Breaking News
July 23, 2018 - Vaxart Announces Publication of the Phase 1 Results of its Oral Norovirus Tablet Vaccine in Journal of Clinical Investigation Insight
July 23, 2018 - Joslin researchers report excessive fetal growth despite well-controlled type 1 diabetes
July 23, 2018 - Former inmates more likely to die of opioid overdose after prison release
July 23, 2018 - Doctors’ ‘gut feelings’ play key role in medical decision making, finds study
July 23, 2018 - Tooth enamel that regrows? Researcher says revolutionary gel could make it possible
July 23, 2018 - ECU researchers develop world’s first blood test that detects melanoma in its early stages
July 23, 2018 - Researchers explore future of houseplants as functional sirens of home health
July 23, 2018 - No Outcome Differences Based on Anesthesia Team Make-Up
July 23, 2018 - Getting to the heart of congenital cardiac defects
July 23, 2018 - Healthy behaviors are not effective in preventing gestational diabetes in obese women
July 23, 2018 - Top of Teachers’ To-Do List: Focus on the Positives
July 23, 2018 - LDL quality is a novel, modifiable cardiovascular risk marker
July 22, 2018 - Researchers identify enzyme as potential new drug target for blood disorders
July 22, 2018 - Research shows that neurons can encode more than one signal at a time
July 22, 2018 - Exposure to secondhand smoke increases the risk of stillbirth
July 22, 2018 - Skin conditions by the numbers
July 22, 2018 - Brain tumour chemotherapy now available to even more NHS patients
July 22, 2018 - Researchers find mugwort pollen as major source of airborne endotoxins
July 22, 2018 - Occupational safety and health at workplace
July 22, 2018 - Pfizer And Lilly Announce Positive Top-Line Results From Phase 3 Trial Of Tanezumab For The Treatment Of Osteoarthritis (OA) Pain
July 22, 2018 - Early supper associated with lower risk of breast and prostate cancer
July 22, 2018 - Survey results identify major inequalities in acute stroke treatment across Europe
July 22, 2018 - Researchers discover promising treatment for genetic form of autism spectrum disorder
July 22, 2018 - Prenatal Depression More Common in Young Moms Today
July 22, 2018 - What helps adults with autism get and keep a job?
July 22, 2018 - Pediatric NEXUS Head CT DI guides selective imaging decisions in blunt trauma patients
July 22, 2018 - Novel tool predicts genes that cause disease due to production of truncated proteins
July 22, 2018 - AHA: Vaping Tied to Blood Clots — in Mice
July 22, 2018 - Study finds therapy dogs effective in reducing symptoms of ADHD
July 22, 2018 - Scientists find reason why malarial parasites are faster than immune cells
July 22, 2018 - Researchers gain more insight into how FUS protein causes ALS and FTLD
July 22, 2018 - Frequency of joint replacements halved in rheumatoid arthritis patients between 1997-2010
July 22, 2018 - QUT researcher highlights growing impact of non-prescription antibiotics supply in pharmacies
July 22, 2018 - UK health communication researcher seeks solutions for disposing leftover medicine
July 22, 2018 - Pfizer Initiates Pivotal Phase 3 Program for Investigational Hemophilia B Gene Therapy Fidanacogene Elaparvovec
July 22, 2018 - Mutation discovered to protect against Alzheimer’s disease in mice
July 22, 2018 - Researchers reveal how patients in urban areas develop multiple, long-term conditions
July 22, 2018 - Replacing conventional cancer treatment with complementary therapy linked to increased risk of death
July 22, 2018 - Study uncovers molecular key for delaying progression of multiple sclerosis
July 22, 2018 - Availability of athletic trainer in high school reduces injury rates in girls’ sports, shows study
July 22, 2018 - FDA Approves Krintafel (tafenoquine) for the Radical Cure of Plasmodium vivax Malaria
July 22, 2018 - Novel nuclear medicine probe will help assess new drugs for neurodegenerative diseases
July 22, 2018 - Physical activity even during exposure to air pollution can reduce risk of heart attack
July 22, 2018 - Scientists discover protein regulator of myelin production
July 22, 2018 - Sleep disturbances associated with higher dementia risk
July 22, 2018 - Scientists move one step further in developing eye drops to treat age-related macular degeneration
July 22, 2018 - Five-Year Stroke Rates Lower After PCI Versus CABG
July 21, 2018 - Alopecia areata – Genetics Home Reference
July 21, 2018 - Study identifies overdose risk factors in youth with substance use disorders
July 21, 2018 - Drug in clinical trials for Parkinson’s disease offers hope for treating heart failure
July 21, 2018 - Coupling free malaria tests with diagnosis-dependent vouchers can improve rational use of ACTs
July 21, 2018 - Sweetness depends on molecular interactions between specific sugars and water in saliva
July 21, 2018 - Muscle fitness is strongly associated with improved rate of ageing in the brain
July 21, 2018 - Resetting E-Prescriptions for Opioids Helps Curb Use: Study
July 21, 2018 - Overuse of antibiotics not what the doctor ordered
July 21, 2018 - Bundled-payment system did not lower costs for serious medical conditions, shows study
July 21, 2018 - Therapy dogs found to be effective in reducing ADHD symptoms in children
July 21, 2018 - Could rotating multiple therapists better treat PTSD patients?
July 21, 2018 - Binge drinking impairs working memory in adolescent brain
July 21, 2018 - Dying at home could be beneficial for terminally ill cancer patients and their relatives
July 21, 2018 - Researchers identify subtypes of retinal ganglion cells using single-cell RNA sequencing
July 21, 2018 - Study uncovers opportunities to reduce death by suicide among cancer patients
July 21, 2018 - Genetic sequencing reveals new clues to aggressiveness of prostate cancer
July 21, 2018 - BioSight Launches a Phase 2b Clinical Trial of BST-236 as a First-Line Treatment of Acute Myeloid Leukemia
July 21, 2018 - First major study comparing robotic to open surgery published in The Lancet
July 21, 2018 - ADHD medications may fail to improve cognition in healthy college students, study shows
July 21, 2018 - Intervention program that includes a personalized app could benefit teens with suicidal thoughts
July 21, 2018 - Researchers identify new compound that protects against neurodegeneration
July 21, 2018 - Gene therapy may hold potential to treat people with spinal cord injuries
July 21, 2018 - FDA Approves Nivestym (filgrastim-aafi), a Biosimilar to Neupogen
July 21, 2018 - Surgeons have substantial impact on genetic testing in breast cancer patients who need it
July 21, 2018 - Species diversity can have positive and negative impacts on disease transmission
July 21, 2018 - Genome research suggests presence of enteric fever in medieval Europe
July 21, 2018 - Risk of Sensory Deficits Drops With Rising Gestational Age
July 21, 2018 - Mum’s sleep matters—the effect of sleep on an unborn baby
July 21, 2018 - UC San Diego researchers awarded two grants for investigating stem cell-based therapies
July 21, 2018 - Cellular ‘garbage disposal’ may actually work on some of the proteins to neuronal development
July 21, 2018 - More Pregnant Women Having Heart Attacks
July 21, 2018 - Acne Breakouts | NIH News in Health
July 21, 2018 - Change health messaging to focus on potential impact to help stop the next pandemic
Study reveals link between parental unemployment and child neglect

Study reveals link between parental unemployment and child neglect

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

The number of reported cases of child neglect in the United States of America increased as a result of the spike in unemployment following the financial crisis of 2007-08, according to new Oxford University research. The first study of its kind suggests that unemployment can cause an increase in child neglect because parents have more limited access to the resources required to provide for a child’s basic needs, such as clothing, food and medical care.

Defined as the physical, mental, sexual or emotional abuse or neglect of a person under the age of 18, child maltreatment is a prolific problem in American society, with about 700,000 cases reported in 2015 alone. Neglect describes a situation when parents’ inability to provide for their child’s basic needs harms the child’s health, safety and/or wellbeing.

Child maltreatment is widely understood to have significant consequences in later life, affecting mental health, the chances of employment and the likelihood of substance abuse, among other things. However, the causal effects of economic hardship, and the knock-on impact on maltreatment, are significantly less understood.

The study, conducted by two researchers from Oxford University, has for the first time, considered and quantified these causal effects, specifically whether unemployment causes child maltreatment.

Using nearly a decade’s worth of data from the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS), produced by the National Data Archive on Child Abuse and Neglect (NDACAN), the team observed every reported incident of child abuse and neglect made to the state Child Protective Services for nearly every county in the U.S. from 2004 to 2012.

The findings reveal a significant link between unemployment and child neglect, with a 1 percentage point increase in the unemployment rate leading to a 20 percent increase in reported neglect. However, there does not seem to be a relationship between unemployment and other forms of child abuse.

Elisabetta De Cao, Research Fellow in Oxford’s Centre for Health Service Economics & Organisation, said: ‘There is increasing research on the causal effect of economic conditions on domestic violence, but this work has never been done for children, which is a very different dynamic.’

The research also considers the value and impact of social (government provided) and private safety nets (partner, family, friends, health insurance), and whether access to these resources can have a mitigating effect on unemployment.

Access to state provided unemployment benefits were found to make a huge difference. Initially offered to people for a maximum of 26 weeks pre-recession, during the economic crisis it was extended in some states, and ranged significantly from 48 weeks to up to 99. In states that were more generous, offering 87 weeks of unemployment benefits or more, child neglect increased by 14% but in states that offered a maximum of 55 weeks of benefits, reported incidents of child neglect rose by 21%.

Dan Brown, PhD student in Economics at Oxford University added: ‘Our study shows that unemployment causes an increase in child neglect, with little evidence of an effect on other types of abuse. During hard times, if parents lose their jobs and don’t have access to safety nets, they no longer have the means to provide for their children, which ultimately leads to neglect.

‘We also found an indication that after a job loss people spend less on basic goods, like food and beverages. In doing so, this can lead to a higher likelihood of neglect.’

While state help offers significant value, the research revealed that access to private safety nets also has a positive effect. A key private safety net the authors looked at is health insurance. The effects of unemployment on child neglect were notably greater in counties where more children did not have health insurance, and were, therefore, less protected.

In terms of demography, African American children were found to be least likely to have two employed parents living with them, and were accordingly more at risk of neglect when one parent lost a job, than Caucasian or Hispanic children.

Of the potential policy implications of this report, and how the US government can use the findings to better protect children, Elisabetta said: ‘In general policies that are designed to enable parents’ employment security could prove an important contribution to reducing child maltreatment. There is an indication that cutting these services will lead to an increase in neglect. We need to better understand whether parents face barriers to creating private safety nets, which could help people to cope during bad economic times.

‘If we can reduce the number of neglected children, it will have a positive long-term impact on society. These children will go on to have better outcomes in adulthood, which will have positive labor, health and economic effects.’

Although the team studied the effects of unemployment in the USA, they are in the process of replicating the study in the UK, which arguably has a more generous welfare system. The results of this work are expected in the next year.

Source:

http://www.ox.ac.uk/news/2017-11-02-child-neglect-linked-parental-unemployment

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles