Breaking News
January 19, 2019 - $14.7 million partnership to supercharge vaccine development
January 19, 2019 - Ian Fotheringham receives Charles Tennant Memorial Lecture award
January 19, 2019 - Brain vital signs detect neurophysiological impairments in players with concussions
January 19, 2019 - Lack of job and poor housing conditions increased likelihood of people attending A&E
January 19, 2019 - Novel targeted drug delivery system improves conventional cancer treatments
January 19, 2019 - Rutgers study finds gene responsible for spread of prostate cancer
January 19, 2019 - Complications Higher Than Expected for Invasive Lung Tests
January 19, 2019 - 3-D printed implant promotes nerve cell growth to treat spinal cord injury
January 19, 2019 - Automated texts lead to improved outcomes after total knee or hip replacement surgery
January 19, 2019 - Poor cardiorespiratory fitness could increase risk of future heart attack, finds new study
January 19, 2019 - Drinking soft drinks while exercising in hot weather may increase risk of kidney disease
January 19, 2019 - Formlabs 3D prints anatomical models
January 19, 2019 - Heart-Healthy Living Also Wards Off Type 2 Diabetes
January 19, 2019 - Teaching Kids to Be Smart About Social Media (for Parents)
January 19, 2019 - Metabolite produced by gut microbiota from pomegranates reduces inflammatory bowel disease
January 19, 2019 - Researchers examine how spray from showers and toilets expose us to disease causing bacteria
January 19, 2019 - Behavioral experiments confirm that additional neurons improve brain function
January 19, 2019 - New study compares performance of real-time infectious disease forecasting models
January 19, 2019 - Obesity can be risk factor for developing renal cell carcinoma, confirms study
January 19, 2019 - New regulation designs on cigarette packs direct smokers’ attention to health warnings
January 19, 2019 - QIAGEN receives first companion diagnostic approval in Japan
January 19, 2019 - Study explores role of Dunning-Kruger effect in anti-vaccine attitudes
January 19, 2019 - Newly identified subset of immune cells may be key to fighting chronic inflammation
January 19, 2019 - New immune response regulators discovered
January 18, 2019 - Poor blood oxygenation during sleep predicts chance of heart-related death
January 18, 2019 - First international consensus on the diagnosis and management of fibromuscular dysplasia
January 18, 2019 - Rapid resistance gene sequencing technology can hasten identification of antibiotic-resistant bacteria
January 18, 2019 - Researchers develop artificial enzymatic pathway for synthesizing isoprenoids in E. coli
January 18, 2019 - Scientists advise caution in immunotherapy research
January 18, 2019 - How children across the world develop language
January 18, 2019 - Columbia Medical Student Receives McDonogh Scholarship
January 18, 2019 - Secretive ‘Rebate Trap’ Keeps Generic Drugs For Diabetes And Other Ills Out Of Reach
January 18, 2019 - Plant based diet could be the best option for the planet says commission
January 18, 2019 - New conservation practice could reduce nitrogen from agricultural drainage, study shows
January 18, 2019 - UIC researchers receive $1.7 million NCI grant to study Southeast Asian fruit
January 18, 2019 - New study determines the fate of DNA derived from genetically modified food
January 18, 2019 - Scientists develop new gene therapy that prevents axon destruction in mice
January 18, 2019 - Study finds critically low HPV vaccination rates among younger adolescents in the U.S.
January 18, 2019 - Brain cells involved in memory play key role in reducing future eating behavior
January 18, 2019 - Risk for Conversion of MS Varies With Different Therapies
January 18, 2019 - Investigational cream may help patients with inflammatory skin disease
January 18, 2019 - Medical school news office receives six writing awards | News Center
January 18, 2019 - County By County, Researchers Link Opioid Deaths To Drugmakers’ Marketing
January 18, 2019 - Research reveals risk for developing more than one mental health disorder
January 18, 2019 - Scientists discover a dramatic pattern of bone growth in female mice
January 18, 2019 - Study finds link between lengthy periods of undisturbed maternal sleep and stillbirths
January 18, 2019 - New nuclear medicine method could improve detection of primary and metastatic melanoma
January 18, 2019 - Combination therapy shows high efficacy in treating people with leishmaniasis and HIV
January 18, 2019 - Health Tip: Don’t Ignore Changes in Skin Color
January 18, 2019 - Dietary Recommendations for Healthy Children
January 18, 2019 - Eliminating the latent reservoir of HIV
January 18, 2019 - Pain From The Government Shutdown Spreads. This Time It’s Food Stamps
January 18, 2019 - Newly discovered regulatory mechanism helps control fat metabolism
January 18, 2019 - New rapid blood tests could speed up TB diagnosis, save the NHS money
January 18, 2019 - Researchers develop intelligent system for ‘tuning’ powered prosthetic knees
January 18, 2019 - Monoclonal antibody pembrolizumab prolongs survival in patients with squamous cell carcinoma
January 18, 2019 - New research detects mosquito known to transmit malaria for the first time in Ethiopia
January 18, 2019 - Researchers identify new genes linked to development of age-related macular degeneration
January 18, 2019 - Computerized method helps better protect pharma patents
January 18, 2019 - New guidelines to make swallowing safer for people in Australian nursing homes
January 18, 2019 - Lumex Instruments’ RA-915AM monitor installed at Hg treatment plant in Almadén, Spain
January 18, 2019 - ACCC survey finds multiple threats to growth of cancer programs
January 18, 2019 - Meeting the challenge of engaging men in HIV prevention and treatment
January 18, 2019 - Furloughed Feds’ Health Coverage Intact, But Shutdown Still Complicates Things
January 18, 2019 - Experts discuss various aspects on health risks posed by fumigated containers
January 18, 2019 - Researchers use gene-editing tool CRISPR/Cas9 to limit impact of parasitic diseases
January 18, 2019 - Alpha neurofeedback training could be a means of enhancing learning success
January 18, 2019 - Innovative ‘light’ method demonstrates positive results in fight against malignant tumors
January 18, 2019 - The cytoskeleton of neurons found to play role in Alzheimer’s disease
January 18, 2019 - New resource-based approach to improve HIV care in low- and middle-income countries
January 18, 2019 - Bedfont appoints Dr Jafar Jafari as first member of the Gastrolyzer Medical Advisory Board
January 18, 2019 - New study shows link between secondhand smoke and cardiac arrhythmia
January 18, 2019 - DZIF scientists reveal problems with available diagnostics for Zika and chikungunya virus
January 18, 2019 - Breast cancers more likely to metastasize in young women within 10 years of giving birth
January 18, 2019 - Over 5.6 million Americans exposed to high nitrate levels in drinking water
January 18, 2019 - Blood vessels can now be created perfectly in a petri dish
January 18, 2019 - Study identifies prominent socioeconomic and racial disparities in health behavior in Indiana
January 18, 2019 - Young-Onset Type 2 Diabetes Tied to Increased Hospitalization Risk
January 18, 2019 - For-profit nursing schools associated with lower performance on nurse licensure test
January 18, 2019 - Considering the culture of consent in medicine
Identifying ways to improve existing guidelines for ethical human-animal chimera research

Identifying ways to improve existing guidelines for ethical human-animal chimera research

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

In Greek mythology, a chimera is a figure with the head of a lion, the body of a goat, and the tail of a serpent. But the concept is not entirely imaginary.

Human chimeras are people who have cells from more than one person, sometimes as a result of absorbing the genetic code of a twin while still in the womb, or as the result of receiving an organ transplant. Scientists have created dozens of types of human-animal chimeras by putting human cells into lab animals to conduct potentially life-saving research, such as recent attempts to grow human organs in animals for transplant into patients with a serious medical need.

But the ethical implications are profound, including concerns that the transfer of human stem cells into animal hosts would result in an animal possessing at least partially human moral status, especially if the central nervous system is involved. The debate will likely grow in intensity as advances in human stem cell science and genetic engineering techniques enable researchers to more extensively and precisely insert developing human cells (and self-organizing mini-organ structures derived from human stem cells) into any stage of embryonic, fetal, or post-natal development of vertebrate animals.

“These scientific advances are thrilling,” said Insoo Hyun, PhD, professor of bioethics at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine. “Yet they also reveal conceptual, ethical, and procedural limitations in existing ethics guidance for biomedical research on chimeras.”

To address these shortfalls, Hyun, a principal investigator of the project, along with co-investigator Patricia Marshall, PhD, professor of bioethics at Case Western Reserve, and bioethicists from the Hastings Center in New York will identify ways of improving existing guidelines and ensuring professional accountability and responsibility in human-animal chimera research. The interdisciplinary bioethics project is supported by a three-year, $1.5 million grant from the National Human Genome Research Institute of the National Institutes of Health.

At present there are two sets of influential guidelines for this research – one from the U.S. National Academies of Sciences and the other from the International Society of Stem Cell Research. “These recommendations represent important landmarks in U.S. and international initiatives that offer oversight to the emerging science of human-animal chimera research,” said Hyun. “But our review of this guidance, and preliminary exploration with major thought leaders in the field, make clear the need for improvements. The first need is for conceptual clarity and ethical analysis related to defining and measuring ‘humanization’ and its significance to animal welfare. The second is for improvement of the oversight system, including greater clarity about who should be responsible and accountable for the research and how best to address potential concerns in an efficient review system.”

Hyun and Marshall’s work will be supported by an advisory group of 20 scientists, philosophers, and bioethics leaders in the field, helping to carry out an extensive review of current guidelines and relevant professional literature, as well as examining philosophical concerns, moral uncertainties, and value conflicts related to chimera research. They will also conduct detailed interviews with scientists and members of stem cell and animal-research oversight committees at a number of institutions, including Harvard University, the Salk Institute, Stanford University, and Weill Cornell Medicine.

“Our goal is to ensure that the lived experiences, goals, and challenges of experts in the field will inform the recommendations that will emerge from this research project,” said Marshall.

Hyun and Marshall will publish their recommendations for enhancing the current guidelines in a special issue of the Hastings Center Report, a leading peer-reviewed academic journal of bioethics. They will also develop a set of educational materials, both in print and online, that includes challenging real-world and thought-experiment scenarios with commentaries on how such situations can be managed in light of complex normative concerns.

Source:

http://casemed.case.edu/cwrumed360/news-releases/release.cfm?news_id=1529&news_category=8

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles