Breaking News
February 21, 2019 - Gaming system helps with autism diagnosis
February 21, 2019 - Heart Disease: Six Things Women Should Know
February 21, 2019 - More States Say Doctors Must Offer Overdose Reversal Drug Along With Opioids
February 21, 2019 - Researchers explore case studies focused on industries that kill more people than employed
February 21, 2019 - Intense exercise, fasting and hormones can enhance waste-protein removal, study shows
February 21, 2019 - Scientists can monitor brain activity to predict epileptic seizures few minutes in advance
February 21, 2019 - Study quantifies hepatic and intestinal mRNA expression of Ugt isoforms in rats
February 21, 2019 - ‘Apple-Shaped’ Body? ‘Pear-Shaped’? Your Genes May Tell
February 21, 2019 - Can we repair the brain? The promise of stem cell technologies for treating Parkinson’s disease
February 21, 2019 - Trump Plan To Beat HIV Hits Rough Road In Rural America
February 21, 2019 - PENTAX Medical introduces new electrosurgical and argon plasma coagulation platforms
February 21, 2019 - Trump plan to beat HIV hits rough road in rural America
February 21, 2019 - Eating blueberries every day could help decrease blood pressure
February 21, 2019 - ‘No Second Chances’ report calls for new measures to combat cardiovascular disease in Australia
February 21, 2019 - Mayo clinic researchers discuss local case studies of leprosy
February 21, 2019 - Scientists demonstrate key role of salt in allergic immune reactions
February 21, 2019 - Experts propose revising the criteria for diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease
February 21, 2019 - The med student and the machine
February 21, 2019 - Hey, Hey! Ho, Ho! Is Striking For School Nurses The Way To Go?
February 21, 2019 - Latest research encourages children to move out and learn through physical activity
February 21, 2019 - Proper oral hygiene and regular visits to dentist can promote heart health
February 21, 2019 - New, versatile technique for remote control of transplanted cells in Parkinson’s
February 21, 2019 - Why melanoma tumors in the brain may be worse?
February 21, 2019 - New project aims to improve lung disease care in Appalachia
February 21, 2019 - Drug increases melanin production in some people with albinism
February 21, 2019 - Over 1 in 3 adults miss the mark on protein, finds study
February 21, 2019 - CymaBay Therapeutics Announces Seladelpar Granted Breakthrough Therapy Designation by the FDA for the Treatment of Primary Biliary Cholangitis
February 21, 2019 - A correlation between obesity and income has only developed in the past 30 years
February 21, 2019 - Baby, then work: An effort to help resident-parents in emergency medicine
February 21, 2019 - Heavy cigarette smoking could damage vision, say researchers
February 21, 2019 - Some drug combinations may be more effective than others for schizophrenic patients
February 21, 2019 - Combination of common antibiotics can eliminate multi-drug resistant E. coli
February 21, 2019 - Number of calls to U.S. Poison Control regarding kratom exposure increased
February 21, 2019 - New computational tool searches for factors that cause specific diseases
February 21, 2019 - New method to assess effectiveness of psychotherapies for social anxiety disorder
February 21, 2019 - New technology measures hormones that influence reproductive health efficiently
February 21, 2019 - Bat influenza viruses could potentially attack the cells of humans and livestock
February 21, 2019 - Immunotherapeutic antibody therapy to kill cancer has now progressed to patient testing
February 21, 2019 - Johns Hopkins scientists find new compound that may prevent reperfusion injury
February 21, 2019 - Researchers develop new way to deliver treatment for cartilage regeneration
February 21, 2019 - Study sheds new light on left ventricular dysfunction in ischemic heart disease
February 21, 2019 - New technique could expedite cancer diagnosis, lead to better patient outcomes
February 21, 2019 - New map of infant brain may aid early diagnosis of autism
February 21, 2019 - Human consciousness depends on the brain’s ability to maintain dynamics of neural activity
February 21, 2019 - Harmony Biosciences Announces File Acceptance Of Its New Drug Application For Pitolisant
February 21, 2019 - Medications could fill treatment gap for adolescents with obesity
February 21, 2019 - New antibiotics are desperately needed: Machine learning could help | News Center
February 21, 2019 - Researchers develop new computer game for dementia carers
February 21, 2019 - University of Dundee partners with Takeda to develop new treatments for tau pathology
February 21, 2019 - Influenza vaccine may be less effective in elderly patients, finds study
February 21, 2019 - Researchers explain why T cells lose their protective ability in inflamed tissues
February 21, 2019 - New optimization method rapidly analyzes nanomedicines for cancer treatment
February 21, 2019 - Viruses in the intestinal tracts can lead to islet autoimmunity and Type 1 diabetes
February 21, 2019 - Link between dietary fatty acid intake and hypertension found to be influenced by diabetes status
February 21, 2019 - FDA Approves Esperoct (turoctocog alfa pegol, N8-GP) for Hemophilia A
February 21, 2019 - ‘Boy erased’—why conversion therapies and ex-gay ministries should be outlawed
February 21, 2019 - Titia de Lange to give annual McCormick Lecture on March 8 | News Center
February 21, 2019 - Study reveals how helper T cells support memory cells to function optimally
February 21, 2019 - Autistic children with co-occurring ADHD have greater adaptive behavior impairments
February 21, 2019 - Elevated levels of key cellular process implicated in intestinal inflammation and IBD
February 20, 2019 - Over Half of Hip Replacements Expected to Last 25 Years
February 20, 2019 - Microscopic eye movements affect how we see contrast
February 20, 2019 - Computer vs. patient: Fighting for residents’ attention | News Center
February 20, 2019 - New “Smart Drug” Shows Promise for Metastatic Triple-Negative Breast Cancer
February 20, 2019 - Researchers develop large-scale window material for high-efficiency PM2.5 capture
February 20, 2019 - Widespread confusion among consumers on food date labels lead to unnecessary discards
February 20, 2019 - Researchers unlock plant’s secret of producing specialized metabolites
February 20, 2019 - Newly released national framework identifies obstacles to improving EMS systems
February 20, 2019 - Exercise can shift human body clock depending on time when people work out
February 20, 2019 - Female adolescent blood donors more likely to have iron deficiency and related anemia
February 20, 2019 - Rubicon level linked to inhibition of autophagic process
February 20, 2019 - Researchers find potential therapeutic strategy to treat Alzheimer’s
February 20, 2019 - New forms of older anti-cancer agent appear to enhance immune response to fight melanoma
February 20, 2019 - Health Tip: Eat Less Saturated Fat
February 20, 2019 - Sleeping in contact lenses puts you at risk of dangerous infection
February 20, 2019 - “We should study that!”: How a nurse-scientist found her passion
February 20, 2019 - Cervical microbiome may influence HPV infection more than previously thought
February 20, 2019 - Sausage mislabeling in Canada is down, new study finds
February 20, 2019 - Study shows blood pressure benefits of morning exercise for older overweight/obese adults
February 20, 2019 - New screening method could catch organ rejection much earlier without a biopsy needle
Researchers develop new molecular tool to decode sugar-protein attachments

Researchers develop new molecular tool to decode sugar-protein attachments

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

Methodology could lead to identification of new markers for cancers, other diseases

Researchers at Johns Hopkins Medicine have developed a new molecular tool they call EXoO, which decodes where on proteins specific sugars are attached–a possible modification due to disease. The study, published in issue 14 of Molecular Systems Biology, describes the development of the tool and its successful use on human blood, tumors and immune cells.

Credit: iStock

Half of all proteins made in human cells have sugar molecules attached to them, the most common of which are N-glycans and O-glycans. Until now, O-glycans have been more difficult to study because there were not adequate tools to identify them. And, whereas proteins are coded and made according to the DNA blueprint, whether and how many sugars are attached to proteins can vary, especially in disease conditions.

The biggest challenge in the field of glycobiology has been to pin down what sugars are conjugated on where and on which proteins, and we’ve now developed a reliable way to do that. Moreover, we have shown that EXoO can be used in all types of samples including tissues, body fluids and cells.”

Weiming Yang, Ph.D., a research associate in pathology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

The team developed EXoO by combining different reactions and taking advantage of a process the team had developed for studying other sugar-linked proteins and a bacterial enzyme called OpeRATOR known to cut proteins at the attachment sites of O-glycans. In short, protein samples are first digested into smaller pieces, then those pieces are attached to a solid support, which is treated with the enzyme OpeRATOR that releases small pieces of proteins at the O-glycan attachment sites. Those bits of proteins then are analyzed to determine where the sugar is attached.

This was great. We showed that EXoO is the first tool that can both identify the site and define the site-specific glycan,”

Weiming Yang

To establish that the new process works, the team first used EXoO on a well-studied glycol-fetal calf protein, known to contain six potential O-glycan attachment sites. After running this protein through EXoO, the team was able to confirm all six known sites as well as identify a seventh site.

The team then asked if EXoO could be used on a larger scale with complex mixtures of proteins. So it applied the EXoO method to normal and cancerous kidney tissue samples from three patients with clear cell renal carcinoma, T cells and blood serum. From the kidney tissues, the researchers were able to map 35,848 protein pieces to 2,804 O-glycan-containing proteins with 1,781 attachment sites from 592 proteins; from the T cells, 4,623 protein pieces to 1,982 O-glycan proteins with 1,295 attachment sites from 590 proteins; and from blood serum, 6,157 protein pieces to 1,060 O-glycan proteins with 732 attachment sites from 306 total proteins.

Upon comparing its data to work done by others previously and collected in three glycoproteome databases, the research team’s results revealed 2,580 O-glycan sites that had never before been reported, an increase of 94 percent of known sites.

The researchers found 56 proteins that were different in O-glycan attachment when comparing normal to tumor kidney tissues, whereas two well-known proteins not associated with kidney cancer showed new changes in tumor cells compared to normal cells. The researchers say these results suggest that O-glycan attachments to proteins is dynamic and can be very specific to disease.

We are hopeful that this tool will be useful to researchers and those studying the roles of O-linked glycosylation in normal biology and diseases.”

Hui Zhang, Ph.D., M.S., a professor of pathology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and senior author on the report

Source:

https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/news/newsroom/news-releases/new-molecular-tool-identifies-sugar-protein-attachments

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles