Breaking News
January 18, 2019 - Researchers develop artificial enzymatic pathway for synthesizing isoprenoids in E. coli
January 18, 2019 - Scientists advise caution in immunotherapy research
January 18, 2019 - How children across the world develop language
January 18, 2019 - Columbia Medical Student Receives McDonogh Scholarship
January 18, 2019 - Secretive ‘Rebate Trap’ Keeps Generic Drugs For Diabetes And Other Ills Out Of Reach
January 18, 2019 - Plant based diet could be the best option for the planet says commission
January 18, 2019 - New conservation practice could reduce nitrogen from agricultural drainage, study shows
January 18, 2019 - UIC researchers receive $1.7 million NCI grant to study Southeast Asian fruit
January 18, 2019 - New study determines the fate of DNA derived from genetically modified food
January 18, 2019 - Scientists develop new gene therapy that prevents axon destruction in mice
January 18, 2019 - Study finds critically low HPV vaccination rates among younger adolescents in the U.S.
January 18, 2019 - Brain cells involved in memory play key role in reducing future eating behavior
January 18, 2019 - Risk for Conversion of MS Varies With Different Therapies
January 18, 2019 - Investigational cream may help patients with inflammatory skin disease
January 18, 2019 - Medical school news office receives six writing awards | News Center
January 18, 2019 - County By County, Researchers Link Opioid Deaths To Drugmakers’ Marketing
January 18, 2019 - Research reveals risk for developing more than one mental health disorder
January 18, 2019 - Scientists discover a dramatic pattern of bone growth in female mice
January 18, 2019 - Study finds link between lengthy periods of undisturbed maternal sleep and stillbirths
January 18, 2019 - New nuclear medicine method could improve detection of primary and metastatic melanoma
January 18, 2019 - Combination therapy shows high efficacy in treating people with leishmaniasis and HIV
January 18, 2019 - Health Tip: Don’t Ignore Changes in Skin Color
January 18, 2019 - Dietary Recommendations for Healthy Children
January 18, 2019 - Eliminating the latent reservoir of HIV
January 18, 2019 - Pain From The Government Shutdown Spreads. This Time It’s Food Stamps
January 18, 2019 - Newly discovered regulatory mechanism helps control fat metabolism
January 18, 2019 - New rapid blood tests could speed up TB diagnosis, save the NHS money
January 18, 2019 - Researchers develop intelligent system for ‘tuning’ powered prosthetic knees
January 18, 2019 - Monoclonal antibody pembrolizumab prolongs survival in patients with squamous cell carcinoma
January 18, 2019 - New research detects mosquito known to transmit malaria for the first time in Ethiopia
January 18, 2019 - ACCC survey finds multiple threats to growth of cancer programs
January 18, 2019 - Meeting the challenge of engaging men in HIV prevention and treatment
January 18, 2019 - Furloughed Feds’ Health Coverage Intact, But Shutdown Still Complicates Things
January 18, 2019 - Experts discuss various aspects on health risks posed by fumigated containers
January 18, 2019 - Researchers use gene-editing tool CRISPR/Cas9 to limit impact of parasitic diseases
January 18, 2019 - Alpha neurofeedback training could be a means of enhancing learning success
January 18, 2019 - Innovative ‘light’ method demonstrates positive results in fight against malignant tumors
January 18, 2019 - The cytoskeleton of neurons found to play role in Alzheimer’s disease
January 18, 2019 - New resource-based approach to improve HIV care in low- and middle-income countries
January 18, 2019 - Bedfont appoints Dr Jafar Jafari as first member of the Gastrolyzer Medical Advisory Board
January 18, 2019 - New study shows link between secondhand smoke and cardiac arrhythmia
January 18, 2019 - DZIF scientists reveal problems with available diagnostics for Zika and chikungunya virus
January 18, 2019 - Breast cancers more likely to metastasize in young women within 10 years of giving birth
January 18, 2019 - Over 5.6 million Americans exposed to high nitrate levels in drinking water
January 18, 2019 - Blood vessels can now be created perfectly in a petri dish
January 18, 2019 - Study identifies prominent socioeconomic and racial disparities in health behavior in Indiana
January 18, 2019 - Young-Onset Type 2 Diabetes Tied to Increased Hospitalization Risk
January 18, 2019 - For-profit nursing schools associated with lower performance on nurse licensure test
January 18, 2019 - Considering the culture of consent in medicine
January 18, 2019 - Researchers identify comprehensive guidelines for managing severe atopic dermatitis
January 18, 2019 - Analyzing proteins in blister fluid may classify burn severity more accurately
January 18, 2019 - Study finds higher suicide rates among youth who were Medicaid enrollees
January 18, 2019 - Opioid drugs often overprescribed to children for pain relief, say CHOP surgeons
January 18, 2019 - New biodegradable wound dressing material accelerates healing
January 18, 2019 - Life in Space May Take Toll on Spinal Muscles
January 18, 2019 - Bulldogs’ screw tails linked to human genetic disease
January 18, 2019 - Immunotherapy target identified for pediatric cancers
January 18, 2019 - Financial stress may increase heart disease risk in African Americans
January 18, 2019 - Scientists solve another piece of Ebola virus puzzle
January 18, 2019 - New project finds how endocrine disruptors interfere with thyroid functions
January 18, 2019 - Research finds decline in ketone body utilization when coronary circulation is reduced
January 18, 2019 - Let’s map our DNA and save billions each year in health costs
January 18, 2019 - AI demonstrates potential to identify irregular heart rhythms as well as humans
January 17, 2019 - Study shows link between air pollution and increased risk of sleep apnea
January 17, 2019 - Neck-strengthening exercises can protect athletes from concussions
January 17, 2019 - Computer model shows how to better control MRSA outbreaks
January 17, 2019 - Pain is unpleasant, and now scientists have identified the set of responsible neurons
January 17, 2019 - CUIMC Celebrates 2018-2019
January 17, 2019 - Study reveals potential pathway for endothelial cells to avoid apoptosis
January 17, 2019 - Hamilton Storage launches LabElite DeCapper SL to expand LabElite product family
January 17, 2019 - Location of epigenetic changes co-locate with genetic signal causing psychartric disorder
January 17, 2019 - Researchers awarded 6.1 million euros to address female fertility problems
January 17, 2019 - Counseling appointments fail to reduce weight gain during pregnancy, shows study
January 17, 2019 - Contraceptive patch that could provide 6 months of contraception within seconds
January 17, 2019 - Yeast model may pave way for development of novel therapies for metabolic disorders
January 17, 2019 - Study determines impact of antibiotic perturbation of the gut microbiome on skeletal health
January 17, 2019 - Cardiometabolic Risk Up With Tourette, Chronic Tic Disorder
January 17, 2019 - Hong Kong scientists claim ‘broad-spectrum’ antiviral breakthrough
January 17, 2019 - Researchers discover the brain cells that make pain unpleasant | News Center
January 17, 2019 - Hepatitis Is Common in New Cancer Patients
New strategy may prevent spread of drug resistance

New strategy may prevent spread of drug resistance

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

Study identifies key step in spread of drug resistance, opportunity for intervention

Spotless surfaces in hospitals can hide bacteria that rarely cause problems for healthy people but pose a serious threat to people with weakened immune systems. Acinetobacter baumannii causes life-threatening lung and bloodstream infections in hospitalized people. Such infections are among the most difficult to treat because these bacteria have evolved to withstand most antibiotics.

Now, researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have figured out a key step in the transmission of antibiotic resistance from one Acinetobacter bacterium to another, insight that sheds light on how antibiotic resistance spreads through a hospital or community.

The findings, published online Jan. 9 in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, open up a new strategy to safeguard our ability to treat bacterial infections with antibiotics. The research indicates that the effectiveness of current antibiotics may be somewhat preserved by curtailing the spread of antibiotic-resistance genes.

“The problem of superbugs that are resistant to all antibiotics is bigger than just Acinetobacter,” said senior author Mario Feldman, PhD, an associate professor of molecular microbiology. “What are we going to do when antibiotics don’t work anymore? We can look for new antibiotics, but bacteria will always find a way to develop resistance again. We have to stop resistance from spreading, too.”

Acinetobacter strains carry the genetic blueprints for drug resistance on small loops of DNA called plasmids that come in two sizes. Big plasmids, which are prone to accumulating ever more antibiotic-resistance genes, carry the genetic instructions to build a needle-like appendage to insert copies of themselves into nearby bacteria. Small plasmids, which contain resistance genes against a single but important group of antibiotics known as carbapenems, lack their own distribution tools so they invade new bacteria by tagging along with the large plasmids.

“Plasmids want to take over the world,” Feldman said. “Plasmids are selfish genetic elements that just want to procreate as much as possible, and they co-opt bacteria to do that. That is scary for us because the plasmids are very efficient at collecting antibiotic resistance. So as they reproduce and infect more bacteria, they spread drug resistance.”

The plasmids’ reproductive strategy requires close contact between two bacteria. But that raises a question: How do two bacteria ever get near enough to transmit plasmids to each other? Most Acinetobacter guard against strangers with a system that injects lethal proteins into any unrelated bacteria that approach too closely, thus reducing the changes of spreading antibiotic-resistance genes.

Feldman, along with first author and postdoctoral fellow Gisela Di Venanzio, PhD, and colleagues, mutated the plasmids to find out how they get around such bacterial defenses. Their work was supported in part by Washington University’s Faculty Diversity Scholars Program, which encourages recruitment of underrepresented minority scientists. Feldman and Di Venanzio are both from Argentina.

The researchers found that plasmids disable bacteria’s self-defense systems so that plasmids can inject copies of themselves into neighboring bacteria, conferring drug resistance on the unwitting bacterial neighbors. By forcing the bacteria in which they reside to lay down their weapons, the plasmid ensures that nearby bacteria aren’t killed before the plasmids can infect them. The researchers found that mutating plasmids so they could not interfere with the bacteria’s defenses ­- or mutating the bacteria so the defenses could not be lowered – prevented plasmids from spreading.

These findings provide a novel opening to interrupt the spread of drug resistance, the researchers said. The genes involved have been identified. Now researchers have to find compounds that prevent plasmids from disrupting bacterial-defense systems.

“If we found an inhibitor, we could clean hospital surfaces with it and prevent the dissemination of drug resistance,” Feldman said. “This is an out-of-the-box idea, but it’s what we need. If we just find new antibiotics, the bacteria will just become resistant again. We need to find therapies that don’t kill the bacteria but prevent it from becoming drug-resistant, so we can continue using our antibiotics into the future.”

About author

Related Articles