Breaking News
April 26, 2019 - The Inflamed Brain | NIH News in Health
April 26, 2019 - Stress-free training may enhance surgical skill
April 26, 2019 - Newsom: California Leads On Prescription Drugs
April 26, 2019 - Exploring novel strategies to heal damage after a heart attack
April 26, 2019 - Small army of tiny robots can remove dental plaque
April 26, 2019 - Cellular communication in emotion-processing brain region motivates us to keep eating tasty food
April 26, 2019 - Greater spousal life satisfaction associated with lower mortality risk
April 26, 2019 - Genetic mutations in brain development lead to discovery of rare genetic diseases
April 26, 2019 - Speech-Based Algorithm Helps ID Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
April 26, 2019 - First birth via robot-assisted uterus transplant
April 26, 2019 - CircRNAs bind to dsRNA-activated protein kinase which is linked to innate immunity
April 26, 2019 - MR Solutions wins third Queen’s Award
April 26, 2019 - Study details how optimism can bias prognosis in serious illness
April 26, 2019 - Vascular surgery after firearm injury linked with higher morbidity and mortality
April 26, 2019 - New findings about aggressive blood cancer may help develop drugs with less harmful side effects
April 26, 2019 - People with intense feelings of responsibility susceptible to developing OCD, anxiety
April 26, 2019 - Despite expansion of insurance coverage for depression, treatment rates are lower than expected
April 26, 2019 - Huge Malaria vaccine trial in Malawi
April 26, 2019 - Can Obesity Shrink Your Brain?
April 26, 2019 - This oral appliance could help you (and your partner) sleep better
April 26, 2019 - Myelination deficits cause abnormal hypersocial behavior associated with Williams syndrome
April 26, 2019 - New sepsis detector uses photonics to make accurate diagnosis in less than thirty minutes
April 26, 2019 - New study describes process to diagnose rare genetic diseases in record time
April 26, 2019 - Scientists and patients gather in Vancouver to discuss about Stevens-Johnson syndrome
April 26, 2019 - Advance in breakthrough cancer treatment eliminates serious side effects
April 26, 2019 - Discovery about cold sensing could pave way for new pain relief drugs
April 26, 2019 - Children often turn to sugary drinks instead of water
April 26, 2019 - Genome analysis shows the combined effect of many genes on cognitive traits
April 26, 2019 - Patients Caught In Middle Of Fight Between Health Care Behemoths
April 26, 2019 - Drug overdoses among adolescents and young adults on the rise
April 26, 2019 - Implementing a Paperless QC Micro Laboratory”
April 25, 2019 - Obesity linked to a reduction in gray matter
April 25, 2019 - Smart assistants could help combat opioid crisis
April 25, 2019 - Diagnostic stewardship strategy reduces inappropriate testing
April 25, 2019 - Three-antibiotic cocktail eradicates ‘persister’ Lyme bacteria in mouse model
April 25, 2019 - Study investigates how early blindness shapes sound processing
April 25, 2019 - Outcomes Worse for Cancer Patients Seen at Noncancer EDs
April 25, 2019 - Link found between temperament of high-risk infants and obesity
April 25, 2019 - Al Letson explores ties between journalists and doctors at Medicine and the Muse symposium
April 25, 2019 - New mobile phone game can detect people at risk of Alzheimer’s
April 25, 2019 - Scientists discover trigger region for absence epileptic seizures
April 25, 2019 - Stretchy wearable patch can do a health check while you work out
April 25, 2019 - Exercise activates brain circuits associated with memory in older adults
April 25, 2019 - Veggies, Fruits and Grains Keep Your Heart Pumping
April 25, 2019 - Healthy meal kits can boost children’s long-term health
April 25, 2019 - Designing an inexpensive surgical headlight: A Q&A with a Stanford surgeon
April 25, 2019 - States Weigh Banning A Widely Used Pesticide Even Though EPA Won’t
April 25, 2019 - Integrator complex proteins are crucial for healthy brain development in fruit flies, study finds
April 25, 2019 - Device converts brain signals into speech, offering hope for patients
April 25, 2019 - Measles vaccination rates are a ‘public health time bomb’
April 25, 2019 - Maths made easier for scientists students who shun the subject wins award
April 25, 2019 - Researchers decode how cancer drug works in brains of Parkinson’s disease patients
April 25, 2019 - Smarter Brain Cancer Trial Comes to Columbia
April 25, 2019 - Researchers Seek Sage Advice Of Elders On Aging Issues
April 25, 2019 - New chemical synthesis strategy leads to identification of novel, simpler derivatives
April 25, 2019 - Vanderbilt investigators discover link between vascular biology and eye disease
April 25, 2019 - Feces transplantation is effective and provides economic benefits
April 25, 2019 - Eisenhower Health first in Southern California to offer new lung valve treatment for COPD/emphysema
April 25, 2019 - Johns Hopkins researchers uncover role of neurotransmitter in the spread of aggressive cancers
April 25, 2019 - Porvair Sciences offers highly effective P3 microplate for biological sample clean-up
April 25, 2019 - Air pollution increases risk for respiratory hospitalization among childhood cancer survivors
April 25, 2019 - We are sitting more! How bad is that?
April 25, 2019 - Majority of stroke survivors not screened for osteoporosis, despite increased risk
April 25, 2019 - ADHD Screening: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information
April 25, 2019 - Cellular alterations increase vulnerability of obese and diabetic individuals to infection
April 25, 2019 - Association Insurance Pushes On Despite Court Ruling
April 25, 2019 - Traditional and e-cigarette users may be more receptive to smoking cessation interventions
April 25, 2019 - Delving into tumor’s cellular lineage may offer clues for customized therapies
April 25, 2019 - Two studies uncover brain mechanisms underlying decision making process
April 25, 2019 - Cardiometabolic Risk Better ID’d in Children Reclassified to Higher BP
April 25, 2019 - How the obesity epidemic is taking a toll on our bones and joints
April 25, 2019 - E-cigarettes contaminated with dangerous microbial toxins
April 25, 2019 - Researchers document specific characteristics of storefront tobacco advertisements
April 25, 2019 - Oncotype DX-guided treatment could reduce cost for breast cancer care, study suggests
April 25, 2019 - Predicting whether a patient will benefit from chemotherapy
April 25, 2019 - New review highlights how lifestyle affects our genes
April 25, 2019 - Study provides evidence that blood tests can detect Alzheimer’s risk
April 25, 2019 - Computer program mimics natural speech using brain signals from epilepsy patients
April 25, 2019 - Physicians turning to antibiotic alternatives for long-term acne treatment
April 25, 2019 - Preschool Is Prime Time to Teach Healthy Lifestyle Habits
Research shows link between immune responses and environmental exposures early in life

Research shows link between immune responses and environmental exposures early in life

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

The prevalence of allergic diseases has increased significantly over the last decades, creating substantial financial and societal burdens. Due to this, researchers are trying to discover new approaches to the prevention and treatment of these diseases. A new PhD thesis from the University of Eastern Finland shows that there is a link between immune responses and diverse early life exposures, such as obstetric factors, farm dust and air pollution. Some changes in immune responses are visible up until adolescence.

There is strong evidence that different exposures early in life can alter the risk of allergic diseases. One of these exposures is farming. Exposure to the farm environment in childhood, and even prenatally, has been shown to decrease the risk of allergic diseases. On the other hand, being born by cesarean section is recognized as a risk factor. The roles of other obstetric factors are less studied. Another harmful exposure is air pollution, and especially exposure to particulate matter, which has been shown to increase asthma prevalence and exacerbations in children. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear, causing a delay in the development of asthma-preventive strategies.

Earlier studies have shown that immunological development and maturation starts already during pregnancy and in early childhood. Therefore, exposure at this critical point of immune development may modify immune responses and cells, and thus influence the risk of allergies and other immune diseases.

The study explored how different exposures during pregnancy, birth or childhood modulate asthma-related immune responses in children. The study focused on three different exposures: one that is asthma-protective (farming) and two that predispose to asthma (cesarean section and air pollution).

“We studied whether circulating dendritic cells associate with farming, asthma or atopy, whether obstetric factors affect immune responses at teenage in children born by cesarean section, and whether farm dust and urban air particulate matter have immunomodulatory effects on children’s circulating immune cells,” says Early Stage Researcher Maria-Viola Martikainen, MSc, from the University of Eastern Finland.

To answer these questions, the researchers studied associations between exposures and immunological responses. Circulating dendritic cell subsets of farm and non-farm children were examined at the age of 6 to assess whether they mediated the protective effect of farm exposure. Cytokine secretion of unstimulated and stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells, PBMCs, at teenage were examined to identify whether obstetric factors alter immune responses later in life.  PBMCs of 4-year-old children were stimulated with farm dust and size-segregated particulate matter to discover shared and distinct immune pathways between two different environmental exposures.

The studied environmental exposures were associated with asthma-related immune responses. Inverse association between farm exposure and one of the subsets studied, and the association between this subset and asthma in farm children, suggested that this subset plays a role in farm-related immunoregulation. On the other hand, the lack of natural birth processes during delivery and neonatal intensive care treatment seemed to lead to long-lasting alterations of immune responses. The observed stimulatory effects of farm dust and inhibitory effects of particulate matter on immune responses indicate that these exposures could modify responses towards respiratory pathogens and allergens, and partly explain differences in asthma prevalence between the studied environments.

The study demonstrated associations between diverse early life exposures and immune responses, both ex vivo and in vitro. Some changes in immune responses seemed to be observable up to teenage. The study revealed some of the potential immunological mechanisms behind different exposures and advanced knowledge of immune mechanisms that either protect from or predispose to asthma. Moreover, the developed methodological approach offered a new perspective, which could be used when studying environment-related immune diseases and their mechanisms. These studies suggest that acquiring comparable data from various exposure environments could lead to the discovery of new immunological pathways and provide novel tools for risk assessment and for the development of preventive strategies.

Source:

http://www.uef.fi/-/environmental-exposures-early-in-life-modify-immune-responses-effects-visible-even-in-adolescence

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles