Breaking News
May 24, 2018 - South Asians living in the United States more likely to die of heart disease and stroke
May 24, 2018 - Health Tip: Why Get a Biopsy
May 24, 2018 - Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence by Race/Ethnicity and Sex in the United States, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–2012
May 24, 2018 - Motivation to move may start with being mindful
May 24, 2018 - Advanced genetics study of TB bacteria uncovers virulent ‘Beijing lineage’ strain among young adults
May 24, 2018 - Friends tend to have similar pain tolerance levels, study reveals
May 24, 2018 - Now more of us can count on more time dodging the dementia bullet
May 24, 2018 - Global healthcare access and quality improved from 2000-2016
May 24, 2018 - Virtual follow-up visits for hypertension care just as effective as in-person office visits
May 24, 2018 - New research reveals links between type 1 diabetes and mental health
May 24, 2018 - Antioxidant-enriched multivitamin may decrease respiratory illnesses in CF patients, finds study
May 24, 2018 - Antidepressant treatments increase risk of weight gain, study finds
May 24, 2018 - INSYS Therapeutics Confirms Outcome of FDA Advisory Committee Meeting on Buprenorphine Sublingual Spray
May 24, 2018 - Poor older adults with Medicaid insurance more likely to die after hospital discharge
May 24, 2018 - Early-life obesity linked to children’s lower perceptual reasoning and working memory scores
May 24, 2018 - Health and diagnostics to soon be digitalized with advent of AI
May 24, 2018 - USC researchers develop new portable device for early-stage malaria detection
May 24, 2018 - Psychologists show that depression accelerates brain aging
May 24, 2018 - Novel IR imaging offers rapid and reliable analysis of cancer tissues
May 24, 2018 - Tau mutations may serve as novel risk factor for cancer
May 24, 2018 - Sun Pharma Announces FDA Approval of Yonsa (abiraterone acetate) to Treat Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer
May 24, 2018 - Nurse dead in Congo as Ebola vaccination campaign starts
May 24, 2018 - Unique imaging technique identifies biomarkers of cellular damage done by diabetic retinopathy
May 24, 2018 - Study identifies key food allergy policies that parents want in schools to improve safety of kids
May 24, 2018 - Formaldehyde risk found to be higher in e-cigarettes than originally thought
May 24, 2018 - NIH commences first-in-human trial evaluating experimental treatment for Ebola
May 24, 2018 - Study finds no link between surveillance intensity and detection of recurrence or survival in CRC patients
May 24, 2018 - FDA Alert: Oral Over-the-Counter Benzocaine Products: Drug Safety Communication
May 24, 2018 - Fiber-fermenting bacteria improve health of type 2 diabetes patients
May 24, 2018 - Free e-cigarettes do not help smokers quit, money does finds study
May 24, 2018 - Higher exposure to carbon monoxide in utero increases risk of poor lung function in infants
May 24, 2018 - Neurologists identify new type of vertigo
May 24, 2018 - Scientists identify new inherited neurodevelopmental disease
May 24, 2018 - New family support program improves patient-centered care and lowers hospitalization costs
May 24, 2018 - Researchers take important step toward finding protein biomarkers during cancer surgery
May 24, 2018 - Deadly form of black lung disease found to be increasing among U.S. coal miners
May 24, 2018 - Robust Immune Responses for Herpes Zoster Subunit Vaccine
May 24, 2018 - Optical Coherence Tomography | Texas Heart Institute
May 24, 2018 - Type 2 diabetes slowly rising in Auckland kids – Pacific and Māori have highest rates
May 24, 2018 - Study explores brain chemistry of alcohol exposure in people with family history of AUD
May 24, 2018 - Study shows AVATS procedure as safe, effective alternative for patients deemed ‘inoperable’
May 24, 2018 - Comparative Analysis of a Complex Monoclonal Antibody
May 24, 2018 - Penn investigators discover source of immune molecule involved in nasal polyps, asthma
May 24, 2018 - Berries and Grapes May Keep You Breathin’ Easy
May 24, 2018 - Access and utilization of dental services for Medicaid children 2013-2015
May 23, 2018 - New research raises concern about rate of postpartum hemorrhage
May 23, 2018 - Researchers create new modeling framework that takes a zoonotic perspective on Ebola
May 23, 2018 - Study compares bacteria in humans to the laboratory
May 23, 2018 - Frequent sauna bathing reduces risk of stroke
May 23, 2018 - Landmark trial to test implantable defibrillator in diabetic patients with history of heart attack
May 23, 2018 - Vitamin C consumption may reduce harm to baby’s lungs due to smoking during pregnancy
May 23, 2018 - Researchers complete genomic map of chronic lymphocytic leukemia
May 23, 2018 - Medical students take to the streets to learn about real world problems at the root of poor health
May 23, 2018 - New efforts to curb high blood pressure in Asia
May 23, 2018 - Malaria-causing parasite seeks refuge inside the liver to replicate and survive
May 23, 2018 - Slower rates of stimulation may be more effective in brain therapy, suggests research
May 23, 2018 - Study finds connection between one partner’s BMI and other spouse’s risk of developing diabetes
May 23, 2018 - Mapping the Genes Responsible for Pluripotency
May 23, 2018 - FDA Alert: Homeopathic Teething Drops, Nausea Drops, Intestinal Colic Drops, Stomach Calm, Expectorant Cough Syrup, Silver-Zinc Throat Spray, and Argentum Elixir by MBI Distributing: Recall
May 23, 2018 - Genetic fixer-uppers may predict bladder cancer prognosis
May 23, 2018 - Investigational technology could increase donor organ supply for lung transplants
May 23, 2018 - Prediabetic patients with OSA could lower their resting heart rates by using CPAP
May 23, 2018 - Schizophrenics’ blood samples feature genetic material from more types of microorganisms
May 23, 2018 - Subtle hearing deficits can change the brains of young people
May 23, 2018 - New study shows increased rates of hospitalization for suicide among youths
May 23, 2018 - Proportion of Drug-Intoxicated Organ Donors on the Rise in U.S.
May 23, 2018 - Using virtual biopsies to improve melanoma detection
May 23, 2018 - Compassion meditation training may increase brain’s resilience to suffering of other people
May 23, 2018 - New AAD PSA uses social media imagery to highlight tanning hazards
May 23, 2018 - Frequent MRSA surveillance could contain infection in newborns, study finds
May 23, 2018 - Medicaid expansion linked to reduction in ICU utilization
May 23, 2018 - Proteins moderating nicotine dependence may help fat cells burn energy
May 23, 2018 - Researchers identify mechanisms that regulate mammary gland development
May 23, 2018 - ‘Low-Alcohol’ Booze Labels May Backfire
May 23, 2018 - Social isolation could increase risk of death, hospitalizations for heart failure patients
May 23, 2018 - New research shows that children with autism are able to create imaginary friends
May 23, 2018 - New technology could make prosthetic use more intuitive and reliable
May 23, 2018 - HU researchers explore how simulated microgravity affects gene expression, muscle cell differentiation
May 23, 2018 - Researchers develop injectable bandage to stop fatal blood loss, activate wound healing
May 23, 2018 - Exercising for 4-5 days per week is needed to keep the heart young
Researchers find progenitor cells for all the heart’s components, except right ventricle

Researchers find progenitor cells for all the heart’s components, except right ventricle

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

Should assist in regenerative medicine

Progenitor cells – undifferentiated cells that later become specified – for all the heart’s components, except for the right ventricle, have been found by Hiroshima University researchers and detailed in a paper published in Nature Communications.

It is hoped this discovery will lead to greater understanding of mechanisms employed during heart development, enable the advancement of induction systems for cardiomyocytes in the lab, and advance heart regeneration therapies.

The Heart is composed of two kinds muscle cells: working cardiomyocytes – involved in the heart’s contraction contraction, and special cardiomyocytes – involved in the heart’s conduction system. The heart’s individual components of right, and left ventricles, atria, outflow tract, and sinus venosus all have a unique role and are composed of these defined cardiomyocytes.

Researchers need to find each specific cardiomyocyte progenitor if they are to induce required tissues in lab. The HU team, lead by Associate Professor Hiroki Kokubo, have found them, for all but one of these regions through studying expression of the Sfrp5 protein by cells in the embryonic heart.  

That so much about the heart has remained a mystery until now might seem surprising. It is known that the heart is the first organ to form in the embryo and that it starts off as a crescent shape of heart primordium, composed of mesoderm, that migrates from the posterior to the anterior of embryo. This “heart crescent”, containing progenitor cells, gradually differentiates in stages forming the “heart tube” – essentially a primitive single-circulation heart, like that found in fish. The heart tube in the mammalian embryo continues to elongate and loops itself to form four chambers, generating two independent circulation systems – the pulmonary, and the systemic circulation systems we are familiar with.

While it has been believed that the heart crescent forms from a single tissue source that goes on to form the entire organ, a recent study indicated that another mesodermal layer is involved –  located in the medial side of the former in the cardiac crescent.

This newly found layer has been termed the second heart field (SHF). It is formed from undifferentiated splanchnic mesoderm, and later gives rise the right ventricle, outflow tract and part of atrium. What was formerly known as the cardiac crescent is thus now called the first heart field (FHF), which is already differentiated, forming the left ventricle and most of the atria. The question remains whether progenitors for this FHF exist.

Progenitors for special cardiomyocytes are implied to exist in the cardiac crescent through cell marking analysis – but until now no marker gene for the progenitors of special cardiomyotytes has been reported.

To address these two issues, the researchers at HU have focused on “Wnt signalling”  – as this signalling is known to regulate the proliferation and differentiation of cardiomyotytes – and selected the Sfrp5 gene to investigate in detail.

The research from HU has subsequently found the progenitor cells for the FHF, which give rise to ① the left ventricle and atria, ② forms the splanchnic mesoderm, expressing the SHF marker, that goes on to become the outflow tract, and ③ which differentiates into special cardiomyotyes in the sinus venosus – but not in the right ventricle.

Sfrp5 expression was observed to begin at the lateral sides of the formerly named heart crescent, and its expression ceased in the differentiated components of the left ventricle, atria, and outflow tract, but continued in the sinus venous.

This research provides new insight into how progenitors contribute to each component of the heart during its developmental process and could contribute towards treatments for heart disease. Heart disease is a major cause of death in much of the world and when cardiomyocytes are injured – they aren’t regenerated. Their death can cause serious heart failure, potentially leading to sudden death.

For this reason the HU researchers want to develop stem cell treatments, using the information gleaned from this latest research, so that tissues can be developed for transplant, and necessary progenitors grown for introduction into injured hearts. Sfrp5’s observed role in inducing progenitor proliferation also has potential to be exploited.

The insight gained into the development of the sinus venous is of particular interest due to it being the location of the sinoatrial node – the body’s inbuilt pacemaker.

Source:

https://www.hiroshima-u.ac.jp/en

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles