Breaking News
September 21, 2018 - NIH and FDA call for eliminating involvement of RAC in human gene therapy experiments
September 21, 2018 - New system uses algorithm to convert 2D videos into 3D printed ‘motion sculptures’
September 21, 2018 - Sea squirt model reveals key molecules in dopaminergic neuron differentiation
September 21, 2018 - Effective management of neonatal abstinence syndrome requires coordinated ‘cascade of care’
September 21, 2018 - Refugees seek care for wounds of war
September 21, 2018 - Under the sea, in an octopus’ garden on ecstacy
September 21, 2018 - Eating foods with low nutritional quality ratings linked to cancer risk in large European cohort
September 21, 2018 - Giving kids honest information about water consumption may help them make healthy choices
September 21, 2018 - Horwitz Prize Awarded for Work on Hormones
September 21, 2018 - CHMP issues positive opinion supporting use of Trelegy Ellipta in broader group of COPD patients
September 21, 2018 - Scientists discover new molecules that work together to remove unwanted DNA
September 21, 2018 - Dr. Fenella France to deliver 2019 Plenary Lecture
September 21, 2018 - New research finds that MHC-II molecules have more influence on tumors than MHC-I
September 21, 2018 - Researchers study effects of cardiac cycle in simple learning task
September 21, 2018 - FDA takes new steps to address opioid crisis by approving Opioid Analgesic Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy
September 21, 2018 - Positive Barhemsys Phase 3 Treatment Data Published in Anesthesia & Analgesia
September 21, 2018 - Celiac Disease Screening: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information
September 21, 2018 - Autism linked to egg cells’ difficulty creating large proteins
September 21, 2018 - Tweaking nuclear pores could provide new avenue to battle against cancer
September 21, 2018 - Experts warn health care providers to slow down in allowing smart pill in patient care settings
September 21, 2018 - MoreGrasp reports breakthrough development of grasp neuroprosthetics activated by thought control
September 21, 2018 - Study reveals new way to target HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer
September 21, 2018 - CHMP grants positive opinion for VENCLYXTO plus rituximab for treating relapsed/refractory CLL
September 21, 2018 - Study offers solid link between visceral organs and brain’s reward, motivation system
September 21, 2018 - First U.S. patient treated with innovative gene therapy at Bascom Palmer Eye Institute
September 21, 2018 - Choroidal Detachment – The American Society of Retina Specialists
September 21, 2018 - Discovery of a key protein involved in the development of autism
September 21, 2018 - Air pollution appears to be linked to increased risk of developing dementia
September 21, 2018 - Henry Ford Health System receives $600k grant to study genetic makeup of gliomas
September 21, 2018 - Arthritis common in individuals with varying degrees of depression, finds study
September 21, 2018 - Scientist intends to fight pathogenic bacteria with viruses
September 21, 2018 - New research suggests link between PFAS chemicals and hyperthyroidism in pet cats
September 21, 2018 - Multi-year study data shows impact of new soft contact lens to slow myopia progression in children
September 21, 2018 - Neuroscientists identify circuit for brain’s statistical inference about motion
September 21, 2018 - MILabs’ VECTor6 system wins Commercial Innovation Award at WMIC 2018
September 21, 2018 - Scientists find wild African monkeys infected with bacterium that causes syphilis, yaws in humans
September 21, 2018 - 2006 to 2015 Saw Increase in Severe Maternal Morbidity
September 21, 2018 - Similar changes in the brains of patients with ADHD and emotional instability
September 21, 2018 - Cobalt mining in DR Congo takes a high toll on both creuseurs and environment
September 21, 2018 - Eating fatty fish during pregnancy may boost unborn child’s brain development
September 21, 2018 - Study reveals promising new drug candidate to treat acute renal failure
September 21, 2018 - Neural signal that urges to eat overpowers the one that says to stop
September 21, 2018 - Scientists achieve breakthrough in accelerated diagnosis of multi-resistant hospital pathogens
September 21, 2018 - Researchers simulate how different breast tissues respond to heat from MRIs
September 21, 2018 - Despite red flags at surgery centers, overseers award gold seals
September 21, 2018 - Zapping Airway Nerves May Help COPD Patients Breathe
September 21, 2018 - Researchers find answers as to why some people are at risk of gout
September 21, 2018 - Stars of Stanford Medicine: Genetic counseling and compassion
September 21, 2018 - Researchers use reinforcement learning to train gliders to soar like birds
September 21, 2018 - New federally-funded research project could lead to treatments that extend human lifespan
September 21, 2018 - Health insurance ads have shifted over time due to health plans offered via ACA
September 21, 2018 - Use of transcranial electrical stimulation to bolster creativity has far-reaching implications
September 21, 2018 - Scientists find way to boost efficacy of powerful antimalarial drug with anti-cancer medicines
September 21, 2018 - Weighing the risks and benefits of drug tapering—two patients, two perspectives
September 21, 2018 - The “exposome” revealed: a barrage of bacteria, chemicals, microscopic animals and more
September 21, 2018 - Top three immune boosting recommendations to ward off freshers’ flu
September 21, 2018 - Young children’s oral microbiota could serve as early indicator for obesity
September 21, 2018 - Older individuals with multiple sclerosis report higher quality of life than younger counterparts
September 21, 2018 - LineaRx signs agreement with Takis/Evvivax to develop linear-DNA based anti-cancer vaccines
September 21, 2018 - AbbVie Presents Upadacitinib Longer-Term (32-Week) and Patient-Reported Outcomes Data from Phase 2b Atopic Dermatitis Study at 27th European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology (EADV) Congress
September 21, 2018 - Alzheimer’s drug may stop disease if used before symptoms develop
September 21, 2018 - Human skeletal stem cell can generate cartilage, bone
September 21, 2018 - UK and European research collaborations receive vote of confidence by three major cancer charities
September 21, 2018 - Microbiota in the intestines and cell stress cause colon cancer
September 20, 2018 - Arizona EMTs have 39% higher risk for suicide than general public
September 20, 2018 - Driving and older adults: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
September 20, 2018 - Brain region for stress control is enlarged in people with depression, finds study
September 20, 2018 - Researchers test autobiographical memory for early Alzheimer’s detection
September 20, 2018 - Organizations join forces to help teens with severe mental health challenges | News Center
September 20, 2018 - Neurons in the human brain can encode numerical information
September 20, 2018 - Potential drugs to treat neurodegenerative diseases garner $3 million grant
September 20, 2018 - Processing speed important to higher order cognitive function in multiple sclerosis patients
September 20, 2018 - Helping a patient survive a hurricane
September 20, 2018 - Tafamidis Treats Transthyretin Amyloid Cardiomyopathy
September 20, 2018 - Low academic achievement can lead to drug abuse decades later, research finds
September 20, 2018 - Study identifies stem cell that gives rise to new bone, cartilage in humans | News Center
September 20, 2018 - Celltrion and Emory University sign ‘Incubation’ agreement to develop new drug candidates for atherosclerosis
September 20, 2018 - TGen and PNOC take part in launch of NIH-supported Kids First Data Resource Portal
September 20, 2018 - Could Household Cleaners Make Your Kid Fat?
September 20, 2018 - Addiction nonprofit makes searching for services simple
New clinical trial initiated on experimental vaccine to stop the spread of glioblastoma

New clinical trial initiated on experimental vaccine to stop the spread of glioblastoma

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

Rush University Medical Center is part of a new clinical trial testing whether an experimental vaccine can help patients’ immune systems stop the spread of glioblastoma — an aggressive form of brain cancer with very few current treatment options.

Led by neuro-oncologist Clement Pillainayagam, MD, the phase II clinical trial is testing an investigational vaccine that will be given in conjunction with bevacizumab, an FDA-approved drug that targets the proteins glioblastoma cells need to grow blood vessels. Rush is one of only a few Midwest locations for this international trial, Drug Treatment Study for Recurrent or Progressive Glioblastoma.

Glioblastomas are malignant tumors that begin in the glial, or supportive, tissue of the brain and spread rapidly because they are supported by a large network of blood vessels. There is no known cure for glioblastoma tumors, and median survival is just four months without treatment and 15 to 19 months with treatment. In a stark reminder of the need for better treatments, U.S. Sen. John McCain died from glioblastoma on Aug. 25, one of more than 15,000 people in the United States who succumb to brain cancer each year, according to the National Cancer Institute.

Current standard treatments typically involve surgery followed by chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Immunotherapies like those being tested in this trial, which engage the body’s immune system to attack tumors, increasingly are becoming part of treatment plans.

“Our immune system would typically put a stop to cancer cells growing, but glioblastoma cells suppress this process.” Pillainayagam explains.

“Bevacizumab has been shown to help the immune system starve tumors of their blood supply as well as decrease the immunosuppressed state around the tumor. But that just isn’t enough,” he said.

Starving the tumor and revving up the immune system

Half of the study participants chosen at random will receive bevacizumab, and the other half will be treated with bevacizumab plus the experimental vaccine. The vaccine (DSP-788-201G) is derived from peptides (short chains of amino acids) produced by the WT1gene that is found in many types of cancer cells, including glioblastomas.

The vaccine is used by the HLA (human leukocyte antigen) system, cell surface proteins that help regulate the immune system. “While the bevacizumab helps starve the tumor by blocking formation of blood vessels inside it, we hope the vaccine revs up the immune response by helping the body recognize that these cancer cells are a threat,” Pillainayagam said.

Though the development in recent years of therapies that help people’s own immune system target cancer cells has meant new options for many types of cancers, very few immunotherapies for cancers in the brain have shown promise. “The brain has different types of immune cells that work in unique combinations. Thus, trying to understand how to unleash our own immune systems is a challenge,” Pillainayagam says.

One challenge is actually a barrier: The human body evolved a layer of specialized cells, called the blood-brain barrier, that line the blood vessels in the brain, providing extra security from threats such as viruses and bacteria that circulate in the rest of the bloodstream. That extra layer of protection also prevents many cancer-fighting drugs from working. By some estimates, 98 percent of current FDA-approved drugs do not enter the brain because of the blood-brain barrier.

Brain cancers affect what make people who they are

Along with Joo Yeon Nam, MD, Pillainayagam leads Rush’s Section of Neuro-oncology, which works in conjunction with specialists across Rush’s Department of Neurological Sciences to treat patients with primary cancers of the brain and spine.

“The brain is sensitive and exquisite real estate. Everything we do and even who we are depends on the brain functioning well, thus even a tiny growth can have an enormous impact” Pillainayagam says.

He adds that dual training in oncology and neurology usually comes into play several times during a single appointment. “As an oncologist, my focus is typically at the cellular level, focusing on the chemotherapy, radiation and other tools that keep cancer cells in check. But as a neurologist, I am addressing the neurological impact the cancers have on people’s movements, thinking and even personality.”

Nam says that the dual training in oncology and neurology is especially necessary because brain cancers have such deep impact on the quality of life of patients and their families. In addition to causing neurological problems such as weakness, seizures and impaired speech, “brain cancers like glioblastomas affect the part of the body that makes people who they are,” she says.

Source:

https://www.rush.edu/news/press-releases/rush-testing-new-brain-cancer-vaccine

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles