Breaking News
March 25, 2019 - Want healthier eating habits? Start with a workout
March 25, 2019 - New approach to prescribing antibiotics could curb resistance
March 24, 2019 - Theravance Biopharma Announces First Patient Dosed in Phase 2b/3 Study of TD-1473 in Patients with Ulcerative Colitis
March 24, 2019 - Prenatal DHA prevents blood-pressure increase from obesity during childhood
March 24, 2019 - Combined immunosuppression may be effective, safe in treating older patients with Crohn’s disease
March 24, 2019 - GSK sells health drinks arm, buys US cancer treatment firm
March 24, 2019 - Bacteria and innate immune factors in birth canal, cervix may be key to predicting preterm births
March 24, 2019 - IgG antibodies play unexpected role in atherosclerosis
March 24, 2019 - Sounds and vibrations are quite similar for the brain, finds new study
March 24, 2019 - Practices for Reducing COPD Hospital Readmissions Explored
March 24, 2019 - Could an eye doctor diagnose Alzheimer’s before you have symptoms?
March 24, 2019 - Enzyme inhibitor stops inflammation and neurodevelopmental disorders in mouse models
March 24, 2019 - Walk, Dance, Clean: Even a Little Activity Helps You Live Longer
March 24, 2019 - Americans used less eye care in 2014 versus 2008
March 24, 2019 - Study finds link between depression in 20s linked to memory loss in 50s
March 24, 2019 - New tool helps physiotherapy students to master complex fine motor skills
March 24, 2019 - The AMR Centre secures £2.3m funding boost
March 24, 2019 - Study examines effects of taking ondansetron during first trimester of pregnancy
March 24, 2019 - Researchers identify a more effective treatment for cancer
March 24, 2019 - Open-source solution for multiparametric optical mapping of the heart’s electrical activity
March 24, 2019 - New nanotechnology approach shows promise in treating triple negative breast cancer
March 24, 2019 - Trevena Announces Publication of APOLLO-1 Results in The Journal of Pain Research Highlighting Oliceridine’s Potential for Management of Moderate-to-Severe Acute Pain
March 24, 2019 - Maternal deaths following C-section 50 times higher in Africa compared to high-income countries
March 24, 2019 - Apple watch could detect irregular heart beat says study
March 24, 2019 - Queen Mary University of London’s BCI boosts radionuclide imaging capabilities with MILabs VECTor technology
March 24, 2019 - Girls should be encouraged to gain more ball skills, shows study
March 24, 2019 - Acute doses of synthetic cannabinoid can impair critical thinking and memory
March 24, 2019 - Presence of bacteria in urine does not always point to infection, shows study
March 24, 2019 - Scientists identify a new role for nerve-supporting cells
March 24, 2019 - Hidden differences between pathology of CTE and Alzheimer’s disease discovered
March 24, 2019 - Knowing causative genes of osteoporosis may open door to more effective treatments
March 24, 2019 - Toilet-seat based cardiovascular monitoring system getting ready to begin commercialization
March 24, 2019 - New model for intensive care identifies factors that send ill patients to ICU
March 24, 2019 - Recommendations Issued for HSCT in Multiple Myeloma
March 24, 2019 - Deep brain stimulation provides sustained relief for severe depression
March 24, 2019 - “Statistical significance” may soon be a thing of past?
March 24, 2019 - Researchers track effects of epigenetic marks carried by sperm chromosomes
March 24, 2019 - AHA News: Family Adopts Three Children With Three Different Heart Conditions
March 24, 2019 - Research into opioid painkillers could provide clues for safer drug development
March 23, 2019 - Lung cancer survivor recounts her lifetime struggles
March 23, 2019 - Radial and femoral approach for PCI achieve similar results in terms of survival
March 23, 2019 - Study sheds light on the optimal timing of coronary angiography in NSTEMI patients
March 23, 2019 - Excess hormones could cause a condition that can lead to blindness in women, study finds
March 23, 2019 - Dramatic shifts in first-time opioid prescriptions bring hope, concern
March 23, 2019 - Antidepressant drugs may not work when neurons are out of shape
March 23, 2019 - TTUHSC El Paso to establish endowed chair in neurology through a major grant
March 23, 2019 - New device approved by FDA for treating patients with moderate-to-severe heart failure
March 23, 2019 - People with peripheral artery disease have lower Omega-3 Index, shows research
March 23, 2019 - Trigger warnings have minimal impact on how people respond to content, shows research
March 23, 2019 - Gilead Announces Data From Two Studies Supporting Further Development of GS-6207, a Novel, Investigational HIV-1 Capsid Inhibitor as a Component of Future Long-Acting HIV Therapies
March 23, 2019 - Selfish genetic elements amplify inflammation and age-related diseases
March 23, 2019 - Study provides new understanding of how the brain recovers from damage caused by stroke
March 23, 2019 - CRISPR/Cas libraries could revolutionize drug discovery
March 23, 2019 - Allergic reaction during pregnancy may alter sexual-development in offspring’s brain
March 23, 2019 - Seeing through a robot’s eyes helps those with profound motor impairments
March 23, 2019 - Recent research shows that ease of breastfeeding after C-section differs culturally
March 23, 2019 - Newly discovered parameters offer more control over efficient release of drugs
March 23, 2019 - ‘De-tabooing’ of abortion- Women would like more support from health care community
March 23, 2019 - Anti-TB drugs can increase susceptibility to Mtb reinfection
March 23, 2019 - New survey indicates need of attention to neglected tropical diseases
March 23, 2019 - Innovative in vitro method to develop easy-to-swallow medicine for children and older people
March 23, 2019 - Sugary drinks could raise risk of early deaths finds study
March 23, 2019 - Lian wins ENGINE grant for stem-cell-based therapy to treat Type 1 diabetes
March 23, 2019 - Overall, Physicians Are Happy and Enjoy Their Lives
March 23, 2019 - Researchers discover how blood vessels protect the brain during inflammation
March 23, 2019 - CDC study shows modest improvement in optimal hospital breastfeeding policy
March 23, 2019 - Family-based prevention program to reduce alcohol use among older teens
March 23, 2019 - Remote monitoring of implanted defibrillators in heart failure patients prevents hospitalizations
March 23, 2019 - Appropriate doffing of personal protective equipment may reduce healthcare worker contamination
March 23, 2019 - Window screens can suppress mosquito populations, reduce malaria in Tanzania
March 23, 2019 - Researchers discover new biomarker for postoperative liver dysfunction
March 23, 2019 - Pregnancy history may be linked to cognitive function in older women, finds study
March 23, 2019 - Study shows ticagrelor is equally safe and effective as clopidogrel after heart attack
March 23, 2019 - FDA Approves First Drug for Postpartum Depression, Zulresso (brexanolone)
March 23, 2019 - New guidelines outline new treatment management for psoriasis
March 23, 2019 - Thermally abused cooking oil may promote progression of breast cancer
March 23, 2019 - High-fructose corn syrup fuels growth of colon tumors in mice
March 23, 2019 - Partnership aims at establishing best practices to promote diversity in clinical trials
March 23, 2019 - New study examines presence of microbes in tap water from residences, office buildings
March 23, 2019 - Early life trauma may affect brain structure, contribute to major depressive disorder
Roasted jackfruit seeds can replace cocoa to make cappuccino, study shows

Roasted jackfruit seeds can replace cocoa to make cappuccino, study shows

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

Cappuccino made with jackfruit instead of cocoa powder. According to a new study, roasted jackfruit seeds can replace between 50% and 75% of the cocoa that is blended with milk and coffee to make cappuccino without impairing flavor or aroma.

“Flour made from roasted jackfruit seeds naturally releases a mild chocolate aroma,” said food scientist Fernanda Papa Spada , a recipient of a scholarship, from São Paulo Research Foundation – FAPESP, who performed the study at the University of São Paulo’s Luiz de Queiroz College of Agriculture (ESALQ-USP) in Brazil. Her supervisor was Solange Guidolin Canniatti-Brazaca, a professor at the same institution in the Department of Agroindustry, Food and Nutrition.

The search for a cocoa substitute was motivated by the rise in international demand for cocoa, Spada told. This rise in turn is due to the growing demand for chocolate without a corresponding growth in supply, as cocoa-producing countries fail to boost their output. Many Chinese and Indian consumers can afford chocolate for the first time. The world cocoa production has not kept up, and the commodity is increasingly scarce as a result.

According to the International Cocoa Organization, 4.568 million metric tons of cocoa beans were processed in the 2017-18 crop year. This was almost the same as the total world production (4.645 million mt). The leading producer in 2017-18 was Ivory Coast, which accounted for approximately 40% of the total, followed by Ghana, Indonesia, Ecuador, Cameroon, Nigeria and Brazil.

Brazilian law requires milk chocolate drinks and other chocolate preparations to contain at least 25% cocoa powder in their formulation. Even premium products typically contain less than 30% cocoa powder, the exceptions being dark and semi-dark chocolate (35%). Chocolate powder contains 30%-50% cocoa powder and cocoa butter. Dairy ingredients such as dried milk, butter, sugar and flavoring make up the rest.

Canniatti-Brazaca stressed that the rising demand for cocoa and stagnant supply pose major challenges for the food industry, which is, therefore, investing heavily in the search for new cocoa substitutes for use in chocolate and chocolate products.

At ESALQ-USP, jackfruit seeds were first identified as a chocolate-flavored ingredient in a project conducted between 2010 and 2013 by Canniatti-Brazaca’s group and Miriam Coelho de Souza, a researcher at Piracicaba Methodist University (UNIMEP) in São Paulo State. “The findings showed that the seeds of the hard jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), among other varieties analyzed, released intense chocolate-like aromas,” Canniatti-Brazaca said.

Spada recalled that the discovery was accidental and occurred during a class led by Souza. “They were working on the development of food products based on waste left over from fruit processing,” she said. “A student baked a loaf of bread made from jackfruit seed flour, and it smelled strongly of chocolate.”

After the accidental discovery, several studies were performed at ESALQ-USP, and an article was published in PLOS ONE demonstrating the feasibility of using flour made from roasted dry or fermented seeds of hard jackfruit to obtain an aroma similar to that of chocolate in cappuccino.

Cappuccino is now available as an instant powder containing coffee with milk and chocolate. The quality and amount of chocolate vary according to the manufacturer. “The more upmarket products use chocolate powder, but many use artificial flavoring,” Spada said.

Coffee and chocolate alike have a unique flavor and aroma owing to the presence of volatile compounds derived from roasting and fermentation. The challenge faced by these researchers was to determine the ideal conditions for roasting and fermenting jackfruit seeds to obtain a flour with a chocolate-like aroma of optimal intensity without impairing or even altering the coffee flavor of cappuccino.

Jackfruit is a large fruit with edible pulp and seeds. The interior consists of bulbs of sticky yellow flesh with a strong sweet aroma, and each bulb encloses a seed. The seeds are an agroindustrial byproduct. They can be consumed but must first be boiled or roasted.

Spada and her group analyzed the chemical composition of jackfruit seed flour. “It has no flavor but releases a chocolate aroma after roasting,” Spada said. “It has to be fermented first. Without fermentation, jackfruit seed flour does not release this chocolate aroma. We analyzed 33 seed prototypes with varying degrees of roast to determine which had the strongest chocolate aroma.”

Sensory analysis

A key part of the study funded by FAPESP consisted of asking volunteers to rank the sensory attributes of the different prototypes of cappuccino comprising varying amounts of flour made from dry or fermented jackfruit seeds.

“Initially, we performed a sensory analysis with 20 volunteers by recording their impressions of aroma, flavor and color,” Spada said. They sampled cappuccino prototypes with 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% substitution of jackfruit flour for chocolate powder. The final test involved 12 volunteers who reached a consensus on the prototypes considered most similar or identical to conventional cappuccino.”

The results showed that dry jackfruit seed flour can be incorporated as an ingredient in cappuccino formulations. The substitution of jackfruit flour for chocolate powder at 50%-75% was considered ideal because the acceptability and sensory characteristics were not altered.

“According to the participants in the tests, the aroma of the cappuccino preparations made with dry jackfruit seeds resembled cappuccino, chocolate, cinnamon and coffee, with cappuccino and chocolate flavors,” Spada said.

A. heterophyllus is native to India, where it was domesticated more than 3,000 years ago. Jackfruit is an important part of Indian cuisine and Southeast Asian cooking. The plant was introduced to Brazil by the Portuguese. It flourished so successfully here that it soon grew abundantly, for example, in the Atlantic Rainforest and is still found in the remnants of the biome.

Source:

http://agencia.fapesp.br/cappuccino-made-with-jackfruit-seed-flour-has-chocolate-aroma/29005/

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles