Breaking News
September 22, 2018 - Finding epigenetic signature appears to predict inflammation risk in serious type of IBD
September 22, 2018 - Researchers develop light-based technique to measure very weak magnetic fields
September 22, 2018 - UAB researchers study dysfunction of the immune system associated with NSAID carprofen
September 22, 2018 - QIAGEN and DiaSorin launch automated, CE-marked workflow for high-throughput TB screening
September 22, 2018 - Cardiac MR With Contrast Feasible in Developing World
September 22, 2018 - Daily low-dose aspirin doesn’t reduce heart-attack risk in healthy people
September 21, 2018 - Children with asthma found to be disadvantaged in education and future occupation
September 21, 2018 - Interaction of chemical slurry and ancient shale in fracking wastewater causes radioactivity
September 21, 2018 - Researchers find that sample size is key factor determining accuracy of study results
September 21, 2018 - Study shows how the drive to eat overpowers the brain’s signal to stop
September 21, 2018 - 30 Million Americans Now Have Diabetes
September 21, 2018 - Thousands of breast cancer gene variants engineered and analyzed
September 21, 2018 - The current fellowship interview process is cumbersome — Stanford researchers have a better idea
September 21, 2018 - Progenitor cells for human bone and cartilage have been identified
September 21, 2018 - Study reveals new therapeutic target for pediatric tumor-associated intractable epilepsy
September 21, 2018 - SLU’s College professor receives NIH grant to develop I-TEST project
September 21, 2018 - DermTech completes enrollment in clinical study to assess DNA damage and reversal
September 21, 2018 - Grieving patients treated with talk therapy have lower risk of suicide and psychiatric illness
September 21, 2018 - NIH and FDA call for eliminating involvement of RAC in human gene therapy experiments
September 21, 2018 - New system uses algorithm to convert 2D videos into 3D printed ‘motion sculptures’
September 21, 2018 - Sea squirt model reveals key molecules in dopaminergic neuron differentiation
September 21, 2018 - Effective management of neonatal abstinence syndrome requires coordinated ‘cascade of care’
September 21, 2018 - Refugees seek care for wounds of war
September 21, 2018 - Under the sea, in an octopus’ garden on ecstacy
September 21, 2018 - Eating foods with low nutritional quality ratings linked to cancer risk in large European cohort
September 21, 2018 - Giving kids honest information about water consumption may help them make healthy choices
September 21, 2018 - Horwitz Prize Awarded for Work on Hormones
September 21, 2018 - CHMP issues positive opinion supporting use of Trelegy Ellipta in broader group of COPD patients
September 21, 2018 - Scientists discover new molecules that work together to remove unwanted DNA
September 21, 2018 - Dr. Fenella France to deliver 2019 Plenary Lecture
September 21, 2018 - New research finds that MHC-II molecules have more influence on tumors than MHC-I
September 21, 2018 - Researchers study effects of cardiac cycle in simple learning task
September 21, 2018 - FDA takes new steps to address opioid crisis by approving Opioid Analgesic Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy
September 21, 2018 - Positive Barhemsys Phase 3 Treatment Data Published in Anesthesia & Analgesia
September 21, 2018 - Celiac Disease Screening: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information
September 21, 2018 - Autism linked to egg cells’ difficulty creating large proteins
September 21, 2018 - Tweaking nuclear pores could provide new avenue to battle against cancer
September 21, 2018 - Experts warn health care providers to slow down in allowing smart pill in patient care settings
September 21, 2018 - MoreGrasp reports breakthrough development of grasp neuroprosthetics activated by thought control
September 21, 2018 - Study reveals new way to target HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer
September 21, 2018 - CHMP grants positive opinion for VENCLYXTO plus rituximab for treating relapsed/refractory CLL
September 21, 2018 - Study offers solid link between visceral organs and brain’s reward, motivation system
September 21, 2018 - First U.S. patient treated with innovative gene therapy at Bascom Palmer Eye Institute
September 21, 2018 - New study shows how Ethiopia has managed to achieve extraordinary progress
September 21, 2018 - Choroidal Detachment – The American Society of Retina Specialists
September 21, 2018 - New clinical trial evaluates aesthetic results of conservative surgery in breast cancer
September 21, 2018 - Discovery of a key protein involved in the development of autism
September 21, 2018 - Air pollution appears to be linked to increased risk of developing dementia
September 21, 2018 - Henry Ford Health System receives $600k grant to study genetic makeup of gliomas
September 21, 2018 - Arthritis common in individuals with varying degrees of depression, finds study
September 21, 2018 - Scientist intends to fight pathogenic bacteria with viruses
September 21, 2018 - New research suggests link between PFAS chemicals and hyperthyroidism in pet cats
September 21, 2018 - Multi-year study data shows impact of new soft contact lens to slow myopia progression in children
September 21, 2018 - Neuroscientists identify circuit for brain’s statistical inference about motion
September 21, 2018 - MILabs’ VECTor6 system wins Commercial Innovation Award at WMIC 2018
September 21, 2018 - Scientists find wild African monkeys infected with bacterium that causes syphilis, yaws in humans
September 21, 2018 - 2006 to 2015 Saw Increase in Severe Maternal Morbidity
September 21, 2018 - Similar changes in the brains of patients with ADHD and emotional instability
September 21, 2018 - Cobalt mining in DR Congo takes a high toll on both creuseurs and environment
September 21, 2018 - Eating fatty fish during pregnancy may boost unborn child’s brain development
September 21, 2018 - Study reveals promising new drug candidate to treat acute renal failure
September 21, 2018 - Neural signal that urges to eat overpowers the one that says to stop
September 21, 2018 - Scientists achieve breakthrough in accelerated diagnosis of multi-resistant hospital pathogens
September 21, 2018 - Researchers simulate how different breast tissues respond to heat from MRIs
September 21, 2018 - Despite red flags at surgery centers, overseers award gold seals
September 21, 2018 - Zapping Airway Nerves May Help COPD Patients Breathe
September 21, 2018 - Researchers find answers as to why some people are at risk of gout
September 21, 2018 - Stars of Stanford Medicine: Genetic counseling and compassion
September 21, 2018 - Researchers use reinforcement learning to train gliders to soar like birds
September 21, 2018 - New federally-funded research project could lead to treatments that extend human lifespan
September 21, 2018 - Health insurance ads have shifted over time due to health plans offered via ACA
September 21, 2018 - Use of transcranial electrical stimulation to bolster creativity has far-reaching implications
September 21, 2018 - Scientists find way to boost efficacy of powerful antimalarial drug with anti-cancer medicines
September 21, 2018 - Weighing the risks and benefits of drug tapering—two patients, two perspectives
September 21, 2018 - The “exposome” revealed: a barrage of bacteria, chemicals, microscopic animals and more
September 21, 2018 - Top three immune boosting recommendations to ward off freshers’ flu
September 21, 2018 - Young children’s oral microbiota could serve as early indicator for obesity
September 21, 2018 - Older individuals with multiple sclerosis report higher quality of life than younger counterparts
September 21, 2018 - LineaRx signs agreement with Takis/Evvivax to develop linear-DNA based anti-cancer vaccines
September 21, 2018 - AbbVie Presents Upadacitinib Longer-Term (32-Week) and Patient-Reported Outcomes Data from Phase 2b Atopic Dermatitis Study at 27th European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology (EADV) Congress
‘Obesity paradox’ not present among people with new cases of cardiovascular disease

‘Obesity paradox’ not present among people with new cases of cardiovascular disease

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

Although obesity is a well-known risk factor for getting cardiovascular disease, a controversial body of research suggests that obesity may actually be associated with improved survival among people who have cardiovascular disease.

However, a new study by NYU College of Global Public Health and the University of Michigan finds that this “obesity paradox” is not present among people with new cases of cardiovascular disease. Most prior work examines people with more longstanding disease, where disease-related factors can bias findings towards the observation of a paradox.

“Given that many diseases result in wasting at the end of life, the notion that extra catabolic reserve can prolong survival makes intuitive sense. There are also explanations relating to a various inflammatory and neurohormonal processes. However, despite the plausibility of these hypotheses, we did not find evidence of an obesity paradox when using methods that are less prone to bias,” said Virginia Chang, MD, PhD, associate professor of social and behavioral sciences at NYU College of Global Public Health and the study’s lead author. The study is published online in the journal PLOS ONE.

Past research has largely looked at people with existing cardiovascular disease (prevalent disease), rather than focusing on those newly diagnosed (incident disease). Using incident disease data, however, can be valuable in helping researchers to control for confounding factors.

For instance, illness-related weight loss can influence how weight status is categorized. Disease can lead to both death and weight loss, and both are a sign of more severe disease. If people categorized as normal weight have lost weight because of more severe disease, researchers will underestimate the adverse effects of being obese relative to normal weight. In addition, those who are both obese and have severe disease are more likely to die early, while more robust obese individuals survive and are ultimately studied. Both of these biases can be reduced by examining people at the time of an incident diagnosis and using their pre-diagnosis weight.

In this study, the researchers examined the association between obesity and mortality among people with cardiovascular disease, comparing incident and prevalent disease cases in the same dataset. They used the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative longitudinal survey of U.S. adults aged 50 years and older conducted by the University of Michigan. The study, initiated in 1992, links surveys of more than 30,000 individuals to Medicare claims.

The researchers focused on specific cardiovascular disease diagnoses: myocardial infarction (heart attack), chronic heart failure, stroke, and ischemic heart disease. When looking at prevalent disease, the researchers used individuals’ current weights; when studying incident disease, they used their pre-diagnosis weights.

Among those with prevalent disease, the researchers observed a strong and significant obesity paradox, replicating earlier findings. The risk of death was 18 to 36 percent lower for people in obese class I (a body mass index of 30-34.9) compared with those of normal weight.

However, in incident disease models of the same cardiovascular conditions, and using the same dataset, there was no evidence of this survival benefit.

“The loss of an obesity paradox when switching from prevalent to incident cases and pre-diagnosis weight in the same dataset suggests that prevalent models are likely biased by factors such as disease-related weight loss and selective survival,” Chang said.

If obesity improved survival among people with new and existing cases of cardiovascular disease, the finding would have important clinical and public health implications. However, the researchers conclude that their findings do not support reevaluating guidelines in pursuit of a potential obesity paradox.

Source:

https://publichealth.nyu.edu/events-news/news/2017/12/07/obesity-paradox-not-found-when-measuring-new-cases-cardiovascular

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles