testing an investigational vaccine that will be given in conjunction with bevacizumab, an FDA-approved drug that targets the proteins glioblastoma cells need to grow blood vessels. Rush is one of only a few Midwest locations for this international trial, Drug Treatment Study for Recurrent or Progressive Glioblastoma.

Glioblastomas are malignant tumors that begin in the glial, or supportive, tissue of the brain and spread rapidly because they are supported by a large network of blood vessels. There is no known cure for glioblastoma tumors, and median survival is just four months without treatment and 15 to 19 months with treatment. In a stark reminder of the need for better treatments, U.S. Sen. John McCain died from glioblastoma on Aug. 25, one of more than 15,000 people in the United States who succumb to brain cancer each year, according to the National Cancer Institute.

Current standard treatments typically involve surgery followed by chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Immunotherapies like those being tested in this trial, which engage the body’s immune system to attack tumors, increasingly are becoming part of treatment plans.

“Our immune system would typically put a stop to cancer cells growing, but glioblastoma cells suppress this process.” Pillainayagam explains.

“Bevacizumab has been shown to help the immune system starve tumors of their blood supply as well as decrease the immunosuppressed state around the tumor. But that just isn’t enough,” he said.

Starving the tumor and revving up the immune system

Half of the study participants chosen at random will receive bevacizumab, and the other half will be treated with bevacizumab plus the experimental vaccine. The vaccine (DSP-788-201G) is derived from peptides (short chains of amino acids) produced by the WT1gene that is found in many types of cancer cells, including glioblastomas.

The vaccine is used by the HLA (human leukocyte antigen) system, cell surface proteins that help regulate the immune system. “While the bevacizumab helps starve the tumor by blocking formation of blood vessels inside it, we hope the vaccine revs up the immune response by helping the body recognize that these cancer cells are a threat,” Pillainayagam said.

Though the development in recent years of therapies that help people’s own immune system target cancer cells has meant new options for many types of cancers, very few immunotherapies for cancers in the brain have shown promise. “The brain has different types of immune cells that work in unique combinations. Thus, trying to understand how to unleash our own immune systems is a challenge,” Pillainayagam says.

One challenge is actually a barrier: The human body evolved a layer of specialized cells, called the blood-brain barrier, that line the blood vessels in the brain, providing extra security from threats such as viruses and bacteria that circulate in the rest of the bloodstream. That extra layer of protection also prevents many cancer-fighting drugs from working. By some estimates, 98 percent of current FDA-approved drugs do not enter the brain because of the blood-brain barrier.

Brain cancers affect what make people who they are

Along with Joo Yeon Nam, MD, Pillainayagam leads Rush’s Section of Neuro-oncology, which works in conjunction with specialists across Rush’s Department of Neurological Sciences to treat patients with primary cancers of the brain and spine.

“The brain is sensitive and exquisite real estate. Everything we do and even who we are depends on the brain functioning well, thus even a tiny growth can have an enormous impact” Pillainayagam says.

He adds that dual training in oncology and neurology usually comes into play several times during a single appointment. “As an oncologist, my focus is typically at the cellular level, focusing on the chemotherapy, radiation and other tools that keep cancer cells in check. But as a neurologist, I am addressing the neurological impact the cancers have on people’s movements, thinking and even personality.”

Nam says that the dual training in oncology and neurology is especially necessary because brain cancers have such deep impact on the quality of life of patients and their families. In addition to causing neurological problems such as weakness, seizures and impaired speech, “brain cancers like glioblastomas affect the part of the body that makes people who they are,” she says.

Source:

https://www.rush.edu/news/press-releases/rush-testing-new-brain-cancer-vaccine

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles