Breaking News
January 19, 2019 - New anti-inflammatory compound acts as ‘surge protector’ to reduce cancer growth
January 19, 2019 - Significant flaws found in recently released forensic software
January 19, 2019 - New Leash on Life? Staying Slim Keeps Pooches Happy, Healthy
January 19, 2019 - Men and women remember pain differently
January 19, 2019 - Rising air pollution linked with increased ER visits for breathing problems
January 19, 2019 - Study uses local data to model food consumption patterns among Seattle residents
January 19, 2019 - The brain’s cerebellum plays role in controlling reward and social behaviors, study shows
January 19, 2019 - Relationship between nurse work environment and patient safety
January 19, 2019 - Pioneering surgery restores movement to children paralyzed by acute flaccid myelitis
January 19, 2019 - Genetic variants linked with risk tolerance and risky behaviors
January 19, 2019 - New research provides better understanding of our early human ancestors
January 19, 2019 - First-ever tailored reporting guidance to improve patient care and outcomes
January 19, 2019 - 4.6 percent of Massachusetts residents have opioid use disorder
January 19, 2019 - New study suggests vital exhaustion as risk factor for dementia
January 19, 2019 - New antibiotic discovery heralds breakthrough in the fight against drug-resistant bacteria
January 19, 2019 - Ural Federal University scientists synthesize a group of multi-purpose fluorophores
January 19, 2019 - Researchers identify new therapeutic target in the fight against chronic liver diseases
January 19, 2019 - Preparation, characterization of Soyasapogenol B loaded onto functionalized MWCNTs
January 19, 2019 - FDA Approves Ontruzant (trastuzumab-dttb), a Biosimilar to Herceptin
January 19, 2019 - Tobacco use linked with higher use of opioids and sedatives
January 19, 2019 - Study delves deeper into developmental dyslexia
January 19, 2019 - Anti-vaccination movement one of the top health threats in 2019 says WHO
January 19, 2019 - Newly developed risk score more effective at identifying type 1 diabetes
January 19, 2019 - Highly effective protocol to prepare cannabis samples for THC/CBD analysis
January 19, 2019 - Prinston Pharmaceutical Inc. Issues Voluntary Nationwide Recall of Irbesartan and Irbesartan HCTZ Tablets Due to Detection of a Trace Amount of Unexpected Impurity, N-Nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) in the Products
January 19, 2019 - How does solid stress from brain tumors cause neuronal loss, neurologic dysfunction?
January 19, 2019 - $14.7 million partnership to supercharge vaccine development
January 19, 2019 - Ian Fotheringham receives Charles Tennant Memorial Lecture award
January 19, 2019 - Brain vital signs detect neurophysiological impairments in players with concussions
January 19, 2019 - Lack of job and poor housing conditions increased likelihood of people attending A&E
January 19, 2019 - Novel targeted drug delivery system improves conventional cancer treatments
January 19, 2019 - Rutgers study finds gene responsible for spread of prostate cancer
January 19, 2019 - Complications Higher Than Expected for Invasive Lung Tests
January 19, 2019 - 3-D printed implant promotes nerve cell growth to treat spinal cord injury
January 19, 2019 - Automated texts lead to improved outcomes after total knee or hip replacement surgery
January 19, 2019 - Poor cardiorespiratory fitness could increase risk of future heart attack, finds new study
January 19, 2019 - Drinking soft drinks while exercising in hot weather may increase risk of kidney disease
January 19, 2019 - Formlabs 3D prints anatomical models
January 19, 2019 - Heart-Healthy Living Also Wards Off Type 2 Diabetes
January 19, 2019 - Teaching Kids to Be Smart About Social Media (for Parents)
January 19, 2019 - Metabolite produced by gut microbiota from pomegranates reduces inflammatory bowel disease
January 19, 2019 - Researchers examine how spray from showers and toilets expose us to disease causing bacteria
January 19, 2019 - Behavioral experiments confirm that additional neurons improve brain function
January 19, 2019 - New study compares performance of real-time infectious disease forecasting models
January 19, 2019 - Obesity can be risk factor for developing renal cell carcinoma, confirms study
January 19, 2019 - New regulation designs on cigarette packs direct smokers’ attention to health warnings
January 19, 2019 - QIAGEN receives first companion diagnostic approval in Japan
January 19, 2019 - Study explores role of Dunning-Kruger effect in anti-vaccine attitudes
January 19, 2019 - Newly identified subset of immune cells may be key to fighting chronic inflammation
January 19, 2019 - New immune response regulators discovered
January 18, 2019 - Poor blood oxygenation during sleep predicts chance of heart-related death
January 18, 2019 - First international consensus on the diagnosis and management of fibromuscular dysplasia
January 18, 2019 - Rapid resistance gene sequencing technology can hasten identification of antibiotic-resistant bacteria
January 18, 2019 - Researchers develop artificial enzymatic pathway for synthesizing isoprenoids in E. coli
January 18, 2019 - Scientists advise caution in immunotherapy research
January 18, 2019 - How children across the world develop language
January 18, 2019 - Columbia Medical Student Receives McDonogh Scholarship
January 18, 2019 - Secretive ‘Rebate Trap’ Keeps Generic Drugs For Diabetes And Other Ills Out Of Reach
January 18, 2019 - Plant based diet could be the best option for the planet says commission
January 18, 2019 - New conservation practice could reduce nitrogen from agricultural drainage, study shows
January 18, 2019 - UIC researchers receive $1.7 million NCI grant to study Southeast Asian fruit
January 18, 2019 - New study determines the fate of DNA derived from genetically modified food
January 18, 2019 - Scientists develop new gene therapy that prevents axon destruction in mice
January 18, 2019 - Study finds critically low HPV vaccination rates among younger adolescents in the U.S.
January 18, 2019 - Brain cells involved in memory play key role in reducing future eating behavior
January 18, 2019 - Risk for Conversion of MS Varies With Different Therapies
January 18, 2019 - Investigational cream may help patients with inflammatory skin disease
January 18, 2019 - Medical school news office receives six writing awards | News Center
January 18, 2019 - County By County, Researchers Link Opioid Deaths To Drugmakers’ Marketing
January 18, 2019 - Research reveals risk for developing more than one mental health disorder
January 18, 2019 - Scientists discover a dramatic pattern of bone growth in female mice
January 18, 2019 - Study finds link between lengthy periods of undisturbed maternal sleep and stillbirths
January 18, 2019 - New nuclear medicine method could improve detection of primary and metastatic melanoma
January 18, 2019 - Combination therapy shows high efficacy in treating people with leishmaniasis and HIV
January 18, 2019 - Health Tip: Don’t Ignore Changes in Skin Color
January 18, 2019 - Dietary Recommendations for Healthy Children
January 18, 2019 - Eliminating the latent reservoir of HIV
January 18, 2019 - Pain From The Government Shutdown Spreads. This Time It’s Food Stamps
January 18, 2019 - Newly discovered regulatory mechanism helps control fat metabolism
January 18, 2019 - New rapid blood tests could speed up TB diagnosis, save the NHS money
Scientists use electron microscope to study chemical transformation in catalytic cross-coupling reaction

Scientists use electron microscope to study chemical transformation in catalytic cross-coupling reaction

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

Scientists from Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry of Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow managed to look inside an organic chemical reaction with electron microscope and recorded the occurred transformation in real time. The team from the laboratory of Prof. Ananikov applied combined nano-scale and molecular-scale approaches to the study of chemical transformation in catalytic cross-coupling reaction. The study is published in Nature Communications.

Electron microscopy is a unique method to study the structure of matter, providing images of various objects with magnifications up to the level of individual atoms by probing the samples with electron beam. The key feature of this method is providing an image of the object that is straightforward to analyze. However, so far that advantage has been actively used to study exclusively the solid objects. The reason for this lays in harsh conditions inside an electron microscope, in particular, extremely low pressure in the specimen chamber, which can reach one billionth of the atmospheric pressure, thus only solid nonvolatile samples can survive. But the majority of the chemical processes occur in liquid medium and the challenge for the electron microscopy is in situ monitoring of the chemical transformations. The interest in usage of electron microscopy to observe chemical reactions in liquid media has led to the emergence of methods that allow preserving samples in their native state even in high vacuum.

Researchers at Zelinsky Institute used special capsules protecting samples from the high vacuum. The chemical processes inside these capsules were observed through a thin window that was transparent to the electron beam. “This is a very powerful tool that the chemists are just beginning to use. The range of reactions that can be studied in this way is still narrow, but that’s what inspires the scientists in catalysis community”, commented Dr. Kashin, one of the co-authors of this study.

The object of the study was very important cross-coupling reaction of carbon-sulfur bond formation. The desired products were synthesized from nickel thiolates, which represent the nano-structured reagents composed of nickel atoms and organosulfur moieties. The reaction was carried out in a liquid medium, using soluble palladium complex as catalyst. As a result, the scientists have demonstrated the possibilities of employment of new types of reagents with ordered micro- and nanostructures in organic synthesis. Electron microscopy has made it possible to trace the evolution of reagent particles during chemical reaction.

“We have successfully observed the organic catalytic reaction in a liquid medium inside the electron microscope, which opens new opportunities for the vast field of chemistry. The combination of electron microscopy with mass spectrometry observations, kinetic measurements using gas chromatography, and X-ray spectroscopy studies using the source of synchrotron radiation allowed us to establish the reaction mechanism and to determine the effect of the reagents properties at different levels of structural organization on their behavior under reaction conditions”, commented Dr. Kashin.

An extensive study of the reaction from the mechanistic point of view was supplemented with demonstration of the possibility of its practical application for the synthesis of various organic sulfur-containing substances. The reaction turned out to be applicable for a wide range of substrates, with the products obtained in high yields of up to 99%.

“The results may serve as a new stimulus for advanced research at the intersection of organic chemistry and nanoscience. Undoubtedly, the observation of complex chemical transformations by using electron microscopy in solution will become an inalienable part in the study of dynamic processes in organic chemistry and catalysis, whereas video recordings of chemical reactions will soon become a routine tool in the arsenal of chemists”, commented Prof. Ananikov. “Generalized application of this approach will help to study characteristics of each individual reaction in detail, which will enormously facilitate the improvement of currently available technologies for production of medicines, agrochemicals, functional materials and other practically useful substances.”

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles