Breaking News
February 19, 2018 - FDA Approves First Blood Test to Detect Concussions
February 19, 2018 - Survival Bump in Bladder Cancer with Keytruda
February 18, 2018 - Scientists describe the mechanism of heart regeneration in the zebrafish
February 18, 2018 - Scientists uncover the structure of microtubule motor proteins
February 18, 2018 - Light-activated cancer drugs without toxic side effects are closer to becoming reality
February 18, 2018 - Pioneering research could provide novel insight into how genomic information is read
February 18, 2018 - Pearls From: David Putrino, PhD
February 18, 2018 - Researchers uncover how cancer stem cells drive triple-negative breast cancer
February 18, 2018 - Morning Break: Anti-Anti-Vaxxers; Private Piercings Prohibited; A Case for Pelvic Massage
February 18, 2018 - Lower-dose radiation effective, safe for HPV+ head and neck cancer after induction chemo
February 18, 2018 - Specialist residential service for adults with autism opens in Swansea
February 18, 2018 - FDA Moves to Limit Loperamide Doses per Package
February 18, 2018 - Alcohol use disorder – Genetics Home Reference
February 18, 2018 - Autism might be better detected using new two-minute questionnaire
February 18, 2018 - Hand hygiene-intervention practices may reduce risk of infection among nursing home patients
February 18, 2018 - Researchers develop most sophisticated mini-livers to date
February 18, 2018 - Obamacare Helped More Young Women Get Prenatal Care: Study
February 18, 2018 - School-Based Program Fails to Dent Kids’ Obesity
February 18, 2018 - Research compares neural activity in children with and without autism spectrum disorder
February 18, 2018 - Poor fitness levels increase the risk dementia, concludes study
February 18, 2018 - Risk Score May Reveal if Kids are Victims of Ill-Treatment
February 18, 2018 - Adding Folic Acid to Corn Masa Flour May Prevent Birth Defects
February 18, 2018 - Acute treatment suppresses posttraumatic arthritis in ankle injury
February 18, 2018 - A Role for Budesonide in Autoimmune Hepatitis?
February 18, 2018 - Lupus patients exhibit altered cell proteins, a discovery with potential implications for diagnostics
February 18, 2018 - Muscle plays vital role in regulating heat loss from the hands
February 18, 2018 - High-tech brain scans can provide new way to define intelligence
February 18, 2018 - Study reveals the association between ultra-processed foods and cancer
February 18, 2018 - Prescription Opioid Use Tied to Higher Pneumonia Risk
February 18, 2018 - A non-invasive method to detect Alzheimer’s disease
February 18, 2018 - Deletion of specific enzyme leads to improvement in memory and cognitive functions
February 18, 2018 - Amyloid protein may be transmitted through neurosurgical instruments, study suggests
February 18, 2018 - Electric brain signals of males and females show differences
February 18, 2018 - American Heart Association commends McDonald’s for offering healthier menu in kids’ meals
February 18, 2018 - Parents Find Kids’ Weight Report Cards Hard to Swallow
February 18, 2018 - Does a Financial Conflict of Interest Ever Expire?
February 18, 2018 - Exercise can improve Alzheimer’s symptoms
February 18, 2018 - Scientists develop green chemistry method to improve pharmaceutical manufacturing efficiency
February 17, 2018 - ‘A Time Clock to a Tissue Clock’ for Acute Stroke Care
February 17, 2018 - Cancer Care Gets Personal | NIH News in Health
February 17, 2018 - Do more youth use or do youth use more?
February 17, 2018 - Eating faster linked to obesity
February 17, 2018 - Who’s Still Smoking? ACS Report Highlights Most Vulnerable Adults
February 17, 2018 - Study of smoking and genetics illuminates complexities of blood pressure
February 17, 2018 - Study reveals new link between bone cells and blood glucose level
February 17, 2018 - Children with reading challenges may have lower than expected binocular vision test results
February 17, 2018 - Mass Shootings Trigger Change for Emergency Medicine
February 17, 2018 - ECMO helps revive woman thought to be drowned
February 17, 2018 - Learning stress-reducing techniques may benefit people with epilepsy
February 17, 2018 - Shedding Pounds Before Weight-Loss Surgery a Smart Move
February 17, 2018 - FDA Approves New Cystic Fibrosis Drug Combo
February 17, 2018 - Augmented Reality helps surgeons to ‘see through’ tissue and reconnect blood vessels
February 17, 2018 - Emotional state affects operation of the entire brain instead of being restricted to specific regions
February 17, 2018 - Apalutamide Slows Metastasis in Prostate Cancer
February 17, 2018 - Kids’ well visits linked to lower appendicitis complications
February 17, 2018 - New NK cell-based immunotherapy effective against several types of leukemia
February 17, 2018 - Producing Super-Swelled Lyotropic Crystals for Drug Development
February 17, 2018 - Pfizer Receives Breakthrough Therapy Designation from FDA for PF-04965842, an oral JAK1 Inhibitor, for the Treatment of Patients with Moderate-to-Severe Atopic Dermatitis
February 17, 2018 - Molecular Imaging Flags Risk of AAA Rupture
February 17, 2018 - Researchers identify risk factors for sleep apnea during pregnancy
February 17, 2018 - More work required to find the right drug dosage for pediatric patients
February 17, 2018 - Factors ID’d That Predict RA Remission with Etanercept
February 17, 2018 - A handout or a hand up? How we judge others guides how we help others
February 17, 2018 - ACR receives grant to focus on projects that reduce health disparities
February 17, 2018 - Pimavanserin Might Be Safer Alternative to Ease Dementia Psychosis
February 17, 2018 - Risks of Lung Screening Seen Outweighing Benefits in Many with Smoking History
February 17, 2018 - The impact of Hurricane Harvey on pregnant moms
February 17, 2018 - Gene editing tool used to detect cancer
February 17, 2018 - Researchers detail molecular atlas of cells that form brain’s blood vessels
February 17, 2018 - TUM scientists observe formation of myelin sheaths around nerve fibers
February 17, 2018 - Worst Flu Season Yet? | Medpage Today
February 17, 2018 - Finding the root cause of bronchiolitis symptoms
February 17, 2018 - Climbing stairs reduces hypertension and strengthens muscles
February 17, 2018 - Nature paper unveils bacterial division
February 16, 2018 - Postoperative pain control following extensive pelvic exenteration
February 16, 2018 - Daré Bioscience, Inc. Enters into License and Collaboration Agreement for a Product with the Potential to Receive the First FDA Approval for Female Sexual Arousal Disorder
February 16, 2018 - Havana Embassy Staff: ‘Concussion Without Concussion’?
February 16, 2018 - Family impact of congenital Zika syndrome likely to last a lifetime
February 16, 2018 - STI Prevention Helped By Also Discussing Pot, Alcohol Use
February 16, 2018 - New method maps the dopamine system in Parkinson’s patients
Researchers reveal impact of RNA-binding protein on memory formation process

Researchers reveal impact of RNA-binding protein on memory formation process

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

Learning requires the chemical adaptation of individual synapses. Researchers have now revealed the impact of an RNA-binding protein that is intimately involved in this process on learning and memory formation and learning processes.

The formation of memories requires subtle changes in brain structures. This is because learning and memory are the result of the incessant modification of synapses – which provide the functional connections that enable nerve cells to communicate with one another. The long-term molecular alterations involved in this process are encoded by so-called messenger RNAs, which are produced in the nucleus of the neuron and must be transported to the appropriate synapses in order to program the synthesis of specific proteins “on-site”. In previous studies, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich scientist Michael Kiebler has shown that the RNA-binding protein Staufen2 plays an essential role in conveying these mRNAs to their destinations. But exactly how this molecular process actually affects learning and behavior was not well understood. Now, a study carried out by the Kiebler group, in collaboration with Dusan Bartsch (Mannheim University) and Spanish colleagues (Seville University), has shed new light on this issue. The new work shows, for the first time, that reduced levels of Staufen2 are associated with a specific impairment of memory. The findings appear in the journal Genome Biology.

The researchers made use of a genetic rat model that has been developed and refined over the past decade, in which the synthesis of Staufen2 can be conditionally and selectively suppressed in nerve cells in the forebrain. They then characterized the effects of reduced levels of Staufen2 protein on memory using behavioral tests that measure the efficacy of spatial, temporal and associative memory. These tasks are known to depend on synaptic plasticity, i.e. the ability to actively adjust the efficiency of communication between specific synaptic networks, in the hippocampus. The results clearly show that the reduction of Staufen2 in the forebrain has a negative impact on several aspects of memory. “Overall, long-term memory continues to function, and the rats remain capable of learning how to find a food source, for instance” – Kiebler says – “but when the mutants are asked to recall what they have learned after longer periods of time, their performance is significantly worse than wild-type animals.”

Depletion of Staufen2 also has a marked effect on nerve-cell morphology and synapse function. With the aid of electrophysiological measurements, the authors analyzed the efficiency of signal transmission across synapses in the hippocampus, and found that both long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) are affected. LTP is a mechanism that results in a long-lasting increase in the efficiency of synaptic transmission, and thus strengthens the functional connections between them. LTD, on the other hand, diminishes transmission efficacies, and effectively disconnects previously established connections. Strikingly, reduced levels of Staufen2 enhance LTP, while they impair LTD. These findings suggest that deficiency of Staufen2 makes synapses more responsive than they would otherwise be. “LTP is regarded as a model of learning at the cellular level. However, our results indicate that it is actually the balance of LTP to LTD that is important. This is clearly perturbed in the absence of Staufen2”, Kiebler points out. The researchers, therefore, assume that, under these circumstances, synapses become highly responsive, and not enough are repressed. This could imply that information which is normally consolidated in long-term memory is prematurely destabilized or perhaps even wiped out. “This work has enabled us, for the first time, to link a specific molecular factor – the RNA-binding protein Staufen2 – with synaptic plasticity and learning,” Kiebler says. “Furthermore, our approach promises to yield completely new insights into the molecular mechanisms that mediate learning.”

Source:

http://www.en.uni-muenchen.de/news/press-services/press-releases/2017/kiebler_gedaechtnis.html

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles