Breaking News
May 3, 2019 - Vaping and Smoking May Signal Greater Motivation to Quit
May 3, 2019 - Dementia looks different in brains of Hispanics
May 3, 2019 - Short-Staffed Nursing Homes See Drop In Medicare Ratings
May 3, 2019 - Study of teens with eating disorders explores how substance users differ from non-substance users
May 3, 2019 - Scientists develop new video game that may help in the study of Alzheimer’s
May 3, 2019 - Arc Bio introduces Galileo Pathogen Solution product line at ASM Clinical Virology Symposium
May 3, 2019 - Cornell University study uncovers relationship between starch digestion gene and gut bacteria
May 3, 2019 - How to Safely Use Glucose Meters and Test Strips for Diabetes
May 3, 2019 - Anti-inflammatory drugs ineffective for prevention of Alzheimer’s disease
May 3, 2019 - Study tracks Pennsylvania’s oil and gas waste-disposal practices
May 3, 2019 - Creating a better radiation diagnostic test for astronauts
May 3, 2019 - Vegans are often deficient in these four nutrients
May 3, 2019 - PPDC announces seed grants to develop medical devices for children
May 3, 2019 - Study maps out the frequency and impact of water polo head injuries
May 3, 2019 - Research on Reddit identifies risks associated with unproven treatments for opioid addiction
May 3, 2019 - Good smells may help ease tobacco cravings
May 3, 2019 - Medical financial hardship found to be very common among people in the United States
May 3, 2019 - Researchers develop multimodal system for personalized post-stroke rehabilitation
May 3, 2019 - Study shows significant mortality benefit with CABG over percutaneous coronary intervention
May 3, 2019 - Will gene-editing of human embryos ever be justifiable?
May 3, 2019 - FDA Approves Dengvaxia (dengue vaccine) for the Prevention of Dengue Disease in Endemic Regions
May 3, 2019 - Why Tonsillitis Keeps Coming Back
May 3, 2019 - Fighting the opioid epidemic with data
May 3, 2019 - Maggot sausages may soon be a reality
May 3, 2019 - Deletion of ATDC gene prevents development of pancreatic cancer in mice
May 2, 2019 - Targeted Therapy Promising for Rare Hematologic Cancer
May 2, 2019 - Alzheimer’s disease is a ‘double-prion disorder,’ study shows
May 2, 2019 - Reservoir bugs: How one bacterial menace makes its home in the human stomach
May 2, 2019 - Clinical, Admin Staff From Cardiology Get Sneak Peek at Epic
May 2, 2019 - Depression increases hospital use and mortality in children
May 2, 2019 - Vicon and NOC support CURE International to create first gait lab in Ethiopia
May 2, 2019 - Researchers use 3D printer to make paper organs
May 2, 2019 - Viral infection in utero associated with behavioral abnormalities in offspring
May 2, 2019 - U.S. Teen Opioid Deaths Soaring
May 2, 2019 - Opioid distribution data should be public
May 2, 2019 - In the Spotlight: “I’m learning every single day”
May 2, 2019 - 2019 Schaefer Scholars Announced
May 2, 2019 - Podcast: KHN’s ‘What The Health?’ Bye-Bye, ACA, And Hello ‘Medicare-For-All’?
May 2, 2019 - Study describes new viral molecular evasion mechanism used by cytomegalovirus
May 2, 2019 - SLU study suggests a more equitable way for Medicare reimbursement
May 2, 2019 - Scientists discover first gene involved in lower urinary tract obstruction
May 2, 2019 - Researchers identify 34 genes associated with increased risk of ovarian cancer
May 2, 2019 - Many low-income infants receive formula in the first few days of life, finds study
May 2, 2019 - Global study finds high success rate for hip and knee replacements
May 2, 2019 - Taking depression seriously: What is it?
May 2, 2019 - With Head Injuries Mounting, Will Cities Put Their Feet Down On E-Scooters?
May 2, 2019 - Scientists develop small fluorophores for tracking metabolites in living cells
May 2, 2019 - Study casts new light into how mothers’ and babies’ genes influence birth weight
May 2, 2019 - Researchers uncover new brain mechanisms regulating body weight
May 2, 2019 - Organ-on-chip systems offered to Asia-Pacific regions by Sydney’s AXT
May 2, 2019 - Adoption of new rules drops readmission penalties against safety net hospitals
May 2, 2019 - Kids and teens who consume zero-calorie sweetened beverages do not save calories
May 2, 2019 - Improved procedure for cancer-related erectile dysfunction
May 2, 2019 - Hormone may improve social behavior in autism
May 2, 2019 - Alzheimer’s disease may be caused by infectious proteins called prions
May 2, 2019 - Even Doctors Can’t Navigate Our ‘Broken Health Care System’
May 2, 2019 - Study looks at the impact on criminal persistence of head injuries
May 2, 2019 - Honey ‘as high in sugars as table sugar’
May 2, 2019 - Innovations to U.S. food system could help consumers in choosing healthy foods
May 2, 2019 - FDA Approves Mavyret (glecaprevir and pibrentasvir) as First Treatment for All Genotypes of Hepatitis C in Pediatric Patients
May 2, 2019 - Women underreport prevalence and intensity of their own snoring
May 2, 2019 - Concussion summit focuses on science behind brain injury
May 2, 2019 - Booker’s Argument For Environmental Justice Stays Within The Lines
May 2, 2019 - Cornell research explains increased metastatic cancer risk in diabetics
May 2, 2019 - Mount Sinai study provides fresh insights into cellular pathways that cause cancer
May 2, 2019 - Researchers to study link between prenatal pesticide exposures and childhood ADHD
May 2, 2019 - CoGEN Congress 2019: Speakers’ overviews
May 2, 2019 - A new strategy for managing diabetic macular edema in people with good vision
May 2, 2019 - Sagent Pharmaceuticals Issues Voluntary Nationwide Recall of Ketorolac Tromethamine Injection, USP, 60mg/2mL (30mg per mL) Due to Lack of Sterility Assurance
May 2, 2019 - Screen time associated with behavioral problems in preschoolers
May 2, 2019 - Hormone reduces social impairment in kids with autism | News Center
May 2, 2019 - Researchers synthesize peroxidase-mimicking nanozyme with low cost and superior catalytic activity
May 2, 2019 - Study results of a potential drug to treat Type 2 diabetes in children announced
May 2, 2019 - Multigene test helps doctors to make effective treatment decisions for breast cancer patients
May 2, 2019 - UNC School of Medicine initiative providing unique care to dementia patients
May 2, 2019 - Nestlé Health Science and VHP join forces to launch innovative COPES program for cancer patients
May 2, 2019 - Study examines how our brain generates consciousness and loses it during anesthesia
May 2, 2019 - Transition Support Program May Aid Young Adults With Type 1 Diabetes
May 2, 2019 - Study shows how neutrophils exacerbate atherosclerosis by inducing smooth muscle-cell death
May 2, 2019 - Research reveals complexity of how we make decisions
How the obesity epidemic is taking a toll on our bones and joints

How the obesity epidemic is taking a toll on our bones and joints

How the obesity epidemic is taking a toll on our bones and joints
Deb Baranec struggled with obesity and osteoarthritis for 30 years. Now she works out six days a week and has lost 190 pounds. Credit: Don Molyneaux, for the McCaig Institute for Bone and Joint Health

Deb Baranec wasn’t always obese. As a teenager, she carried a few extra pounds but managed it by being active. Her weight crept up, however, and by the time she suffered her first knee injury while skiing at the age of 27, she weighed close to 200 pounds.

Doctors advised Baranec to lose weight to relieve the stress on her knees. She went on the first of many diets, started working out, and lost 50 pounds. But eventually her knees hurt too much to continue exercising and her weight increased.

“I’d visit different doctors looking for a solution to my knee pain. I’d see a new orthopaedic surgeon, and be advised to come back when I lost weight. I would try a new diet or exercise program, lose weight, gain it back, and then, gain a bit more—to the point I was 354 lb.,” she says.

Unfortunately, stories like Baranec’s are becoming more common.

Obesity: A growing problem

According to the World Health Organization, worldwide obesity has nearly tripled since 1975. In 2016, 39 per cent of adults were considered overweight, and 13 per cent were obese (having a body mass index— or BMI—greater than or equal to 30). That’s bad news for our bones and joints.

Being overweight is one of the biggest risk factors for developing osteoarthritis (OA). Carrying too much weight causes joint instability and muscle weakness, and increases the load on bones and joints. OA prevalence across Canada has increased in correlation with an aging population and rising rates of obesity. The result is an increased demand for arthritis-related health services, including a marked rise in hip and knee replacements.

A team of McCaig Institute for Bone and Joint Health researchers, comprised of a nutrition expert, a pioneer in biomechanics and an inflammation scientist, are tackling the problem.

Can your diet cause inflammation?

Over a decade ago, UCalgary scientist and registered dietitian Dr. Raylene Reimer, Ph.D., RD, Faculty of Kinesiology, found that a high-fat, high-sugar diet in rats changed the microbes that reside in the gastrointestinal tract, collectively termed gut microbiota.

While using Reimer’s high-fat, high-sugar diet to study the effect of obesity on the joints of rats, biomechanist and muscle researcher Dr. Walter Herzog, Ph.D., Faculty of Kinesiology, and graduate student Kelsey Collins made a startling discovery: The gut microbiota changes in rats that were fed a high-fat, high-sugar diet resulted in joint and muscle inflammation, a condition called metabolic OA. Some of these changes occurred as soon as three days into the experiment—even before the rats gained weight.

“This shows that arthritis isn’t just caused by wear and tear on a joint. We discovered that a high-fat, high-sugar diet alone can change the muscles and joints of animals,” says Herzog. This led the team to wonder whether altering the gut microbiota in obese rats could halt metabolic OA.

Can prebiotics help prevent the progression of osteoarthritis?

In 2017, Reimer and her team published a study that showed a prebiotic fibre supplement reduced body fat and altered intestinal microbiota in overweight or obese children.

Armed with this knowledge, Reimer, Herzog and inflammation expert Dr. David Hart, Ph.D., Cumming School of Medicine, wanted to see if using a prebiotic supplement could change gut microbiota, reduce inflammation and improve joint function. Graduate student Jacqueline Rios tested the hypothesis in rats, adding an exercise component as well. She found that feeding obese rats a prebiotic fibre supplement and/or having the rats perform light to moderate aerobic exercise (walking), completely prevented the damage the high fat/sugar diet caused in the joints of untreated rats. This work was recently published in Scientific Reports.

Postdoctoral Fellow Dr. Rafael Fortuna, Ph.D., is currently embarking on a similar study in humans. He wants to determine if prebiotic supplementation can reduce chronic inflammation through changes in the intestinal gut microbiota and improve knee function in patients with obesity and knee osteoarthritis. They are currently seeking volunteers for this study.

“All we ask participants to do is add fibre to a glass of water,” says Fortuna. “The goal is to find an inexpensive, easy intervention to prevent the progression of osteoarthritis in adults with obesity. If we can prevent patients from needing a knee replacement that would be great.”

Reimer is quick to point out that although the work with prebiotic fibre is promising, it is just one piece of the obesity/OA puzzle: “Obesity is a very complex disease that often requires multiple different strategies—diet and behaviour changes, motivation and exercise—they all play a huge part in helping individuals achieve a healthier body weight.”

Exercise and OA

There is no doubt that combining diet with physical activity is key to weight loss. But for someone with obesity and osteoarthritis, exercise can be extremely painful.

“Exercising with OA is easier said than done,” says Hart. “There is limited evidence on the safest and most appropriate types of physical exercises for adults with osteoarthritis and obesity. If we can develop interventions such as using prebiotic fibre to control the gut microbiota, decrease metabolic syndrome, and improve function, more patients with obesity and OA may be able to utilize exercise programs more effectively to enhance weight loss and continue to improve function.”

The University of Calgary and University of Alberta are collaborating on a study to understand the impact of different types of exercise programs on mobility, quality of life, medication use, blood markers, and willingness to pay for programming in knee osteoarthritis patients. The study, led by Hart and Dr. Jackie Whittaker, Ph.D., from the University of Alberta, compares two new exercise programs specifically designed for people with osteoarthritis: GLA:D Canada and JointEffort. Both programs feature group exercise sessions, but differ in terms of educational programming and followup. Researchers are currently seeking volunteers for this study.

“The goal of the team is to bring together the findings of the prebiotic fibre work and the exercise study to offer a complete diet and physical activity program for patients struggling with obesity and OA,” says Hart. “We want to keep people moving. Ultimately it’s not just about joint health. It’s about maintaining mobility and quality of life.”

Mobility for Life

Baranec eventually received a knee replacement in 2010. When she woke up from surgery, she had an epiphany. “I told myself, ‘You’ve been given a second chance. Don’t screw it up,'” says Baranec. “I signed-up for Weight Watchers with my daughter and started exercising six days a week.” By the time she received her second knee replacement in 2015, Baranec had dropped 130 pounds.

“It made a huge difference in my recovery and mobility. Every pound I took off helped my knees.” To date, Baranec has lost 190 pounds. “Getting my knees back, keeping the weight off, has given me my life back.”

Participate in research

Two UCalgary studies mentioned in this article are currently looking for research participants:

Can a dietary fibre supplement alleviate knee pain and improve knee function?

Researchers are recruiting individuals 30 to 70 years old with diagnosed knee osteoarthritis, with a BMI greater than 30/km/m (calculate here) to participate in this study.

Understanding the impact of different types of exercise programs on mobility, quality of life, medication use, and blood markers in knee osteoarthritis patients.

Researchers are looking for individuals 50 years of age and older with diagnosed knee osteoarthritis to participate in this study.


When it comes to weight loss in overweight and obese adults with knee osteoarthritis, more is better


More information:
Jaqueline Lourdes Rios et al. Protective effect of prebiotic and exercise intervention on knee health in a rat model of diet-induced obesity, Scientific Reports (2019). DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-40601-x

Provided by
University of Calgary

Citation:
How the obesity epidemic is taking a toll on our bones and joints (2019, March 25)
retrieved 25 April 2019
from https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-03-obesity-epidemic-toll-bones-joints.html

This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no
part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles