Breaking News
October 18, 2018 - Using NMR to Reduce Fraud
October 18, 2018 - New automated model identifies dense breast tissue in mammograms
October 18, 2018 - Mysterious polio-like illness baffles medical experts while frightening parents
October 18, 2018 - Cases of Acute Flaccid Myelitis on the rise across U.S.
October 18, 2018 - Dietary fiber reduces brain inflammation during aging
October 18, 2018 - New tool could help prioritize recovery efforts for the poorest hit by natural disasters
October 18, 2018 - Hundreds of dietary supplements shown to contain unapproved drugs
October 18, 2018 - Active Pharmaceuticals ID’d in >700 Dietary Supplements
October 18, 2018 - Cell death protein also damps inflammation
October 18, 2018 - Health Highlights: Oct. 15, 2018
October 18, 2018 - Largest study of ‘post-treatment controllers’ reveals clues about HIV remission
October 18, 2018 - Bad Blood in Silicon Valley: A conversation with John Carreyrou
October 18, 2018 - ANTRUK’s Annual Lecture sends out message on shortage of funds for antibiotic research
October 18, 2018 - NAM special publication outlines steps to ensure interoperability of health care systems
October 18, 2018 - Novel method uses just a drop of blood to monitor effect of lung cancer therapy
October 18, 2018 - New blood test could spare cancer patients from unnecessary chemotherapy
October 18, 2018 - Training young researchers to work with data volumes arising in the health sector
October 18, 2018 - New Metrohm IC method is reliable and convenient to use for zinc oxide assay
October 18, 2018 - Global AIDS, TB fight needs more money: health fund
October 18, 2018 - Understanding the forces that cause sports concussions
October 18, 2018 - Research points to new target for treating periodontitis
October 18, 2018 - New tool improves assessment of postpartum depression symptoms
October 18, 2018 - From Biopsy to Diagnosis
October 18, 2018 - Sexual harassment and assault linked to worse physical/mental health among midlife women
October 18, 2018 - Stumped by medical school? A Q&A with a learning specialist
October 18, 2018 - Self-lubricating condoms may help raise condom usage
October 18, 2018 - Targeting immune checkpoints in microglia could reduce out-of-control neuroinflammation
October 18, 2018 - Study finds changes in antiepileptic drug metabolism during different trimesters of pregnancy
October 18, 2018 - Autonomic nervous system directly controls stem cell proliferation, study shows
October 18, 2018 - FDA Approves Talzenna (talazoparib) for gBRCAm HER2-Negative Locally Advanced or Metastatic Breast Cancer
October 18, 2018 - Sleeping Beauty technique helps identify genes responsible for NAFLD-associated liver cancer
October 18, 2018 - Many U.S. adults confused about primary care, study shows
October 18, 2018 - UC researcher focuses on light-mediated therapies to target breast cancer
October 18, 2018 - With philanthropic gifts, Stanford poised to make major advances in neurosciences | News Center
October 18, 2018 - Mice study shows antibiotics are not always necessary to cure sepsis
October 18, 2018 - Researchers discover why heart contractions are weaker in individuals with HCM
October 18, 2018 - Participation in organized sport during childhood may have long-term skeletal benefits
October 18, 2018 - Probiotic/antibiotic combination could eradicate drug-resistant bacteria
October 17, 2018 - More Socioeconomic Challenges for Hispanic Women With HIV
October 17, 2018 - 49,XXXXY syndrome – Genetics Home Reference
October 17, 2018 - Scientists uncover possible new causes of Tourette syndrome
October 17, 2018 - Girl undergoes unusual heart surgery after compassionate-use exemption | News Center
October 17, 2018 - Health Issues That Are Sometimes Mistaken for Gluten Sensitivity
October 17, 2018 - Elective induction of labor at 39 weeks may be beneficial option for women and their babies
October 17, 2018 - New smart watch algorithms can accurately monitor wearers’ sleep patterns
October 17, 2018 - Researchers demonstrate epigenetic memory transmission via sperm
October 17, 2018 - FDA, DHS announce memorandum of agreement to address cybersecurity in medical devices
October 17, 2018 - Health Tip: Know the Risks of Chicken Pox
October 17, 2018 - Immunotherapy effective against hereditary melanoma
October 17, 2018 - Researchers reveal new mechanism for how animal cells stay intact | News Center
October 17, 2018 - Alzheimer's Goes Under the Cryo-Electron Microscope
October 17, 2018 - Medicare for all? CMS chief warns program has enough problems already
October 17, 2018 - Metrohm Raman introduces Mira P handheld Raman system
October 17, 2018 - Expanding the knowledge about hippocampus to better understand cognitive deficits in MS
October 17, 2018 - Study of Nigerian breast cancer patients reveals prevalence of aggressive molecular features
October 17, 2018 - Many healthy children may have metabolic risk factors, finds study
October 17, 2018 - A new antibiotic could be a better, faster treatment for tuberculosis
October 17, 2018 - “I will not become a Robot Doctor”: A medical student vows to practice compassion
October 17, 2018 - Study findings may explain sporadic outbreaks of C. difficile infections in hospitals
October 17, 2018 - Purdue researchers develop new chemical process to find better drug ‘fits’ for patients
October 17, 2018 - Yale researchers develop way to attack RNA with small-molecule drugs
October 17, 2018 - New pragmatic study launched to understand the effectiveness of new type 2 diabetes drug
October 17, 2018 - Alnylam Announces Plan to Initiate Rolling Submission of a New Drug Application and Pursue Full Approval for Givosiran
October 17, 2018 - Nine cases of polio-like illness suspected in children in illinois
October 17, 2018 - Eisai enters into agreement with Eurofarma for development and sales of lorcaserin in 17 countries
October 17, 2018 - Patients once thought incurable can benefit from high-dose radiation therapy
October 17, 2018 - Researchers awarded grant to advance testing of experimental heroin vaccine
October 17, 2018 - Researchers examine SSRI use during pregnancy and major gestational malformations
October 17, 2018 - FDA grants Rare Pediatric Disease Designation for Immusoft’s Iduronicrin genleukocel-T
October 17, 2018 - Reliable Respiratory announces acquisition of Attleboro Area Medical Equipment
October 17, 2018 - Study reveals link between childhood abuse and higher arthritis risk in adulthood
October 17, 2018 - Research shows people over 65 are not performing enough physical activity
October 17, 2018 - FDA Approves Liletta (levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system) 52 mg to Prevent Pregnancy for up to Five Years
October 17, 2018 - Weight gain after smoking cessation linked to increased short-term diabetes risk
October 17, 2018 - Researchers find opportunity to control salt-sensitive hypertension without exercising
October 17, 2018 - Women not warned about cancer associated with breast implants
October 17, 2018 - Metrohm offers robust handheld Raman analyzer for Defense and Security
October 17, 2018 - Modeling Non-Numerical Data in Systems Biology
October 17, 2018 - Research aims to address health disparities in African-American men
October 17, 2018 - Human and cattle decoys trap outdoor-biting mosquitoes in malaria endemic regions
Seizures start with a hush: A spike in inhibition

Seizures start with a hush: A spike in inhibition

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

Some patients describe epileptic seizures like an earthquake from within, starting slow and growing without their control. To a brain researcher, seizures are an electrical firestorm of neuronal activation in the brain. Now, studies at Jefferson (Philadelphia University + Thomas Jefferson University), have shown that some types of seizure paradoxically begin with a hush: a spike in inhibition. Neurons that dampen neuronal activity may be responsible for starting the large-scale over-activation of a seizure.

“This is the first time to our knowledge that this phenomenon of inhibition at the start of a seizure has been observed in humans,” said senior author Shennan Weiss, MD, PhD, Assistant Professor of Neurology and Head of Thomas Jefferson Computational Epilepsy Laboratory at the Vickie & Jack Farber Institute for Neuroscience at Jefferson. “Such a shift in our thinking could change how we go about looking for new treatments for preventing epileptic seizures,” said Dr. Weiss, who also treats patients with the disease.

The research was published in the journal Annals of Neurology.

Neurologists have long held the belief that seizures begin as an imbalance of excitatory and inhibitory neurons that lead to the over-excitation, but it had never been proven experimentally. For the past 20 years or so, researchers working with animals have observed that a burst of inhibition often precedes seizure onset. “Since no one could observe the same in humans, many people assumed this observation was a quirk of drug-induced seizures in animals, and not applicable to humans,” said Dr. Weiss.

To tease apart the problem, Dr. Weiss and his team of computational biologists looked at data collected by neurosurgeon collaborators at Jefferson and the University of California at Los Angeles. As part of pre-surgery for patients with epilepsy, surgeons placed electrodes in the brain to determine the exact location of seizures onset. Using this data the researchers were able to capture 13 spontaneous seizures and measure impulses called action potentials produced by single excitatory and inhibitory neurons. They found that at the beginning of all the seizures, the inhibitory neurons produced bursts of action potentials prior to the excitatory neurons.

Patients often report experiencing an aura before the onset of an epileptic seizure. “We believe that patients experience dyscognition when the inhibitory neurons are activated at the beginning of the seizure,” said Dr. Weiss. “This period is characterized by confusion and an inability to talk or form coherent sentences.” About ten seconds after the inhibition, the over-excitation spreads over the brain.

Dr. Weiss thinks that the burst of inhibitory activity might be an attempt to shut down overexcitement in the focal area of the brain. “It’s like when you pull the brakes too hard on a bike and you fly over the handlebars,” said Dr. Weiss.

There are many types of seizures, but the type described in this paper, the low-voltage fast (LVF) onset seizure, is the most common, and suggests that the results could potentially apply to a large number of seizures. The details will need to be worked out before it can be applied toward new treatments, but the results suggest that the biology of seizures in people may be different than expected, and that targeting inhibitory neurons could offer new avenues for treatment or seizure prevention.​​

Source:

https://www.jefferson.edu/

About author

Related Articles