Breaking News
December 14, 2018 - Lack of peds preventive care ups unplanned hospital admissions
December 14, 2018 - Miscarriage: When Language Deepens Pain
December 14, 2018 - New method helps better understand pathological development of ALS
December 14, 2018 - Intellectually active lifestyle confers protection against neurodegeneration in Huntington’s patients
December 14, 2018 - Mammalian collagen nanofibrils become stronger and tougher with exercise
December 14, 2018 - Considerable Morbidity, Mortality Due to Animal Encounters
December 14, 2018 - Researchers find inhibiting one protein destroys toxic clumps seen in Parkinson’s disease
December 14, 2018 - How early physical therapy can lessen the long-term need for opioids
December 14, 2018 - Depression, suicide rates highest in Mountain West states
December 14, 2018 - New model could cure the potential to underestimate how quickly diseases spread
December 14, 2018 - Exercise-induced hormone activates cells critical for bone remodeling in mice
December 14, 2018 - Researchers discover new mechanism behind spread of malignant pleural mesothelioma
December 14, 2018 - Health Tip: Celebrate a Healthier Holiday
December 14, 2018 - Scalpel-free surgery enhances quality of life for Parkinson’s patients, study finds
December 14, 2018 - Early physical therapy can reduce risk, amount of long-term opioid use | News Center
December 14, 2018 - Genetic marker, predictor of early relapse in common childhood cancer discovered
December 14, 2018 - Study could lead to a potential new way of treating sepsis
December 14, 2018 - New protein complex helps embryonic stem cells to maintain their indefinite potential
December 14, 2018 - Salk professor receives $1.8 million from NOMIS Foundation for research on mechanisms to promote health
December 14, 2018 - New discovery will improve the safety and predictability of CRISPR
December 14, 2018 - Geneticists discover how sex-linked disorders arise
December 14, 2018 - New method to visualize small-molecule interactions inside cells
December 14, 2018 - Study describes mechanism that makes people more vulnerable to hunger-causing stimuli
December 14, 2018 - Chronic opioid therapy associated with increased healthcare spending and hospital stays
December 14, 2018 - Blood Types
December 14, 2018 - Obesity linked to increased risk of early-onset colorectal cancer
December 14, 2018 - Blood test helps identify distinct molecular signatures in children with cystic fibrosis
December 14, 2018 - Scientists use water to track electrical activity of nerve cells
December 14, 2018 - Recurrence of urinary tract infection may depend on bacterial strain, study shows
December 14, 2018 - GBT Announces U.S. FDA Agrees with its Proposal Relating to Accelerated Approval Pathway for Voxelotor for the Treatment of Sickle Cell Disease and GBT Plans to Submit New Drug Application (NDA)
December 14, 2018 - Partial Thromboplastin Time (PTT) Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information
December 14, 2018 - Common tactics for health promotion at work may be detrimental to employees with obesity
December 14, 2018 - Myths about migration and health not supported by available evidence
December 14, 2018 - Recent findings on rare genetic disorder may help develop new treatment options
December 14, 2018 - New drug shows promise in treating sarcomas
December 14, 2018 - Scientists perform lung lavage as new approach for tuberculosis diagnosis in rhinoceros
December 14, 2018 - Recent winners of the Nobel Medicine Prize
December 14, 2018 - KHN’s ‘What the Health?’ Insurance enrollment is lagging — and there are lots of reasons why
December 14, 2018 - Study assesses safety and efficacy of new treatment for pancreatic cancer
December 14, 2018 - Weakened metabolism of immune T cells may account for serious complications in elderly
December 14, 2018 - Study finds drug targets for Ebola, Dengue, and Zika viruses
December 14, 2018 - Face masks may offer protection against staph bacteria for hog farm workers and their household members
December 14, 2018 - Shining new light on neuron firing
December 14, 2018 - Study highlights need for personalized approach to treat ICU acquired delirium
December 14, 2018 - Soot particles from road traffic significantly contribute to air pollution
December 14, 2018 - Massage helps relieve pain, improve mobility in patients with knee osteoarthritis
December 14, 2018 - Researchers explore home healthcare nurses’ knowledge attitudes toward infection control
December 14, 2018 - Average outpatient visit in the U.S. costs nearly $500, shows new study
December 14, 2018 - Reference Infliximab, Biosimilar Equivalent for Crohn’s Disease
December 14, 2018 - New contact lens to treat eye injuries
December 14, 2018 - Acne could have a genetic basis find researchers promising new cure
December 14, 2018 - Higher physical activity associated with improved mood
December 14, 2018 - New UGA study points to optimal hypertension treatment for stroke patients
December 14, 2018 - Study highlights factors that can reduce food cravings
December 14, 2018 - Researchers discover Ebola-fighting protein in human cells
December 14, 2018 - Fentanyl surpasses heroin in cause of U.S. drug overdose deaths
December 14, 2018 - When Heart Attack Strikes, Women Often Hesitate to Call for Help
December 14, 2018 - A warning about costume contacts
December 14, 2018 - Study examines link between peripheral artery disease and heart attack
December 14, 2018 - Researchers develop biotechnological tool to produce antifungal proteins in plants
December 14, 2018 - 3D-printed adaptive aids can benefit patients with arthritis
December 14, 2018 - Chronic bullying during adolescence impacts mental health
December 14, 2018 - Integral Molecular and Merus collaborate to develop bispecific antibody therapeutics
December 13, 2018 - Importance of cell cycle and cellular senescence in the placenta discovered
December 13, 2018 - Gold “nanoprisms” open new window into vessels and single cells
December 13, 2018 - Research findings could lead to new targets for cancer-fighting therapeutics
December 13, 2018 - Butantan Institute signs collaboration agreement with MSD to develop dengue vaccines
December 13, 2018 - Study explores how patients want to discuss symptoms with doctors
December 13, 2018 - RUDN medics first to gather scattered data on hepatitis morbidity in Somalia
December 13, 2018 - Age and gender disparities found in use of bed nets to prevent malaria in sub-Saharan Africa
December 13, 2018 - Caffeine therapy benefits developing brains of premature babies
December 13, 2018 - New review focuses on electrospinning techniques used in musculoskeletal tissue engineering
December 13, 2018 - A new division focused on human immune system
December 13, 2018 - Zogenix Announces Positive Phase 3 Trial Results on the Efficacy and Safety of Fintepla (ZX008) in Dravet Syndrome
December 13, 2018 - BCR ABL Genetic Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information
December 13, 2018 - Caffeinated beverages during pregnancy linked to lower birth weight babies
December 13, 2018 - Stanford Medicine Health Trends Report examines opportunity to democratize health care
December 13, 2018 - Obsessive-compulsive disorder may protect individuals from obesity
December 13, 2018 - Scientists investigate how a painful event is processed in the brain
December 13, 2018 - Genetic study reveals new insights into underlying causes of moderate-to-severe asthma
Researchers explore how changes in diet alter microbiome in artificial intestine

Researchers explore how changes in diet alter microbiome in artificial intestine

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print
Credit: CC0 Public Domain

Using an artificial intestine they created, researchers have shown that the microbiome can quickly adapt from the bacterial equivalent of a typical western diet to one composed exclusively of dietary fats. That adaptation involved an increase in the populations of fatty-acid metabolizing species and a drop in those of protein and carbohydrate metabolizers. These changes led to diminished production of short chain fatty acids and antioxidants, alterations that might negatively affect human health. The research is published in Applied and Environmental Microbiology, a journal of the American Society for Microbiology.

“Intestinal microbes mediate many dietary effects on human health,” said corresponding author Oleg Paliy, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Boonshoft School of Medicine, Wright State University, Dayton, OH. “There, most of these compounds are fermented by gut bacteria. This happens because a significant proportion of dietary carbohydrates, proteins, and fats escapes digestion in the small intestine, and reaches the colon, a section of the gut housing a dense population of microbes.” There, most of these compounds are fermented by gut bacteria.

In the study, the switch from a western diet to a diet of fat boosted the populations of fatty acid metabolizing bacteria from the genera Alistipes, and Bilophila, and several genera of the class, Gammaproteobacteria. Populations declined among carbohydrate and protein-degrading genera, including Bacteroides, Clostridium, and Roseburia.

The decline in the populations of carbohydrate metabolizing genera caused a decline in production of short chain fatty acids. Production of antioxidants also dropped. The latter are compounds that neutralize free radicals, highly reactive compounds that damage cells, DNA, and collagen.

“The relative beneficial and harmful effects of the high-carb and high-fat diets are a subject of many studies and debates,” said Dr. Paliy. Several recent reports showed that low-carbohydrate diets can elicit improvement in the signs and symptoms of insulin resistance and its secondary manifestations, such as metabolic syndrome.

However, previous studies had suggested that at least some carbohydrate is needed in the diet for optimum health. When gut microbes ferment complex carbohydrates, short chain fatty acids are produced. These have many positive effects on the host, including lowering the risk of colorectal cancer, regulating appetite, and reducing inflammation in the body.

The experimental apparatus used to conduct this study, called a human gut simulator, is designed to mimic the environment of the human colon. It is comprised of three glass vessels linked consecutively to simulate three different regions of the human colon, and was seeded with human gut microbes obtained from fecal donors. The nutrients, either characteristic of a balanced Western diet, or composed entirely of dietary fats, were supplied to these communities, and the researchers measured their composition and metabolites with high-throughput sequencing and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively.

The kind of knowledge gained through this study may ultimately help researchers get a stronger handle on what kind of diets are healthiest for each person. “But there’s a long way to go”, said Dr. Paliy.


Explore further:
Rethinking an inflammatory receptor’s obesity connection

Journal reference:
Applied and Environmental Microbiology

Provided by:
American Society for Microbiology

About author

Related Articles