Breaking News
April 26, 2019 - Porvair Sciences’ ultra-flat Krystal glass bottom microplates for imaging applications
April 26, 2019 - Medicines Discovery Catapult’s Virtual R&D Discovery Services platform announce twenty-two partnerships
April 26, 2019 - How optimism can bias prognosis in serious illness
April 26, 2019 - Hospitals Chafe Under Medicare’s New Payment Rule For Off-Campus Clinics
April 26, 2019 - New drug minimizes damage after a heart attack by 60 percent
April 26, 2019 - Synthesizing Modified and Pharmaceutically Relevant Peptides
April 26, 2019 - Using blood thinners in heart failure patients associated with reduced risk of thromboembolic events
April 26, 2019 - Study finds different amounts of physical therapy for stroke patients
April 26, 2019 - Psychologists study how application of cortisol affects exposure therapy for anxiety disorders
April 26, 2019 - SibFU scientists create multilayer gilded nanodisks for medical applications
April 26, 2019 - Marking the start of Pediatric Sepsis Week
April 26, 2019 - The Inflamed Brain | NIH News in Health
April 26, 2019 - Stress-free training may enhance surgical skill
April 26, 2019 - Newsom: California Leads On Prescription Drugs
April 26, 2019 - Exploring novel strategies to heal damage after a heart attack
April 26, 2019 - Small army of tiny robots can remove dental plaque
April 26, 2019 - Cellular communication in emotion-processing brain region motivates us to keep eating tasty food
April 26, 2019 - Greater spousal life satisfaction associated with lower mortality risk
April 26, 2019 - Genetic mutations in brain development lead to discovery of rare genetic diseases
April 26, 2019 - Speech-Based Algorithm Helps ID Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
April 26, 2019 - First birth via robot-assisted uterus transplant
April 26, 2019 - Studies verify novel method of HIV transmission among injection drug users and effective prevention
April 26, 2019 - CircRNAs bind to dsRNA-activated protein kinase which is linked to innate immunity
April 26, 2019 - MR Solutions wins third Queen’s Award
April 26, 2019 - Study details how optimism can bias prognosis in serious illness
April 26, 2019 - Vascular surgery after firearm injury linked with higher morbidity and mortality
April 26, 2019 - New findings about aggressive blood cancer may help develop drugs with less harmful side effects
April 26, 2019 - People with intense feelings of responsibility susceptible to developing OCD, anxiety
April 26, 2019 - Despite expansion of insurance coverage for depression, treatment rates are lower than expected
April 26, 2019 - Huge Malaria vaccine trial in Malawi
April 26, 2019 - Can Obesity Shrink Your Brain?
April 26, 2019 - This oral appliance could help you (and your partner) sleep better
April 26, 2019 - Myelination deficits cause abnormal hypersocial behavior associated with Williams syndrome
April 26, 2019 - New sepsis detector uses photonics to make accurate diagnosis in less than thirty minutes
April 26, 2019 - New study describes process to diagnose rare genetic diseases in record time
April 26, 2019 - Scientists and patients gather in Vancouver to discuss about Stevens-Johnson syndrome
April 26, 2019 - Advance in breakthrough cancer treatment eliminates serious side effects
April 26, 2019 - Discovery about cold sensing could pave way for new pain relief drugs
April 26, 2019 - Children often turn to sugary drinks instead of water
April 26, 2019 - Genome analysis shows the combined effect of many genes on cognitive traits
April 26, 2019 - Patients Caught In Middle Of Fight Between Health Care Behemoths
April 26, 2019 - Drug overdoses among adolescents and young adults on the rise
April 26, 2019 - Implementing a Paperless QC Micro Laboratory”
April 25, 2019 - Obesity linked to a reduction in gray matter
April 25, 2019 - Smart assistants could help combat opioid crisis
April 25, 2019 - Diagnostic stewardship strategy reduces inappropriate testing
April 25, 2019 - Three-antibiotic cocktail eradicates ‘persister’ Lyme bacteria in mouse model
April 25, 2019 - Study investigates how early blindness shapes sound processing
April 25, 2019 - Outcomes Worse for Cancer Patients Seen at Noncancer EDs
April 25, 2019 - Link found between temperament of high-risk infants and obesity
April 25, 2019 - Al Letson explores ties between journalists and doctors at Medicine and the Muse symposium
April 25, 2019 - New mobile phone game can detect people at risk of Alzheimer’s
April 25, 2019 - Scientists discover trigger region for absence epileptic seizures
April 25, 2019 - Stretchy wearable patch can do a health check while you work out
April 25, 2019 - Exercise activates brain circuits associated with memory in older adults
April 25, 2019 - Veggies, Fruits and Grains Keep Your Heart Pumping
April 25, 2019 - Healthy meal kits can boost children’s long-term health
April 25, 2019 - Designing an inexpensive surgical headlight: A Q&A with a Stanford surgeon
April 25, 2019 - States Weigh Banning A Widely Used Pesticide Even Though EPA Won’t
April 25, 2019 - Integrator complex proteins are crucial for healthy brain development in fruit flies, study finds
April 25, 2019 - Device converts brain signals into speech, offering hope for patients
April 25, 2019 - Measles vaccination rates are a ‘public health time bomb’
April 25, 2019 - Maths made easier for scientists students who shun the subject wins award
April 25, 2019 - Researchers decode how cancer drug works in brains of Parkinson’s disease patients
April 25, 2019 - Smarter Brain Cancer Trial Comes to Columbia
April 25, 2019 - Researchers Seek Sage Advice Of Elders On Aging Issues
April 25, 2019 - New chemical synthesis strategy leads to identification of novel, simpler derivatives
April 25, 2019 - Vanderbilt investigators discover link between vascular biology and eye disease
April 25, 2019 - Feces transplantation is effective and provides economic benefits
April 25, 2019 - Eisenhower Health first in Southern California to offer new lung valve treatment for COPD/emphysema
April 25, 2019 - Johns Hopkins researchers uncover role of neurotransmitter in the spread of aggressive cancers
April 25, 2019 - Porvair Sciences offers highly effective P3 microplate for biological sample clean-up
April 25, 2019 - Air pollution increases risk for respiratory hospitalization among childhood cancer survivors
April 25, 2019 - We are sitting more! How bad is that?
April 25, 2019 - Majority of stroke survivors not screened for osteoporosis, despite increased risk
April 25, 2019 - ADHD Screening: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information
April 25, 2019 - Cellular alterations increase vulnerability of obese and diabetic individuals to infection
April 25, 2019 - Association Insurance Pushes On Despite Court Ruling
April 25, 2019 - Traditional and e-cigarette users may be more receptive to smoking cessation interventions
April 25, 2019 - Delving into tumor’s cellular lineage may offer clues for customized therapies
Scientists support original theory about pancreas regeneration

Scientists support original theory about pancreas regeneration

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

A contentious debate among diabetes researchers has surrounded the regeneration of pancreatic insulin-producing cells: not if these cells regenerate, but rather how.

The long-held view that the islets of Langerhans can be replenished from pancreatic stem cells (progenitors) was replaced over the last decade by the notion that islets self-duplicate from existing cells. Now, in a manuscript published online in Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism, scientists from the Diabetes Research Institute at the University of Miami draw categorical conclusions in support of the original theory that progenitors in the pancreas do exist and, moreover, that these stem cells may regenerate in human patients. The ability to regrow a person’s own insulin-producing cells would address a major challenge in type 1 diabetes and represent a significant step toward developing a biological cure for this life-threatening disease.

“We have demonstrated that there are progenitors in the adult pancreas, not only in mice but in humans, which is a very important clarification, and that those cells can potentially be stimulated through pharmacological means to induce regeneration in patients with type 1 diabetes. That is the ‘Holy Grail’ of what we are trying to achieve here at the DRI,” said Juan Dominguez-Bendala, Ph.D., director of pancreatic stem cell development for translational research and co-author of the paper with Ricardo Pastori, Ph.D., director of molecular biology.

Flawed Techniques Shift the Hypothesis

In the 1980s, researchers logically concluded that the pancreas harbors progenitor cells capable of regenerating endocrine (insulin-producing) cells after an islet was photographed sprouting from an adult pancreatic duct. Over the three decades that followed, dozens of reports further reinforced the idea that a variety of growth factors could stimulate ductal cells to differentiate into all pancreatic cell types, including insulin-producing cells.

That long-standing view was challenged in 2004, when tests using lineage tracing (LT), a technique that tracks the origin of a cell’s development, performed in mice, showed that the insulin-producing cells were replenished by replication of existing cells, rather than from the growth of new ones. While the study did not disprove the existence of progenitor cells, it succeeded in shifting the prevailing thought in the scientific community.

According to the DRI team, however, those conclusions were largely derived using an unreliable tool in an inadequate model. Striking differences between islets of mice and humans are not simply a matter of scale. There are vast anatomic and functional differences between the islets of these two species that call into question the validity of the mouse model to draw conclusions about pancreatic regeneration in humans.

The use of lineage tracing in rodents has also yielded contradictory results. While LT is a powerful tool that has been used for several decades to track the path and origins of stem-cell maturation, it has a number of limitations and carries a potential bias in scientific outcomes.

“The hypothesis that the pancreas harbors progenitor cells has been discredited for a number of years, but we believe that many of the techniques used to reach that conclusion were flawed. We have found profound differences in the behavior of human cells vs. mouse cells in the pancreas and we think it’s important to highlight and emphasize the regeneration processes in human cells,” said Dr. Dominguez-Bendala. “Clearly, our work and the work of others is actually contributing to the notion that we have stem cells in the adult pancreas, and that we can potentially exploit those cells to our benefit for the treatment of type 1 diabetes.”

Harnessing the Body’s Ability to Heal Itself

Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition in which the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas have been mistakenly destroyed by the immune system, requiring patients to manage their blood sugar levels through a daily regimen of insulin therapy. Islet transplantation has allowed some patients with type 1 diabetes to live without the need for insulin injections after receiving infusions of donor cells. However, there are not enough cells to treat the millions of patients who can benefit. Thus far, research efforts have focused primarily on creating more pancreatic cells for transplant from sources like embryonic (hESc), pluripotent (hPSc) and adult stem cells, and porcine (pig) islets, among others. A more efficient and potentially safer solution could lie in regenerating a patient’s own insulin-producing cells, sidestepping the need to transplant donor tissue altogether and eliminating other immune-related roadblocks.

“If we could give the patient something that will promote the proliferation and subsequent differentiation of those cells that are already in the pancreas into beta cells while controlling autoimmunity, we could harness the natural ability of the body to heal itself. We think that would open a whole new therapeutic horizon,” said Dr. Dominguez-Bendala.

Source:

https://www.diabetesresearch.org/is-the-pancreas-regeneration-debate-settled

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles