Breaking News
August 16, 2018 - Childhood exposure to secondhand smoke increases risk of COPD death in adulthood
August 16, 2018 - Scientists uncover key control mechanism of DNA replication
August 16, 2018 - NIH begins first-in-human trial of experimental live, attenuated Zika virus vaccine
August 16, 2018 - Two diabetes medications don’t slow progression of type 2 diabetes in youth
August 16, 2018 - 5 Questions: How Stanford research is making MRI scans safer for kids | News Center
August 16, 2018 - Columbia Celebrates 25th Anniversary of White Coat Ceremony
August 16, 2018 - Phonak’s new smallest and most discreet Virto B-Titanium hearing aid
August 16, 2018 - New project aims to study growth of water-based microorganisms
August 16, 2018 - New research confirms link between DDT exposure and autism
August 16, 2018 - Neurodevelopmental Anomalies, Birth Defects Linked to Zika ID’d
August 16, 2018 - Risk of heart failure up in ALVSD patients with diabetes
August 16, 2018 - Exercise reduces symptoms and fatigue in patients with chronic kidney disease
August 16, 2018 - Study reveals role of RUNX proteins in DNA repair
August 16, 2018 - New research finds no harm from average salt consumption
August 16, 2018 - Researchers develop new way of testing bacterial resistance to antibiotics
August 16, 2018 - Magnetic gene in aquarium fish could open doors to treatment for epilepsy, Parkinson’s
August 16, 2018 - Five tips for successful long-term breastfeeding
August 16, 2018 - Researchers identify brain networks involved in object naming
August 16, 2018 - Promoting HPV Vaccine Doesn’t Prompt Risky Sex by Teens: Study
August 16, 2018 - Treating Rheumatoid Arthritis: Search for a Cure
August 16, 2018 - Research shows in the long run, charcoal toothpaste likely won’t whiten teeth
August 16, 2018 - Seattle Children’s opens new clinic to provide convenient access to pediatric specialty care services
August 16, 2018 - Curious case of the lost contact lens
August 16, 2018 - GN Hearing unveils world’s first Premium-Plus hearing aid
August 16, 2018 - Parental life span linked with increased longevity and health in daughters
August 16, 2018 - Health leaders reveal ten most important medicines in NHS history
August 16, 2018 - Mobile health devices diagnose hidden heart condition in at-risk populations
August 16, 2018 - When it comes to shedding pounds, it pays to think big
August 16, 2018 - Liva Healthcare announces appointment of Thomas Cooke as clinical services manager in the UK
August 16, 2018 - New digital pharmacy aims to help people living with chronic care conditions
August 16, 2018 - Preventing ACL injuries in high school athletes
August 16, 2018 - Experts provide insight into novel concepts and approaches for stroke rehabilitation
August 16, 2018 - Scientists reverse congenital blindness in mouse model
August 16, 2018 - Study shows link between use of benzodiazepines and increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease
August 16, 2018 - Study provides new insight into how ‘trash bag of the cell’ traps and seals off waste
August 16, 2018 - Trial shows PARP inhibitor as novel treatment option for patients with advanced breast cancers
August 16, 2018 - Prenatal exposure to violence increases toddlers’ aggressive behavior to their mothers
August 16, 2018 - Can manipulating gut microbes improve cardiac function in patients with heart failure?
August 16, 2018 - Hearts of newborn piglets can completely heal after heart attacks
August 16, 2018 - Ablating the mutant p53 gene in mice with colorectal cancer inhibits tumor growth
August 16, 2018 - Higher BMI in people with prediabetes related to evening preference and lack of sufficient sleep
August 16, 2018 - Using peripheral nerve blocks to treat facial pain may produce long-term pain relief
August 16, 2018 - Neural stem cells are the key to tail regeneration
August 16, 2018 - Study compares genetic and neural contributions to ADHD in children with or without TBI
August 16, 2018 - Adding energy drinks to alcohol may exacerbate negative effects of binge drinking
August 16, 2018 - Eye Examination Can Help Detect Abuse in Children
August 16, 2018 - Know the Difference: Rheumatoid Arthritis or Osteoarthritis?
August 16, 2018 - From ‘sea of mutations,’ two possible cancer links rise to the surface
August 16, 2018 - Does medical school take too long?
August 16, 2018 - Brown University researchers reveal key physical properties of ‘giant’ cancer cells
August 16, 2018 - Regular resistance training improves exercise motivation
August 16, 2018 - Feds urge states to encourage cheaper plans off the exchanges
August 16, 2018 - Seven activities that prevent you from getting quality sleep during summer
August 16, 2018 - Five ways to tell if your baby is getting enough milk from breastfeeding
August 16, 2018 - From Pigs to Peacocks, What’s Up With Those ‘Emotional-Support Animals’?
August 16, 2018 - Breast cancers enlist the help of normal cells to help them spread and survive
August 16, 2018 - Engaging with “high-need” patients outside the clinic
August 16, 2018 - Research illuminates how online forum may offer suicide prevention support for males
August 16, 2018 - Researchers identify way to grow immune cells at large scale for preventing cancer reoccurrence
August 15, 2018 - Keck Medicine of USC’s hospitals ranked among nation’s best for the 10th consecutive year
August 15, 2018 - Researchers compare existing approaches for automating diagnostic procedures of skin lesions
August 15, 2018 - Autism risk determined by health of mom’s gut, research reveals
August 15, 2018 - WELL for Life challenges you to explore the great outdoors
August 15, 2018 - ‘Zombie’ gene protects elephants from cancer, study finds
August 15, 2018 - Ebola outbreak in Congo spreads to active combat zone
August 15, 2018 - Study highlights pollution exposure of babies in prams
August 15, 2018 - Study provides insight into link between sleep apnea and lipid metabolism
August 15, 2018 - New study focuses on promise of gene therapy for Amish nemaline myopathy
August 15, 2018 - Researchers discover new approach to alleviate chronic itch
August 15, 2018 - Uncovering the Mysteries of MS: Medical Imaging Helps NIH Researchers Understand the Tricky Disease
August 15, 2018 - Autistic people at greater risk of becoming homeless – new research
August 15, 2018 - New imaging technique can spot tuberculosis infection in an hour
August 15, 2018 - Scientists study effects of eating breakfast versus fasting overnight before exercise
August 15, 2018 - Talking with children about suicide could save lives
August 15, 2018 - Grip strength of children predicts future cardiometabolic health
August 15, 2018 - New polyclonal immunotherapy successfully neutralizes Ebola virus
August 15, 2018 - Innovative oncofertility program launched by RMA of New York and Mount Sinai Health System
August 15, 2018 - Study shows efficacy, safety of AAV5-based gene therapy to treat sheep model of achromatopsia
August 15, 2018 - Simple score helps predict which hospitalized heart attack patients are at high risk of readmissions
August 15, 2018 - New discoveries show how protein droplets do more than keep cells’ interiors tidy
Researchers uncover how rogue immune cells gain access to neurons in multiple sclerosis

Researchers uncover how rogue immune cells gain access to neurons in multiple sclerosis

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

Drug designers working on therapeutics against multiple sclerosis should focus on blocking two distinct ways rogue immune cells attack healthy neurons, according to a new study in the journal Cell Reports.

In multiple sclerosis, immune cells degrade the insulation that protects neurons and allows them to signal to one another, but little is known about how immune cells penetrate the blood-brain barrier to get to neurons. Researchers led by Sarah Lutz, University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine while she was a post-doctoral fellow of Dritan Agalliu at Columbia University; and Sunil Gandhi, University of California, Irvine, have uncovered two different ways immune cells gain access to neurons and wreak their havoc.

Multiple sclerosis is a neurodegenerative inflammatory disease that affects approximately 2.5 million people worldwide. Immune cells turn against the body and cause damage to the myelin sheath, which encases neurons like the insulation on a wire. Loss of myelin interferes with the transmission of signals along the nerve fibers and impairs motor function, including walking and speech. Symptoms, which can be sporadic or progressive, range from mild to debilitating.

While researchers have known that two different kinds of immune cells, Th1 and Th17 lymphocytes, are involved in degrading myelin around neurons in multiple sclerosis, they didn’t know exactly how these cells crossed the blood-brain barrier to access neurons.

The blood-brain barrier is a bit of a misnomer. It not only protects the brain, but also the spine, and refers to the fact that blood vessels that supply the brain and spine are virtually impermeable because the cells that make up those blood vessels — called endothelial cells — are bolted tightly together by protein complexes called tight junctions. This prevents certain chemicals, harmful microbes and cells that circulate in the blood from gaining access to the brain and spine. In blood vessels that supply other organs of the body, endothelial cells are more loosely bound to one another and the connections can be adjusted to allow for the exchange of molecules and cells from the bloodstream into tissues and vice versa.

“In autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis, immune cells that enter the brain and spinal cord cause disease,” said Lutz, assistant professor of anatomy and cell biology in the UIC College of Medicine and the lead author of the paper. “A better understanding of how these cells cross the blood-brain barrier will aid our efforts to develop specific therapies to keep them out.”

To explore how Th1 and Th17 immune cells gain access to neurons in multiple sclerosis, Lutz and her colleagues looked at the blood-brain barrier in mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis — a mouse version of multiple sclerosis.

They genetically labeled blood vessel endothelial cell tight junctions with a fluorescent protein to examine if and how tight junctions are involved in autoimmune encephalomyelitis in vivo in their mice. The researchers observed that the tight junctions were significantly deteriorated in the presence of Th17 cells, and that this took place early in the onset of disease. Approximately three days later in the disease process, Lutz and colleagues found that Th1 cells were accessing and degrading myelin and neurons — but these cells did not pass through tight junctions like the Th17 cells did. Instead, the circulating Th1 cells got to neurons by going through the blood vessel endothelial cells using specialized cell membrane structures called caveolae. Caveolae are small pits or “caves” found on the surface of many cell types and help facilitate the passage of various molecules and cells into and/or through cells. In mice with autoimmune encephalomyelitis bred to lack caveolae, the researchers found almost no Th1 cells in the brain and spinal cord. They determined that caveolae on endothelial cells that make up blood vessels are required to help ferry Th1 cells through the blood-brain barrier.

“This is the first time we have ever seen, in live animals in real-time, the different means by which these two cell types gain access to myelin and nerves,” said Lutz. “Now that we know how these cells get to neurons, drugs or small molecules can be designed that interfere with or block each of these processes to help treat and possibly prevent multiple sclerosis.”

Source:

How rogue immune cells cross the blood-brain barrier to cause multiple sclerosis

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles