Breaking News
November 14, 2018 - Study defines biomarker in response to treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer
November 14, 2018 - Study identifies potential therapeutic strategy for patients with clear cell renal cancer
November 14, 2018 - Bausch Health Announces U.S. Launch of Bryhali (halobetasol propionate) Lotion, 0.01%, for Plaque Psoriasis In Adults
November 14, 2018 - Alpha Fetoprotein (AFP) Tumor Marker Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information
November 14, 2018 - Researchers evaluate controversial treatment for Parkinson’s disease psychosis
November 14, 2018 - AI could help veterinarians code their notes
November 14, 2018 - Pre-schoolers with autism thrive in mainstream classroom settings
November 14, 2018 - Complementary and alternative medicine is widely used by general population in England
November 14, 2018 - Study reveals link between tobacco availability and smoking during pregnancy
November 14, 2018 - Purdue researchers develop translucent base for silicon patches to deliver exact doses of biomolecules
November 14, 2018 - New technology based on moths and magnets could help treat genetic diseases
November 14, 2018 - Concussion-Related Biomarkers Vary Based on Sex, Race
November 14, 2018 - One more year of high school may shape waistlines later in life
November 14, 2018 - Dissecting high drug costs – Scope
November 14, 2018 - Study shows novel strategy to reduce breast cancer bone metastasis
November 14, 2018 - Empowering the NHS through Industry Partnerships
November 14, 2018 - One size does not fit all in obesity treatment, study finds
November 14, 2018 - Seeking ways to prevent ‘secondary cataracts’
November 14, 2018 - Change Within the Eye May Be Early Warning for Macular Degeneration
November 14, 2018 - Study of 500,000 people clarifies the risks of obesity
November 14, 2018 - Ultrasound releases drug to alter activity in targeted brain areas in rats | News Center
November 14, 2018 - Umass Amherst researchers battle against youth suicide in rural Alaska Native communities
November 14, 2018 - Cancer stem cells depend on amino acid metabolism, and it’s proving to be their Achilles’ heel
November 14, 2018 - Epigenetic link found between prenatal exposure to maternal smoking and offspring’s cardio-metabolic health
November 14, 2018 - Meditation, music may change biomarkers of cellular aging and Alzheimer’s disease in older adults
November 14, 2018 - Multidisciplinaryresearch teams selected to study age-related brain disorders
November 14, 2018 - The Current issue of “The view from here” is concerned with Informatics
November 14, 2018 - Researchers identify tool to help transgender women have a more authentic voice
November 14, 2018 - Four faculty members appointed to endowed professorships | News Center
November 13, 2018 - Research finds strongest evidence yet that obesity causes depression
November 13, 2018 - Researchers compare stools of breastfed and formula-fed infants
November 13, 2018 - Entasis Therapeutics Announces Zoliflodacin Phase 2 Results Published in The New England Journal of Medicine
November 13, 2018 - Gene changes driving myopia reveal new focus for drug development
November 13, 2018 - $6 million grant to support study of preeclampsia, atherosclerosis links | News Center
November 13, 2018 - Beneficial gut microbes metabolize high-fiber diet to improve heart health in mouse model
November 13, 2018 - Excessive use of social media through visual postings linked to increase in narcissistic traits
November 13, 2018 - Study finds why obesity both fuels cancer growth and helps immunotherapy to kill tumors
November 13, 2018 - Women prefer and invest more in daughters, while men favor sons
November 13, 2018 - With hospitalization losing favor, judges order outpatient mental health treatment
November 13, 2018 - Transgenic rat model may provide new insights into cerebral amyloid angiopathy
November 13, 2018 - Study identifies factors tied to greater risk of advanced liver disease in cystic fibrosis patients
November 13, 2018 - Risk of blindness among premature babies with low levels of blood platelets
November 13, 2018 - A new strategy for combatting antibiotic-resistant infections
November 13, 2018 - Study aims to find which outreach method is more effective at improving cancer screening rates
November 13, 2018 - Insufficient sleep duration linked with unhealthy lifestyle profile among children
November 13, 2018 - IIASA researchers introduce new, simple measure for human wellbeing
November 13, 2018 - Magnetic nanosprings used as targeted drug delivery agents for anticancer therapy
November 13, 2018 - Scientists examine FCMs containing silver nanoparticles
November 13, 2018 - Failed DNA repair triggers chromosomal chaos
November 13, 2018 - Study shows new emerging role of osteopontin in HCV-related hepatocellular carcinoma
November 13, 2018 - Food insecurity during pregnancy linked to severity of neonatal abstinence syndrome
November 13, 2018 - Majority of Americans are concerned about health threat posed by antibiotic resistance
November 13, 2018 - Addition of Elotuzumab Ups PFS in Refractory Multiple Myeloma
November 13, 2018 - Study finds women with pregnancy-related nausea, vomiting use marijuana more
November 13, 2018 - Lethal heart rhythm more likely to be found in patients with common heart failure
November 13, 2018 - Study provides new clues to origin and development of multiple sclerosis
November 13, 2018 - Climate change could pose threat to male fertility
November 13, 2018 - Researchers discover how mitochondria deploy a powerful punch against disease-causing bacteria
November 13, 2018 - AHA: Traumatic Childhood Could Increase Heart Disease Risk in Adulthood
November 13, 2018 - Feeling the Burn? | NIH News in Health
November 13, 2018 - Women’s birth canals in Kenya, Korea, Kansas not the same: study
November 13, 2018 - Fecal microbiota transplantation effective against ICI-associated colitis
November 13, 2018 - New physical activity guidelines released that urge people to “move more”
November 13, 2018 - Angiotensin receptor blockers improve sodium excretion in blacks
November 13, 2018 - New project seeks to address alarming injury rate in youth footballers
November 13, 2018 - Fish oil or omega 3 fatty acid supplements can prevent heart attacks finds study
November 13, 2018 - The Human Heart-in-a-Jar That Could One Day Replace Animal Testing
November 13, 2018 - Treat patients’ partners without a doctor visit
November 13, 2018 - Belgian beer landscape mapped using scientific insights
November 13, 2018 - ‘Master key’ gene has links to both ASD and schizophrenia
November 13, 2018 - Gladstone scientists gain new insights into the aging brain
November 13, 2018 - Drug therapy can improve outcomes for acutely ill heart patients
November 13, 2018 - Three landmark studies provide better understanding of sudden cardiac arrest
November 13, 2018 - Cholesterol control revised in the latest AHA/ACC guidelines
November 13, 2018 - Vulnerable young teenagers urgently need better sex education, say researchers
November 13, 2018 - Breakthrough research reveals how deadly pneumococcus avoids immune defenses
November 13, 2018 - Researchers discover possible path forward in preventing cancers tied to two viruses
November 13, 2018 - Wishes can help pediatric patients to get better over time
November 13, 2018 - Janssen Reports Positive Topline Results for FLAIR Phase 3 Study of a Novel, Long Acting Injectable Two-Drug Regimen for the treatment of HIV-1
November 13, 2018 - Experimental compound reduces Gulf War illness-like behavior in mice
Trauma researchers develop profile of commonalities among communities where mass shootings occur

Trauma researchers develop profile of commonalities among communities where mass shootings occur

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

A trauma research team has developed a profile of commonalities among communities where mass shootings have occurred. It includes a shortage of mental health professionals, a relative lack of socialization opportunities, higher rates of income inequality, and relatively high housing costs, according to findings presented today at the American College of Surgeons Clinical Congress 2018.

The study, led by Stephen F. Markowiak, MD, a general surgery research fellow at the University of Toledo (Ohio), used data from the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the U.S. Census, Centers for Disease Control, National Institutes of Health, and Robert Wood Johnson Foundation to study social factors of communities where 155 mass shootings in the United States occurred. This study defined mass shootings as those with four or more fatalities, excluding those with a clear motive, such as robbery or gang-related activities. “In general, the communities in which these multiple-shooting events have historically happened are much less healthy compared with national averages,” Dr. Markowiak said.

Ironically, study results showed that communities in states with the strictest gun laws had a 53 percent greater risk of mass shootings. “The counties in the states that have strict gun laws, such as California and New York, actually have a high incidence of these multiple-shooting events, and that holds true even when you control for urbanicity,” Dr. Markowiak said. This finding may seem to contradict other studies of gun violence, but Dr. Markowiak explained that apparent discrepancy. “Our data agrees that stricter gun laws are associated with less overall violent crimes,” he added. “It’s just that these multiple-shooting events appear to be an exception to that rule.”

However, study researchers identified two types of gun laws that stood out as having a correlation with a lower incidence of multiple shootings: mandatory reporting of mental health records to the National Incident Criminal Background Check System and restrictions on open carry of firearms. Dr. Markowiak hesitated to conclude that these laws have a protective effect in preventing mass shootings. “The other laws that we looked at really did not have an effect,” he said.

Access to mental-health professionals is one of the key social determinants of communities at risk of mass shootings. “Looking at our data, the mismatch of mental health providers per capita appears to place more urban communities at risk-;greater than the national median of 490 persons per provider,” Dr. Markowiak said.

Another key social determinant of at-risk communities was the average number of social interactions per person. “If you look at communities where these events occurred, the average individual had 10.5 to 11 people that they commonly associate with compared with an average of 13 or so close associations in communities where they didn’t occur,” he said. The study did not determine if this was the result of the rural or urban character of these communities, however.

The researchers also noted that people in at-risk communities engaged in less leisure-time physical activity, and the communities themselves were on average 30.7 percent less rural (p<0.001), 3.38 years younger (p<0.001), had a 3.07 percent higher incidence of overcrowding or lack of utilities (p <0.001), and had a higher ratio of income inequality.

“This study certainly draws attention to the consequences of physician shortages nationwide-;not so much at the level of service, but at the level of the primary-care physician and mental-health practitioners,” Dr. Markowiak said. “Traditionally, these shooting incidents get lot of attention because they come into the hospital as trauma, but they really need to be looked at more from a public health perspective as to the types of services we are going to provide for the community and what the implications are for the community.”

The goal of the study was to not promote any political position on gun violence. “We just wanted to see where the data was going to take us,” Dr. Markowiak said. “That’s what led to some of the more surprising findings.”

From a policy standpoint, the study pointed to a need for better national recordkeeping. “We know that research in the area of gun violence has been stifled dating back to the early 1990s due to Congressional inactions,” he said, referring to the Congressional mandate that bars the CDC from studying gun crimes.

But the study also points to a need for more community involvement. “If we focus on making our communities healthier places where people have access to doctors and healthy spaces, and we restore a sense of community, then I think our project indicates we may be less likely to see these mass shooting events occurring,” Dr. Markowiak said.

Source:

https://www.facs.org/media/press-releases/2018/markowiak102318

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles