Breaking News
February 21, 2018 - Researchers discover brain pathway that dissociates opioid addiction from analgesia
February 21, 2018 - Scientists uncover how newly discovered gene helps grow blood vessels
February 21, 2018 - Brain’s quality control process holds clues to obesity’s roots
February 21, 2018 - Researchers to study whether menstrual cups can help prevent vaginal infections
February 21, 2018 - MS patients who feel stigmatized more likely to suffer from depression
February 21, 2018 - Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy could protect against childhood obesity
February 21, 2018 - Lower-Quality Medical Tx Might Have Skewed Key PCI vs CABG Trials
February 21, 2018 - Love and fear are visible across the brain instead of being restricted to any brain region
February 21, 2018 - Adults with congenital heart disease have increased risk for dementia, study finds
February 21, 2018 - Clinical trial studying type 1 diabetes reaches full enrollment
February 21, 2018 - Father’s stress affects the brain development of offspring, mice study shows
February 21, 2018 - ESRD Death Declines in Vasculitis Patients
February 21, 2018 - Taking ibuprofen for long periods found to alter human testicular physiology
February 21, 2018 - Google AI device could predict a person’s risk of a heart attack
February 20, 2018 - FDA Approves Domestic Source for Tc-99m Isotopes
February 20, 2018 - Sanofi rejects refund demand faces Philippine suit over dengue vaccine (Update)
February 20, 2018 - Researchers discover that activation of specific enzyme may help suppress tumor metastasis
February 20, 2018 - Blood or marrow transplantation survivors have higher risk of cognitive impairment
February 20, 2018 - Booze Beats Pot at Being Unhealthy: Oregon Poll
February 20, 2018 - Morning Break: ’20 Years Late’; Drugs in the Dirt; Catching Flu in the Dorm
February 20, 2018 - Another piece to the puzzle in naked mole rats’ long, cancer-free life
February 20, 2018 - Scientists identify four viruses that can produce insulin-like hormones
February 20, 2018 - New e-Health solution developed to prevent cardiovascular disease, dementia in senior citizens
February 20, 2018 - New genetic risk score could help guide screening decisions for prostate cancer
February 20, 2018 - Study finds higher risk of stroke among blacks with atrial fibrillation than whites
February 20, 2018 - Physical activity could be used as strategy for diabetes prevention
February 20, 2018 - Researchers develop sensing method for early detection of cancer and diabetes
February 20, 2018 - New wearable electronics could be game-changer for stroke rehabilitation
February 20, 2018 - Immune history influences person’s response to flu vaccine
February 20, 2018 - Research findings could help develop new drugs to prevent, treat dry eye disease
February 20, 2018 - Serenity Now! Learn to Have Patience with Patients
February 20, 2018 - Computer simulation addresses the problem of blood clotting
February 20, 2018 - Women with type 1 diabetes not protected against coronary artery disease
February 20, 2018 - Persistent bloating can be a sign of ovarian cancer, warns charity
February 20, 2018 - Trump administration proposes rule to loosen curbs on short-term health plans
February 20, 2018 - Key protein involved in epigenetic regulation of gene expression guides skin cell renewal
February 20, 2018 - Heart attack symptoms often missed in women
February 20, 2018 - Diagnosis of celiac disease takes 3.5 years for patients who do not report GI symptoms
February 20, 2018 - Study reveals functional dynamics of ion channels
February 20, 2018 - Study explores link between mortality risk and combustible tobacco use
February 20, 2018 - ‘She Trusted Me, and I’d Turned Her Away’
February 20, 2018 - AbbVie and Voyager Therapeutics collaborate to develop new treatments for tauopathies
February 20, 2018 - Fast food makes the immune system more aggressive in the long term
February 20, 2018 - Therapeutic target for glaucoma could have treatment ramifications for Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s
February 20, 2018 - Overcoming Negative Reviews | Medpage Today
February 20, 2018 - MyD88—villain of allergies and asthma
February 20, 2018 - Food scientists develop rapid screening technique to detect pesticide residue in vegetables
February 20, 2018 - Lab-grown cerebellar cells may help explain how ASD develops at molecular level
February 20, 2018 - Scientists explore connection between bad sleep habits and stiff blood vessels
February 20, 2018 - New Treatment Apalutamide (Erleada) Approved for Prostate Cancer That Resists Hormone Therapy
February 20, 2018 - Do You Really Need My Signature on That?
February 20, 2018 - HIV-1 genetic diversity is higher in vaginal tract than in blood during early infection
February 20, 2018 - Diabetes does not increase work-loss years due to early retirement
February 20, 2018 - Researchers aim to find out how PTSD affects decisions of police
February 20, 2018 - UH Cleveland Medical Center explores novel treatments for uterine fibroids
February 20, 2018 - Flu Vax Efficacy 25% Against Predominant H3N2 Strain So Far
February 20, 2018 - HIV screening most optimal at 25 years of age if no risk factors
February 20, 2018 - Loyola Medicine primary care physician offers advice to minimize risk of flu
February 20, 2018 - Safe sleep recommendations for parents that may help reduce child’s risk of SUID
February 20, 2018 - Why Do So Few Docs Have Buprenorphine Waivers?
February 20, 2018 - Low levels of alcohol good for the brain
February 20, 2018 - Experimental treatment improves invisible symptoms of a man with spinal cord injury
February 20, 2018 - Myriad’s EndoPredict offers better prediction of breast cancer recurrence, analysis shows
February 20, 2018 - Researchers identify fifteen genes that determine our facial features
February 20, 2018 - Morning Break: New Health IT Player; Luxturna No Bargain; Nuclear Freakout
February 20, 2018 - How does it compare? Hospice care at home, at assisted living facility, at nursing home
February 19, 2018 - Scientists develop water-soluble warped nanographene for bioimaging
February 19, 2018 - It’s Not Your Imagination: You’re Hungrier After Losing Weight
February 19, 2018 - Antihypertensive Use At Delivery Rising in Preeclampsia
February 19, 2018 - A centuries-old math equation used to solve a modern-day genetics challenge
February 19, 2018 - Liquid biopsies could be used as new predictive marker for metastatic TNBC
February 19, 2018 - Russian researchers develop new multi-layered biodegradable scaffolds
February 19, 2018 - Are ‘Vaccine Skeptics’ Responsible for Flu Deaths?
February 19, 2018 - Hidden genetic effects behind immune diseases may be missed, study suggests
February 19, 2018 - Emergency nurses experience regular verbal and physical abuse
February 19, 2018 - Study sheds light on biology that guides behavior across different stages of life
February 19, 2018 - Morning Break: Transgender Breast Feeding; Brazilian ‘Pro-Vaxxers’; Post-Stroke Exercise
February 19, 2018 - Meningitis vaccination strategy in Africa found to be effective, economical
February 19, 2018 - Researchers uncover how excess calcium may influence development of Parkinson’s disease
February 19, 2018 - Psoriasis drug also effective at reducing aortic inflammation
Researchers explore new method of destroying tumor cells

Researchers explore new method of destroying tumor cells

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

Researchers from Lomonosov MSU Faculty of Biology have studied the stages of entosis, a process of cell death when one cell invades the other and gets digested inside of it. Entosis could become a new method of destroying cancer cells. The research was conducted as a part of the Noah’s Ark Project, with the results published in the Scientific Reports.

Entosis is one of the variants of programmed cell death, or one of the types of cellular cannibalism. The process consists of one cell absorbing another and getting destroyed in it. Any cell that can attach to another cell can engage in entosis. Tumor cells do it most often, and can consume both similar and healthy cells. Scientists think that with the help of entosis it could be possible, on the contrary, to destroy those cancer cells that are resistant to drugs that cause apoptosis, which is another variant of programmed death, in which the cell simply breaks up into separate apoptotic bodies.

The consuming (entotic) cell forms an outgrowth of the plasma membrane – a special fold that “covers” the invading cell. Then the plasma membrane “collapses” along the fold, so that the invading cell is placed inside the entotic vacuole, where it is held by specialized structures – desmosomes. Soon, the membrane from which the vacuole consists begins to change: desmosome proteins disappear, and their place gets taken by proteins that are needed to merge with lysosomes – the organelles which will then “digest” the invading cell. The lysosomes of the entotic cell merge with the vacuole membrane, and digestive enzymes enter the vacuole to destroy the invading cell. Inside the invading cell, too, lysosomes are activated and grow in number. As a result, the invading cell collapses and dies. The products that are formed during the splitting of proteins, DNA, lipids, polysaccharides and other molecules of the implanted cell can serve as an additional food for the entotic cell.

The authors have found that the process of entosis consists of five consecutive stages. Transitions from one stage to another are accompanied by changes in the geometric forms of entotic and embedded cells and of some membrane organelles (Golgi apparatus, mitochondria, lysosomes). The scientists distinguished the stages according to the shape of the inner cell, the structure of its nucleus and the state of the cytoplasm of both cells.

The authors have also showed that the Golgi apparatus, the microtubule cytoskeleton and actin microfilaments (threads made from the protein called actin that are present in all eukaryotic cells) play an important role in the realization of the entosis program. It has been proved that the experimental destruction of these three components inhibits the invasion of one cell into another, but does not stop the degradation of an already embedded cell. This means that these components do not participate in the final stages of entosis. This way of death of one cell inside another works in substrate-dependent cultures – in cells that grow and divide in culture only when they come into contact with a dense surface, such as glass or plastic.

“We have demonstrated that entosis is possible not only when the cells grow in a suspended state in a liquid medium, but also when they are attached to the substrate and to each other. We also were the first to discover that this process is stadial and that certain stages can be influenced,” said one of the authors of the article, Galina Onishchenko, Doctor of Biology, Head of the Department of Cell Biology and Histology, Faculty of Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University.

In the course of the work, the scientists cultivated the cells and conducted their vital monitoring. They used immunocytochemical and cytochemical staining to isolate the entotic cells, and observed them using video microscopy, light, fluorescence and confocal microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and correlation microscopy.

In tumors, cells tend to be in close contact with each other. Evidence that entosis is possible both in cells interacting with each other and with the substrate, as well as understanding of the way in which one cell invades another are needed to scientists so that they can search for chemotherapeutic influences that induce entosis. This is important in cases where tumor cells are resistant to drugs that cause apoptosis. The authors note that they continue to investigate the phenomenon of entosis under different chemotherapeutic effects. This will allow in the future to understand the contribution that entosis makes to strengthening of tumor progression processes and to the development of tumor cells’ resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs.

“The results of the research show that the stages of entosis involve successive changes in the various structural and functional characteristics both of the entotic and the invading cells. This allows us in the future to determine the mechanisms of transition from one stage of entosis to another and to find ways to control this variant of programmed cell death,” Galina Onishchenko concluded.

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles