Breaking News
January 22, 2018 - Mallinckrodt Completes Stannsoporfin New Drug Application Filing
January 22, 2018 - ACOG Backs ‘Cascade Testing’ for Cancer-Related Mutations
January 22, 2018 - The terrible toll tennis can take on top players who play too much
January 22, 2018 - KAIST scientists identify cellular mechanism for severe viral hepatitis
January 22, 2018 - New genomic tools provide better understanding of the human immune system
January 22, 2018 - Improving QoL with an App?
January 22, 2018 - First step toward CRISPR cure of Lou Gehrig’s disease
January 22, 2018 - Scientists uncover the proteins responsible for movement
January 22, 2018 - New clinical practice guideline provides recommendations for use of anticoagulants during heart surgery
January 22, 2018 - Depressive symptoms associated with poorer survival in patients with head and neck cancer
January 22, 2018 - Restaurant Bans Have Big Impact on Smoking Rates
January 22, 2018 - D.C. Week: CMS Outlines Path for Medicaid Work Mandate
January 22, 2018 - Study identifies new loci associated with asthma enriched in epigenetic marks
January 22, 2018 - New bug may reduce misery of hay fever sufferers
January 22, 2018 - Specially prepared supplement helps women to run faster, study shows
January 22, 2018 - 3-D Stent Retriever with Aspiration Proves Mettle in AIS
January 22, 2018 - Public health research seeks to understand how natural disasters impact spread of Zika
January 22, 2018 - Research reveals role of nanophenomenon in stimulating bone-repair process
January 22, 2018 - Drinking during late adolescence could be first step to liver problems in adulthood
January 22, 2018 - Epilepsy associated with volume and thickness differences in brain matter
January 22, 2018 - Trevena Announces FDA Acceptance for Review of New Drug Application for Olinvo (oliceridine) Injection
January 22, 2018 - A Noteworthy Margin of Error
January 22, 2018 - Firm advances human trials of revolutionary vaccine
January 22, 2018 - Many Indians put away treating orthopedic problems
January 22, 2018 - Cherwell releases new pocket guide to prepared culture media
January 22, 2018 - Huron earns ISO 13485 certification for quality management system
January 22, 2018 - Avion Pharmaceuticals Announces FDA Approval of Balcoltra (levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol tablets and ferrous bisglycinate tablets) Oral Contraceptive
January 22, 2018 - Multi-Gene Test For Early CVD; Neighborhood HF Risk; Novel Testosterone Drugs
January 22, 2018 - Skipping breakfast disrupts ‘clock genes’ that regulate body weight
January 22, 2018 - Creativity May Rely on ‘Teamwork’ in the Brain
January 22, 2018 - NeuroBreak: Alzheimer’s Germ Contest; High Salt Diet May Be Bad for Brain
January 22, 2018 - Diabetics may often fare poorly in hospice care
January 22, 2018 - Performance enhancing benefits of caffeine more apparent for infrequent tea, coffee drinkers
January 22, 2018 - HHS Unveils Framework for Interoperability
January 22, 2018 - More dentists to discuss risks of HPV-related cancers with their patients
January 21, 2018 - Research shows how Zika virus damages placenta to cause malformations in babies
January 21, 2018 - Achaogen Announces FDA Acceptance of New Drug Application with Priority Review for Plazomicin for Treatment of Complicated Urinary Tract Infections and Bloodstream Infections
January 21, 2018 - Drug Allergies: Time to Re-Test?
January 21, 2018 - Mitochondrial protein in cardiac muscle cells linked to heart failure, study finds
January 21, 2018 - Women more likely than men to die from a heart attack
January 21, 2018 - Next generation genomic sequencing can help detect pathogens after joint replacement
January 21, 2018 - Gov’t Shutdown Looms as Senate Debates Spending Bill
January 21, 2018 - Emergency Readiness for Older Adults and People with Disabilities
January 21, 2018 - Heart health at risk for Latinas over worries about deportation
January 21, 2018 - Scientists methodically identify genes related to blood feeding and non-biting mosquitoes
January 21, 2018 - Researchers discover potential target genes to halt thyroid cancer progression
January 21, 2018 - Youth with shared residency after parents’ divorce have less mental issues
January 21, 2018 - Sleep Better, Lose Weight? – Drugs.com MedNews
January 21, 2018 - More $$ Needed for Health Emergencies, Senators Told
January 21, 2018 - Gene test to predict breast cancer recurrence less cost effective in real world practice
January 21, 2018 - Study finds rise in number of adolescents receiving psychiatric or neurodevelopmental diagnosis
January 21, 2018 - Reminders can improve immunization rates
January 21, 2018 - A More Personalized Approach to PSA Screening in 2017
January 21, 2018 - T-cells engineered to outsmart tumors induce clinical responses in relapsed Hodgkin lymphoma
January 21, 2018 - Tetraphase Pharmaceuticals Announces Submission of New Drug Application to FDA for Eravacycline for the Treatment of Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infections (cIAI)
January 21, 2018 - Have Robotics Had a Detrimental Effect on Surgical Residency?
January 21, 2018 - Being bilingual may help autistic children
January 21, 2018 - Metrics Are Not Widespread in Rheumatoid Care
January 21, 2018 - Neuroanatomic abnormalities ID’d in those at risk for autism
January 21, 2018 - Children born with Down’s syndrome have superior genome that compensates for disability
January 21, 2018 - Study finds higher risks for asymptomatic paroxysmal AF patients
January 21, 2018 - The Second Stage of Diet Resolutions
January 21, 2018 - CT Scans Reduce Lung Cancer Deaths … But Among Whom?
January 21, 2018 - ADHD drug use soars among young women
January 21, 2018 - Researchers propose new regulation mechanism linked to action of SirT6 on chromatin
January 21, 2018 - Statins appear to reduce risk of repeated surgery in patients who undergo vitrectomy
January 21, 2018 - Morning Break: Hep A Outbreak Spreads; Tide Pod Challenge; Keeping Lobsters Out of Hot Water
January 21, 2018 - EULAR and ACR present SLE classification criteria at the 2017 ACR/ARHP Annual Meeting
January 21, 2018 - Progenics Pharmaceuticals Announces FDA Acceptance of New Drug Application for Azedra (iobenguane I 131) in Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma
January 21, 2018 - House Passes Funding Bill with 6-Year CHIP Renewal
January 21, 2018 - DASH ranked Best Diet Overall for eighth year in a row by U.S. News and World Report
January 21, 2018 - Dementia study sheds light on how damage spreads through brain
January 20, 2018 - Morning Break: Missing Maria Deaths; N.J. Doc Charged in Wife’s Murder; Viva Vaseline!
January 20, 2018 - No interventions proven to prevent late-life dementia
January 20, 2018 - Judge orders new Olympus trial over superbug death
January 20, 2018 - Don’t Rely on Just One Blood Pressure Test for Kids: Study
January 20, 2018 - Going Off the Deep End About Water
January 20, 2018 - Parental attention can reduce risk of drug abuse in adolescence
January 20, 2018 - Mast Uri System offers efficient and cost-friendly diagnostic solution
January 20, 2018 - International SOS, Chatham House sign partnership agreement to further advance Global Health Security Agenda
a special issue of PLOS Medicine

a special issue of PLOS Medicine

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

This week, publication of a special issue on Advances in HIV Prevention, Treatment and Cure begins in PLOS Medicine, advised by guest editors Linda-Gail Bekker of the Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, University of Cape Town, South Africa; Steven Deeks of the University of California San Francisco, USA; and Sharon Lewin of the Peter Doherty Institute of Infection and Immunity, University of Melbourne and Royal Melbourne Hospital, Australia.

HIV/AIDS remains one of the world’s most critical health challenges, with around 36.7 million people living with HIV and an estimated 1.8 million new infections in 2016. Although progress in research, care, advocacy and donor funding has brought antiretroviral therapy to some 19.5 million people, AIDS-related illnesses continue to claim a million lives annually. The special issue will feature research and discussion articles aimed at advancing progress against HIV/AIDS, with ambitious global goals seeking to bring the epidemic under control by 2020.

In a Research Article, Samantha Kaplan of Yale School of Medicine, USA and colleagues report on almost 40,000 participants in an established antiretroviral programme in Khayelitsha township in South Africa, where maintaining long-term care—required for consistent viral suppression—is an important issue. About a quarter of patients were estimated to have disengaged from treatment in a 2-year period, but some 33% of these patients re-engaged in care. In a further research paper, Tonia Poteat, of the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Baltimore, USA and colleagues describe behavioural and psychosocial factors associated with HIV infection in two key populations at elevated risk—transgender women and men who have sex with men, across 8 African countries.

In a research paper reporting on Link4Health, a cluster-randomized trial in Swaziland, Margaret McNairy of ICAP, Columbia University, New York, USA and colleagues describe the effect of a combined intervention comprising 5 evidence-based methods aimed at improving HIV linkage to and retention in care, including point-of-care testing, accelerated initiation of antiretroviral therapy and non-cash incentives. With a primary trial outcome of combined linkage to care at 1 month and retention in care at 12 months, McNairy and colleagues report substantial benefits for people with HIV as compared with standard care (adjusted relative risk 1.52, 95% CI 1.19-1.96).

In a Perspective article, Wafaa El-Sadr, also of ICAP in New York, and colleagues discuss the need for differentiated approaches to HIV prevention and care, tailored to the needs of specific groups of people (such as pregnant women or sex workers) and the relevant health care settings.

Turning to the long-term consequences of HIV infection, in another Research Article Mark Boyd of the Kirby Institute, University of New South Wales and the Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Australia and colleagues report analyses from D:A:D, a large multinational study focusing on comorbidities and the adverse effects of antiretroviral treatment. Boyd and colleagues assess the risks of cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease by predicted 5-year risk scores in people with HIV infection. As anticipated they find elevated risks of each disease occurring together with the other—for example, people at high risk of cardiovascular disease had a 5.63 fold increase (95% CI 4.47-7.09) in risk of chronic kidney disease events compared to those at low risk. The authors report that, for people at high risk of cardiovascular and renal disease, the risk of both comorbidities was multiplicative as compared with that of people at low risk, and note that the risks for cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease in people with HIV should be assessed together.

Curing HIV infection remains an elusive goal. In a further research paper, Timothy Henrich of the University of California San Francisco, USA and colleagues describe detailed analyses of two patients who received prophylactic antiretroviral treatment within an estimated 10 to 12 days of HIV infection (at which point infection had not been identified), later followed by full antiretroviral therapy with four individual drugs. Although cure was not achieved in either case, detailed analyses allow the authors to follow the sequence of events and estimate the size of the viral reservoir, to inform future efforts towards curing HIV infection.

The Special Issue will continue with further research and discussion articles appearing over the next several weeks.


Explore further:
Cardiovascular patients with HIV require unique treatment options

More information:
Kaplan SR, Oosthuizen C, Stinson K, Little F, Euvrard J, Schomaker M, et al. (2017) Contemporary disengagement from antiretroviral therapy in Khayelitsha, South Africa: A cohort study. PLoS Med 14(11): e1002407. doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1002407

Journal reference:
PLoS Medicine

Provided by:
Public Library of Science

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles