Breaking News
August 17, 2018 - Report discusses whether all newborns should undergo genetic sequencing
August 17, 2018 - UCR receives 2018 Inspiring Programs in STEM Award from INSIGHT Into Diversity magazine
August 17, 2018 - Researchers publish new paper on developing vaccine candidates for Helminthic parasites
August 17, 2018 - Researchers develop new method to diagnose broad range of cancers using malaria protein
August 17, 2018 - Female mosquitoes quickly evolve selective mating behavior when faced with threats
August 17, 2018 - FDA Grants Breakthrough Therapy Designation to Daiichi Sankyo’s FLT3 Inhibitor Quizartinib for Relapsed/Refractory FLT3-ITD AML
August 17, 2018 - Resistance training and exercise motivation go hand-in-hand
August 17, 2018 - A lesson for future doctors: Listen to and learn from your patients
August 17, 2018 - NUS study discovers a bidirectional regulator and shines light on A-to-I RNA editing in cancer cells
August 17, 2018 - Research shows link between high blood levels of omega-3s and better brain function in children
August 17, 2018 - Researchers propose new theory for how rare gene mutations cause Alzheimer’s disease
August 17, 2018 - Digital psychiatric therapy can ‘rewire’ the brain in children with ADHD, study shows
August 17, 2018 - Psychologist to assess how the brain maintains precise short-term and long-term memories
August 17, 2018 - Eating white button mushrooms could improve regulation of glucose in the liver
August 17, 2018 - Scientists identify mutational signatures in ovarian cancer
August 17, 2018 - Sun Pharma receives U.S. FDA approval for CEQUA to treat patients with dry eye disease
August 17, 2018 - Teva Announces Updated Indication and Vial Presentation for Granix (tbo-filgrastim) Injection in United States
August 17, 2018 - Study shows DNA methylation related to liver disease among obese patients
August 17, 2018 - Life on the border: Back at Stanford, ready to pitch in
August 17, 2018 - New device for accurately placing hemodialysis catheters on kidney patients
August 17, 2018 - New strategy accelerates, automates process of prototype molecule optimization
August 17, 2018 - Study finds role of autoimmunity in development of COPD
August 17, 2018 - Researchers transform research tool to study neuronal function
August 17, 2018 - Cognitive impairment does not equate to unhappiness in older adults
August 17, 2018 - Peer Comparisons Can Decrease Risky Prescribing Patterns
August 17, 2018 - Susceptible genes identified for childhood chronic kidney disease
August 17, 2018 - Research uncovers miscarriage cause, identifies potential targets for treatment
August 17, 2018 - Bacterial armor could be new target for antibiotics | News Center
August 17, 2018 - FDA expands approval of Vertex’ cystic fibrosis medicine to treat children aged 12 to
August 17, 2018 - Give Your Child a Head Start With Math
August 17, 2018 - Ground-breaking study tests whether rejected livers can be made viable for transplantation
August 16, 2018 - New algorithm could improve diagnosis of rare diseases | News Center
August 16, 2018 - SCHILLER introduces latest generation of ECG device, CARDIOVIT AT-102 G2
August 16, 2018 - Proper treatment, refraining from smoking can reduce heart disease risk from type 2 diabetes
August 16, 2018 - Mount Sinai study could transform treatment for patients with retinal degenerative diseases
August 16, 2018 - Penn researchers develop first mouse model of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
August 16, 2018 - Four tips to help prevent fall allergy symptoms
August 16, 2018 - Women’s Preventive Services Initiative says screen all women annually for urinary incontinence
August 16, 2018 - At Stanford, patient discovers the source of her headaches, nausea | News Center
August 16, 2018 - To Prevent Injuries in Young Baseball Players, Chris Ahmad Reaches Out to Parents
August 16, 2018 - Restoring blood flow may be linked to longer survival in patients with critical limb ischemia
August 16, 2018 - New model of genetically engineered immune cells may help fight solid tumors
August 16, 2018 - Maternal stress increases anxious and depressive-like behaviors in female offspring
August 16, 2018 - Childhood exposure to secondhand smoke increases risk of COPD death in adulthood
August 16, 2018 - Scientists uncover key control mechanism of DNA replication
August 16, 2018 - NIH begins first-in-human trial of experimental live, attenuated Zika virus vaccine
August 16, 2018 - Two diabetes medications don’t slow progression of type 2 diabetes in youth
August 16, 2018 - 5 Questions: How Stanford research is making MRI scans safer for kids | News Center
August 16, 2018 - Columbia Celebrates 25th Anniversary of White Coat Ceremony
August 16, 2018 - Phonak’s new smallest and most discreet Virto B-Titanium hearing aid
August 16, 2018 - New project aims to study growth of water-based microorganisms
August 16, 2018 - Immune cell found to play important role in photosensitivity
August 16, 2018 - Higher social dominance linked to faster decision-making in men
August 16, 2018 - Blood test in early pregnancy could determine a woman’s later risk for gestational diabetes
August 16, 2018 - New research confirms link between DDT exposure and autism
August 16, 2018 - Neurodevelopmental Anomalies, Birth Defects Linked to Zika ID’d
August 16, 2018 - Risk of heart failure up in ALVSD patients with diabetes
August 16, 2018 - Exercise reduces symptoms and fatigue in patients with chronic kidney disease
August 16, 2018 - Study reveals role of RUNX proteins in DNA repair
August 16, 2018 - New research finds no harm from average salt consumption
August 16, 2018 - Researchers develop new way of testing bacterial resistance to antibiotics
August 16, 2018 - Magnetic gene in aquarium fish could open doors to treatment for epilepsy, Parkinson’s
August 16, 2018 - Five tips for successful long-term breastfeeding
August 16, 2018 - Researchers identify brain networks involved in object naming
August 16, 2018 - Promoting HPV Vaccine Doesn’t Prompt Risky Sex by Teens: Study
August 16, 2018 - Treating Rheumatoid Arthritis: Search for a Cure
August 16, 2018 - Research shows in the long run, charcoal toothpaste likely won’t whiten teeth
August 16, 2018 - Seattle Children’s opens new clinic to provide convenient access to pediatric specialty care services
August 16, 2018 - Curious case of the lost contact lens
August 16, 2018 - GN Hearing unveils world’s first Premium-Plus hearing aid
August 16, 2018 - Parental life span linked with increased longevity and health in daughters
August 16, 2018 - Health leaders reveal ten most important medicines in NHS history
August 16, 2018 - Mobile health devices diagnose hidden heart condition in at-risk populations
August 16, 2018 - When it comes to shedding pounds, it pays to think big
August 16, 2018 - Liva Healthcare announces appointment of Thomas Cooke as clinical services manager in the UK
August 16, 2018 - New digital pharmacy aims to help people living with chronic care conditions
August 16, 2018 - Preventing ACL injuries in high school athletes
August 16, 2018 - Experts provide insight into novel concepts and approaches for stroke rehabilitation
August 16, 2018 - Scientists reverse congenital blindness in mouse model
August 16, 2018 - Study shows link between use of benzodiazepines and increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease
New genetic study of mosquitoes demonstrates movement of insecticide resistance across Africa

New genetic study of mosquitoes demonstrates movement of insecticide resistance across Africa

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

The largest ever genetic study of mosquitoes reveals the movement of insecticide resistance between different regions of Africa and finds several rapidly evolving insecticide resistance genes. Reported today (29 November) in Nature, this genetic resource will be used to develop new tools for monitoring resistance and managing insecticide use, and for designing novel control methods.

Malaria is transmitted by mosquitoes and rising resistance to insecticides is hampering efforts to control the disease. The study by researchers from the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute and their collaborators also discovered that wild mosquitoes collected in Africa were genetically far more diverse than had been thought. This helps to explain how mosquitoes evolve insecticide resistance so quickly.

More than 200 million people are infected with the malaria parasite worldwide each year, which is transmitted by blood-sucking Anopheles mosquitoes. Malaria caused the deaths of around 429,000 people in 2015 with the majority of cases in sub-Saharan Africa.

Public health measures in Africa such as insecticide-treated bed nets and insecticide-spraying have helped reduce the numbers of malaria cases since 2000, but many mosquitoes have evolved resistance to insecticides. This is now threatening to derail malaria control in Africa.

To understand how mosquitoes are evolving, researchers working with the Anopheles gambiae 1000 genomes project sequenced the DNA of 765 wild Anopheles mosquitoes. These were taken from 15 locations across eight African countries, creating the largest data resource on natural genetic variation for any species of insect. They then examined each of the mosquito genomes.

The researchers revealed that the Anopheles gambie mosquitoes are extremely genetically diverse compared with most other animal species. High genetic diversity enables rapid evolution and the study found 52 million small differences amongst the mosquito genomes.

Dr Mara Lawniczak, a corresponding author on the paper and Faculty at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, said: “The diversity of mosquito genomes was far greater than we expected. Such high levels of genetic variation poise mosquito populations to rapidly evolve in response to our efforts to control them whether that be with insecticides or any other control measure, including gene drive.”

New strategies to control mosquitoes are being developed that use ‘gene drive’- using the latest Crispr/Cas 9 genetic tools to make mosquitoes infertile or unable to carry the malaria parasite. However, this technology requires an exact match with any targeted gene. The researchers found that gene drive is unlikely to work for most mosquito genes because they are too variable in nature, however they also used the data to highlight less variable targets that are potentially more suitable for gene drive based methods to control mosquitoes.

The mosquito genomes also revealed rapid evolution of several genes that had previously been implicated in insecticide resistance. Unexpectedly, the researchers discovered many previously-unknown genetic variants within those genes that could be causing insecticide resistance. Worryingly, they showed that these genetic variants for insecticide resistance were not only emerging independently in different parts of Africa, but were also being spread across the continent by mosquito migration.

Professor Martin Donnelly, a corresponding author from the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine and Honorary Faculty at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, said: “We know that mosquito populations are rapidly evolving resistance to insecticides, which is a serious threat to the future of malaria control in Africa. We have been able to see that a diverse array of genes linked to insecticide resistance are under very strong selection, confirming that they are playing an important role in the evolution of insecticide resistance in natural mosquito populations. Our study highlights the severe challenges facing public efforts to control mosquitoes and to manage and limit insecticide resistance.”

Alistair Miles, lead author from the University of Oxford and the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, said: “The data we have generated are a unique resource for studying how mosquito populations are responding to our current control efforts, and for designing better technologies and strategies for mosquito control in the future. More data will be needed to fill in the geographical gaps and study how mosquito populations change over time and in response to specific control interventions. However, this study demonstrates a clear path towards building a new and much-needed source of intelligence to support the campaign to eradicate malaria in Africa.”

Source:

http://www.sanger.ac.uk/news/view/largest-genetic-study-mosquitoes-reveals-spread-insecticide-resistance-across-africa

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles