Breaking News
November 17, 2018 - FDA announces new actions to limit sale of e-cigarettes to youth
November 17, 2018 - Warmer winter temperatures related to higher crime rates
November 17, 2018 - MCO places increasing emphasis on helping people find and access healthy food
November 17, 2018 - Group of students aim to improve malaria diagnosis using old smartphones
November 17, 2018 - Transplantation of feces may protect preterm children from deadly bowel disease
November 17, 2018 - Researchers explore whether low-gluten diets can be recommended for people without allergies
November 17, 2018 - New and better marker for assessing patients after cardiac arrest
November 17, 2018 - For 7-year-old with failing bone marrow, a life-saving transplant | News Center
November 17, 2018 - New first-line treatment for peripheral T-cell lymphoma approved by FDA
November 17, 2018 - Artificial intelligence could be valuable tool to help young victims disclose traumatic testimony
November 17, 2018 - Breakthrough in the treatment of Restless Legs Syndrome
November 16, 2018 - FDA Approves Keytruda (pembrolizumab) for the Treatment of Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) Who Have Been Previously Treated with Sorafenib
November 16, 2018 - Eagle Books | Native Diabetes Wellness Program
November 16, 2018 - Patients with common heart failure more likely to have lethal heart rhythms
November 16, 2018 - How AI could help veterinarians code their notes | News Center
November 16, 2018 - Bias-based bullying does more harm to students than generalized bullying
November 16, 2018 - Researchers find first direct evidence that cerebellum plays role in cognitive functions
November 16, 2018 - Non-coding genetic variant plays key role in endothelial function and disease incidence
November 16, 2018 - EMA recommends first all-oral treatment to tackle deadly sleeping sickness
November 16, 2018 - Drug used to treat dizziness may slow down growth of triple-negative breast cancer
November 16, 2018 - AHA: Icosapent Ethyl Cuts CV Risk From Elevated Triglycerides
November 16, 2018 - ‘Orphan’ RNAs make cancer deadlier, but potentially easier to diagnose
November 16, 2018 - Air Cube touches down at hospital | News Center
November 16, 2018 - CRISPR-based tool shown to enhance cell-based immunotherapy
November 16, 2018 - Mechanisms that govern HIV latency differ in the gut and blood, finds study
November 16, 2018 - Researchers unravel mystery of NPM1 protein in acute myeloid leukemia
November 16, 2018 - High school students less likely to select milk, fruit for lunch when fruit juice is available
November 16, 2018 - Football coaches with great emotional competence are more successful
November 16, 2018 - Researchers awarded $10 million grant to address root causes of asthma in Puerto Rico
November 16, 2018 - Health Tip: Manage Morning Sickness
November 16, 2018 - Immunotherapy combination and chemotherapy show encouraging results in Phase II acute myeloid leukemia study
November 16, 2018 - ACC Latin America Conference brings experts to discuss latest cardiovascular science
November 16, 2018 - Pooled analysis of Intersect ENT’s steroid releasing implants in patients after frontal sinus surgery to be published
November 16, 2018 - Expectations about pain intensity can become self-fulfilling prophecies
November 16, 2018 - NIH awards $3.4 million to UC researchers to study gastrointestinal lymphatic system
November 16, 2018 - Highlighting Advances in Bioengineering and Analytical Technologies with eBooks
November 16, 2018 - Scientist Dr David Taylor of MR Solutions is a finalist in the BMW i UK Tech Founder Awards
November 16, 2018 - Earlier treatment could help reverse autistic-like behavior in tuberous sclerosis
November 16, 2018 - Sucking your baby’s pacifier could improve their health
November 16, 2018 - Vegetables and salad may include bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics
November 16, 2018 - Autism linked to prolonged connection between brain regions
November 16, 2018 - Endocrine Society chooses four Diabetes Caucus leaders as winners of Diabetes Champion Award
November 16, 2018 - Brain and muscle cells found within kidney organoids
November 16, 2018 - Person’s sex hormones may play key role in trauma survival, finds study
November 16, 2018 - PTEN Genetic Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information
November 16, 2018 - Toxic metal pollution linked with development of autism spectrum disorder
November 16, 2018 - Calcified nodules in the retina increase risk for progression to late stages of AMD
November 16, 2018 - ZEISS teams up with arivis AG to offer complete 3D imaging solutions
November 16, 2018 - Georgia State professor receives $1.2 million grant to study how the brain controls eating behavior
November 16, 2018 - Specific bacterial toxins reduce number of cells suppressing immune response
November 16, 2018 - Review by ID physician improves outcomes for outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy
November 16, 2018 - Conditions that produce signs similar to arthritis
November 16, 2018 - New artificial intelligence-based method predicts treatment effectiveness
November 16, 2018 - AHA: Dapagliflozin Noninferior to Placebo for MACE in T2DM
November 16, 2018 - Surgery remains best treatment for appendicitis, Stanford study finds
November 16, 2018 - Non-surgical fistula creation system Ellipsys becomes key focus of attention at CiDA
November 16, 2018 - Researchers find no link between ‘allergy friendly’ dogs and lower risk of asthma
November 16, 2018 - Researchers elucidate new rules of connectivity of neurons in the neocortex
November 16, 2018 - Treating children with ‘bubble baby disease’
November 16, 2018 - Nexus announces availability of Arsenic Trioxide Injection in the US
November 16, 2018 - Researchers find metabolite shuttle between cells in the liver that may combat tissue fibrosis
November 16, 2018 - AHA: PTSD Common Among Those Who Suffer Tear in the Aorta’s Wall
November 16, 2018 - Many RA patients’ pain related to central nervous system
November 16, 2018 - Changes in Himalayan gut microbiomes linked to diet
November 16, 2018 - Inhibition of prostaglandin E2 enhances ability to combat infectious colitis
November 16, 2018 - Chronic dry eye can slow reading rate and disrupt day to day tasks
November 16, 2018 - Researchers develop new drug molecule that inhibits inflammation
November 16, 2018 - Dementia symptoms peak in winter and spring, study finds
November 16, 2018 - Stanford tobacco researcher weighs in on JUUL
November 16, 2018 - Increasing omega-3 fatty acid intake during pregnancy reduces risk of premature birth, review finds
November 16, 2018 - Researchers find no link between infants waking up at night and later developmental problems
November 16, 2018 - Both parents and children agree about confidential medical services
November 16, 2018 - FDA warns against use of unapproved pain medications with implanted pumps
November 16, 2018 - Precision medicine-based approach to slow or reverse biologic drivers of Alzheimer’s disease
November 16, 2018 - Study provides new insight into norovirus outbreaks, may help guide efforts to develop vaccines
November 16, 2018 - Inexpensive, portable air purifier could help protect the heart from pollution
November 16, 2018 - New 15-minute scan could help diagnose brain damage in babies up to two years old
November 16, 2018 - Deep brain stimulation not effective for treating early Alzheimer’s
November 16, 2018 - Traditional chemotherapy superior to new alternative for oropharyngeal cancers | News Center
November 16, 2018 - What This Pond Protist Does With Its Genome Will Astound You
Research points to new target for treating periodontitis

Research points to new target for treating periodontitis

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

T cells help fight off infection, but they can go overboard. A new study led by researchers at the University of Pennsylvania School of Dental Medicine and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) shows that a subset of T cells contributes to the problematic inflammation and bone loss that is associated with periodontitis, a severe form of gum disease.

The research, conducted with the help of animal models and a group of human patients with a rare genetic mutation, point to a new target for treating periodontitis, as well as other diseases involving the inappropriate response of this group of T cells, known as Th17 cells. These include autoimmune conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. The work appears in Science Translational Medicine.

“I think this work leaves no doubt that these cells are important mediators of periodontitis,” says George Hajishengallis, the Thomas W. Evans Centennial Professor in the Department of Microbiology at Penn Dental Medicine. “The translational aspect of our studies is pinpointing a new approach to blocking the tissue destruction we see in periodontitis, by inhibiting Th17 development.”

Hajishengallis collaborated on the work with Niki M. Moutsopoulos of the NIH’s National Institute for Dental and Craniofacial Research, with whom he has made previous insights into the molecular drivers of periodontitis.

T cells are broadly considered to fall into two categories: helper T cells, which aid in orchestrating the immune system’s response to threats, and cytotoxic T cells, which take a lead role in carrying out an attack. Until about 13 years ago, helper cells were further divided into two groups: Th1 or Th2 cells. Then a new subset, Th17 cells, was identified, and researchers quickly realized Th17 cells played a role in certain human diseases. By 2008, Hajishengallis and other researchers began to suspect that these cells may be implicated in periodontitis. More recent studies have found that people with chronic periodontitis have an unusually high number of Th17 cells in their gum tissue, but these investigations hadn’t uncovered the particular role of these cells in the condition or whether they were required for the development of periodontitis.

In the current work, the researchers looked at gum tissue from patients with chronic periodontitis and confirmed that they had higher numbers of Th17 cells compared to healthy controls, with the numbers correlating with the severity of disease. In parallel, they observed that mice in which periodontitis was induced, Th17 cell numbers, along with the IL-17 signaling molecule which they produce, increased with the onset of gum disease. This increase in Th17 cell numbers, the researchers found, was the result of local proliferation rather than recruitment from nearby lymph nodes.

To interrogate possible triggers of the local expansion of Th17 cells, the team decided to see how changes in the community of microbes in the gum tissue, the gingival microbiome, affected the accumulation of Th17 cells. In the mouse model of disease, animals were treated with broad- or narrow-spectrum antibiotics. Only those antibiotics which lowered the numbers of Th17 cells were capable of suppressing the disease, again implicating these cells in disease.

To definitively link the cells to the condition, however, the researchers took advantage of a mouse model missing a key protein required for Th17 cell development, as well as a population of human patients with a mutation in the corresponding gene, Stat3, who are monitored at the NIH. In both cases, they found that the Stat3 mutation, which dramatically cut the number of Th17 cells present in the gum tissue, also protected against the bone loss seen in chronic periodontitis. While people with this Stat3 mutation have other problems, gum disease is not one of them.

“Here we have a unique patient population with the same defect we checked in the mice, and they are similarly not susceptible to the same disease,” Hajishengallis says. “This type of rigorous evidence is not easy to come by in medical science.”

Though antibiotics could serve to protect against the disease, the side effects of taking such drugs, which can kill both beneficial and disease-causing microbes throughout the body, are too significant to recommend the treatment for broad use. But employing a small-molecule that inhibits Th17 cell development gave the researchers a similar effect, reducing Th17 cell accumulation and associated periodontal bone loss in mice.

“There is no antibiotic that is that targeted, that specific,” Hajishengallis says. Such an inhibitor offers promise as a periodontal therapy and perhaps as a target for treating other diseases in which Th17 play a destructive role.

Source:

https://penntoday.upenn.edu/news/drivers-inflammation-provide-valuable-targets-new-gum-disease-therapies

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles