Breaking News
February 16, 2019 - Therapeutic endoscopy has an expanding role in the treatment of IBD
February 16, 2019 - Catalyst Biosciences Presents Updated Data from Its Phase 2/3 Trial of Subcutaneous Marzeptacog Alfa (Activated) in Individuals with Hemophilia A or B with Inhibitors at the 12th Annual EAHAD Congress
February 16, 2019 - Rerouting nerves during amputation reduces phantom limb pain before it starts
February 16, 2019 - A Hormone Produced When We Exercise Might Help Fight Alzheimer’s
February 16, 2019 - Millions of British people breathe toxic air travelling to GPs
February 16, 2019 - Conformance of genetic characteristics found to be crucial for longer preservation of kidney graft
February 16, 2019 - Researchers use optogenetic tool to control, visualize receptor signals in neural cells
February 16, 2019 - New reversible antiplatelet therapy could reduce risk of blood clots, prevent cancer metastasis
February 16, 2019 - Testosterone is not the only hormone needed for penis development
February 16, 2019 - FDA Advisory Committee Recommends Approval of Spravato (esketamine) Nasal Spray for Adults with Treatment-Resistant Depression
February 15, 2019 - Heart surgery technology developed at Baptist Health debuts after years of secrecy
February 15, 2019 - Prescription Opioids Double Risk of Triggering Fatal Car Crash
February 15, 2019 - New study helps doctors better understand high blood pressure in pregnant women
February 15, 2019 - Beta wave control in Parkinson’s diseased brain could be a potential therapy
February 15, 2019 - Media representations of love may justify gender-based violence in young people
February 15, 2019 - Yoga May Help With Rheumatoid Arthritis Symptoms, Severity
February 15, 2019 - Obstructive sleep apnea linked to inflammation, organ dysfunction
February 15, 2019 - Master your mind: A challenge from WELL for Life
February 15, 2019 - Why Some Brain Tumors Respond to Immunotherapy
February 15, 2019 - Must-Reads Of The Week From Brianna Labuskes
February 15, 2019 - Researchers uncover novel mechanism and potential new therapeutic target for Alzheimer’s
February 15, 2019 - Genetic variations in a fourth gene associated with higher ALL risk in Hispanic children
February 15, 2019 - Disruptive behavioral problems in kindergarten linked with lower employment earnings in adulthood
February 15, 2019 - New bioengineered device enhances the production of T-cells
February 15, 2019 - HDL proteome behaves like a tiny Velcro ball that is rolling on surfaces
February 15, 2019 - Puerto Rican children more likely to have poor or decreasing use of asthma inhalers
February 15, 2019 - Quality of patient care does not improve after physician-hospital integration
February 15, 2019 - Synopsys release new software for implant design and patient-specific planning
February 15, 2019 - 6 out of 10 hip replacements last 25 years or longer
February 15, 2019 - Health Tip: What You Should Know About Antibiotics
February 15, 2019 - New research challenges medical consensus that adenoids and tonsils significantly shrink during teenage years
February 15, 2019 - Discovery of weakness in a rare cancer could be exploited with drugs
February 15, 2019 - UVA scientists find potential explanation for mysterious cell death in Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s
February 15, 2019 - New rules requiring female athletes to lower testosterone levels are based on flawed data
February 15, 2019 - Researchers comprehensively sequence the human immune system
February 15, 2019 - Researchers study animal venoms to identify new medicines for treating diseases
February 15, 2019 - Movement of wrist bones revealed by MRI and computer modeling
February 15, 2019 - Philips introduces new premium digital X-ray room to help shorten patient wait times
February 15, 2019 - Women fare worse than men following aortic heart surgery, study finds
February 15, 2019 - High-protein and low-calorie diet helps older adults lose weight safely, shows study
February 15, 2019 - Drug microdosing effects may not measure up to big expectations
February 15, 2019 - Discharged, Dismissed: ERs Often Miss Chance To Set Overdose Survivors On ‘Better Path’
February 15, 2019 - A digitized lab environment to be showcased at smartLAB 2019
February 15, 2019 - Scientists uncover main mechanisms of fluconazole drug resistance
February 15, 2019 - New study seeks to understand how colibactin causes cancer
February 15, 2019 - Photoacoustic imaging accurately measures the temperature of deep tissues
February 15, 2019 - Large study finds no association between phthalate exposure and breast cancer risk
February 15, 2019 - New research explains presence of ‘natural’ magnetism in human cells
February 15, 2019 - Bio-Rad launches new digital PCR system and kit for monitoring treatment response in CML patients
February 15, 2019 - Excessive daytime sleepiness in OSA patients linked to greater risk for cardiovascular diseases
February 15, 2019 - Scientists shed light on damaging cell effects linked to aging
February 15, 2019 - Celiac disease may be caused by stomach bug in childhood
February 15, 2019 - NHS performance figures highlight the true scale of Emergency Department crisis
February 15, 2019 - High intensity exercise may improve health by increasing gut microbiota diversity
February 15, 2019 - Apellis’ APL-2 Receives Orphan Drug Designation from the FDA for the Treatment of Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia
February 15, 2019 - Couples creating art or playing board games release ‘love hormone’
February 15, 2019 - Glimpsing The Future At Gargantuan Health Tech Showcase
February 15, 2019 - Common herbicide found to increase the risk of lymphoma
February 15, 2019 - Over-abundance of energy to cells could increase cancer risk
February 15, 2019 - Oxford Genetics appoints Jocelyne Bath as new Chief Operating Officer
February 15, 2019 - Castration-resistant metastatic prostate cancer responds to combination of immune checkpoint inhibitors
February 15, 2019 - Large-scale clinical trial begins to study liver transplantation between people with HIV
February 15, 2019 - Cannabis use among adolescents linked with increased risk of depression in adulthood
February 15, 2019 - Fractures, head injuries common in electric scooter accidents, UCLA study finds
February 15, 2019 - Prenatal maternal depression has important consequences for infant temperament, study shows
February 15, 2019 - Stereotactic body radiotherapy effective in treating men with low- or intermediate-risk prostate cancer
February 15, 2019 - Zogenix Submits New Drug Application to U.S. Food & Drug Administration for Fintepla for the Treatment of Dravet Syndrome
February 15, 2019 - Certain birthmarks warrant quick treatment, pediatricians say
February 15, 2019 - New machine learning method predicts if atypical ductal hyperplasia will turn cancerous
February 15, 2019 - Whole-genome sequencing and sharing real-time data could limit spread of foodborne bacteria
February 15, 2019 - FDA warns doctor for illegally marketing unapproved implantable device
February 15, 2019 - New injury documentation tool may provide better evidence for elder abuse cases
February 15, 2019 - Physiological age is a better predictor of survival than chronological age, shows study
February 15, 2019 - New study reveals high success rate for hip and knee replacements
February 15, 2019 - Prenatal exposures to BPA may pose threat to human ovarian function
February 15, 2019 - Suspicious spots on the lungs of children with rhabdomyosarcoma do not behave like metastases
February 15, 2019 - Diet drinks daily could raise stroke risk says study
February 15, 2019 - Many Systematic Reviews Do Not Fully Report Adverse Events
February 15, 2019 - Seven tips to protect your child from burns
February 15, 2019 - Keynote speakers announced for CBD Expo MIDWEST
Research shows link between immune responses and environmental exposures early in life

Research shows link between immune responses and environmental exposures early in life

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

The prevalence of allergic diseases has increased significantly over the last decades, creating substantial financial and societal burdens. Due to this, researchers are trying to discover new approaches to the prevention and treatment of these diseases. A new PhD thesis from the University of Eastern Finland shows that there is a link between immune responses and diverse early life exposures, such as obstetric factors, farm dust and air pollution. Some changes in immune responses are visible up until adolescence.

There is strong evidence that different exposures early in life can alter the risk of allergic diseases. One of these exposures is farming. Exposure to the farm environment in childhood, and even prenatally, has been shown to decrease the risk of allergic diseases. On the other hand, being born by cesarean section is recognized as a risk factor. The roles of other obstetric factors are less studied. Another harmful exposure is air pollution, and especially exposure to particulate matter, which has been shown to increase asthma prevalence and exacerbations in children. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear, causing a delay in the development of asthma-preventive strategies.

Earlier studies have shown that immunological development and maturation starts already during pregnancy and in early childhood. Therefore, exposure at this critical point of immune development may modify immune responses and cells, and thus influence the risk of allergies and other immune diseases.

The study explored how different exposures during pregnancy, birth or childhood modulate asthma-related immune responses in children. The study focused on three different exposures: one that is asthma-protective (farming) and two that predispose to asthma (cesarean section and air pollution).

“We studied whether circulating dendritic cells associate with farming, asthma or atopy, whether obstetric factors affect immune responses at teenage in children born by cesarean section, and whether farm dust and urban air particulate matter have immunomodulatory effects on children’s circulating immune cells,” says Early Stage Researcher Maria-Viola Martikainen, MSc, from the University of Eastern Finland.

To answer these questions, the researchers studied associations between exposures and immunological responses. Circulating dendritic cell subsets of farm and non-farm children were examined at the age of 6 to assess whether they mediated the protective effect of farm exposure. Cytokine secretion of unstimulated and stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells, PBMCs, at teenage were examined to identify whether obstetric factors alter immune responses later in life.  PBMCs of 4-year-old children were stimulated with farm dust and size-segregated particulate matter to discover shared and distinct immune pathways between two different environmental exposures.

The studied environmental exposures were associated with asthma-related immune responses. Inverse association between farm exposure and one of the subsets studied, and the association between this subset and asthma in farm children, suggested that this subset plays a role in farm-related immunoregulation. On the other hand, the lack of natural birth processes during delivery and neonatal intensive care treatment seemed to lead to long-lasting alterations of immune responses. The observed stimulatory effects of farm dust and inhibitory effects of particulate matter on immune responses indicate that these exposures could modify responses towards respiratory pathogens and allergens, and partly explain differences in asthma prevalence between the studied environments.

The study demonstrated associations between diverse early life exposures and immune responses, both ex vivo and in vitro. Some changes in immune responses seemed to be observable up to teenage. The study revealed some of the potential immunological mechanisms behind different exposures and advanced knowledge of immune mechanisms that either protect from or predispose to asthma. Moreover, the developed methodological approach offered a new perspective, which could be used when studying environment-related immune diseases and their mechanisms. These studies suggest that acquiring comparable data from various exposure environments could lead to the discovery of new immunological pathways and provide novel tools for risk assessment and for the development of preventive strategies.

Source:

http://www.uef.fi/-/environmental-exposures-early-in-life-modify-immune-responses-effects-visible-even-in-adolescence

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles