Breaking News
May 21, 2018 - FDA Approves Aimovig (erenumab-aooe) as a Preventive Treatment for Migraine
May 21, 2018 - Infant death study reveals dangerous sleep practices among babysitters, relatives, others
May 21, 2018 - Intermittent fasting may increase diabetes risk, shows study
May 21, 2018 - New study shows declines in prostate cancer screening, diagnoses and treatment
May 21, 2018 - Fasting diets could raise risk of diabetes say experts
May 21, 2018 - FDA Alert: 7K and Poseidon 4500 by Shoreside Enterprises: Voluntary Recall
May 21, 2018 - Cell phones at summer camp: Research explores the effects
May 21, 2018 - Birth rate decline driven by waiting longer to have children, cost of infertility treatment
May 21, 2018 - In-hospital opioid prescribing may increase post-discharge opioid use, shows study
May 21, 2018 - ABPI expert urges to find new ‘blockbuster treatments’ for brain tumors
May 21, 2018 - Disruption of Circadian Rhythm Negatively Impacts Mental Health
May 21, 2018 - Researchers reveal mechanisms of periodic paralysis in people with rare genetic disorder
May 21, 2018 - World first use of cognitive training reduces gait freezing in Parkinson’s patients
May 21, 2018 - NIH stops alcohol study that was looking at purported health benefits of drinking
May 21, 2018 - Higher belly fat levels linked to greater risk of vitamin D deficiency
May 21, 2018 - Scientists collate evidence for mismatch between past evolutionary adaptation and modern lives
May 21, 2018 - New case report reveals negative clinical impact of using biotin supplement
May 21, 2018 - Researchers discover new disease mechanism in chronic tobacco smokers
May 21, 2018 - Breast Cancer Patients May Shorten Herceptin Regimen: Study
May 21, 2018 - Bias keeps women with higher body weights away from the doctor: study
May 21, 2018 - Researchers identify protein essential for eye lens development and clear vision
May 21, 2018 - Frontal cortical lesions moderate response to prism adaptation treatment after stroke
May 21, 2018 - Ultrasound guidelines can reliably differentiate between pediatric thyroid nodules that require biopsy
May 21, 2018 - Weight loss is an important predictor of cancer
May 21, 2018 - Ozone exposure at birth linked to increased risk of developing asthma in childhood
May 21, 2018 - CT scan still effective to determine thrombectomy treatment in stroke, study shows
May 21, 2018 - Clot busting drug combo reduces risk of major strokes in high risk patients
May 21, 2018 - New airway transplantation technique shows promising results in lung cancer patients
May 21, 2018 - Biomarker blood test does not appear to curb antibiotic overuse, shows new study
May 21, 2018 - Lilly’s Galcanezumab Meets Primary Endpoint in Phase 3 Study Evaluating Galcanezumab for the Prevention of Episodic Cluster Headache
May 21, 2018 - Grief symptoms similar in donor vs non-donor decision families
May 21, 2018 - Congo to start vaccinating populations against Ebola today to combat outbreak
May 21, 2018 - Researchers use MR spectroscopy to investigate mechanisms behind targeted treatment for gliomas
May 21, 2018 - Study reveals why older workers have higher stress levels than younger colleagues
May 21, 2018 - Health Tip: Taming a Pollen Allergy
May 21, 2018 - Inducing labor at 39 weeks reduces risks of C-section and other complications
May 20, 2018 - Developmental psychotherapy aims at helping antisocial adolescents become responsible adults
May 20, 2018 - People with OCD process emotions differently than their unaffected siblings
May 20, 2018 - Interfering with enzyme’s movement may be new approach for developing of anti-cancer drugs
May 20, 2018 - Prestroke and poststroke oral anticoagulation therapy in AF patients
May 20, 2018 - Why drug users prefer heroin at home, but cocaine while out
May 20, 2018 - Gene therapy that reverses blindness in dogs could also help treat humans
May 20, 2018 - Opioid-Related Payments Linked to Increase in Opioid Rx
May 20, 2018 - Phone apps push people to take their pills
May 20, 2018 - Backbreaking Work May Shorten Men’s Lives
May 20, 2018 - Harsher drug laws won’t stop violence, argues former police chief
May 20, 2018 - Cognitive decline in dementia is not reduced by exercise
May 20, 2018 - Detecting breast cancer with non-invasive ‘disease screening pill’
May 20, 2018 - Simple treatment may minimize hearing loss triggered by loud noises
May 20, 2018 - Alignment of mother and offspring body clock could prevent diseases such as heart disease and obesity
May 20, 2018 - New commercial data warehouse for life sciences
May 20, 2018 - Practice Intervention Targeting IV Opioids May Cut Exposure
May 20, 2018 - New study provides insight into blood signatures of inflammation
May 20, 2018 - Scientists make breakthrough discovery about vitamin B12
May 20, 2018 - What Causes Cancer? Misconceptions Abound
May 20, 2018 - Proper burial of dead cells limits inflammation
May 20, 2018 - Study offers novel solution to suppress metastatic spread of deadly breast cancer
May 20, 2018 - Perspectives of patients and caregivers on care transitions
May 20, 2018 - Guidelines for weight gain in pregnancy should be changed for underweight and very obese women
May 20, 2018 - Researchers transplant retinal sheets derived from human embryonic stem cells in retinal degeneration mouse models
May 20, 2018 - U.S. military personnel at greater risk for skin cancer than general population
May 20, 2018 - Your immune system holds the line against repeat invaders, thanks to this molecule
May 20, 2018 - Between death and deportation
May 20, 2018 - Developing a High Throughput Mass Spectrometry Platform for Drug Discovery
May 19, 2018 - New project aims to increase awareness among hospital clinicians of non-beneficial treatment at end-of-life
May 19, 2018 - Automated bone scan index offers accurate, speedy prognostic information about prostate cancer
May 19, 2018 - Rutgers Cancer Institute nurses research various topics to enhance patient experience
May 19, 2018 - Computer models provide valuable insight to structure and function of Ebola, Zika viruses
May 19, 2018 - Study exposes key tactic used by deadly fungus
May 19, 2018 - Bacterial signals are crucial to development of pre-leukemic myeloproliferation, study shows
May 19, 2018 - Global experts identify key issues in supporting children with brain injuries transition back to school
May 19, 2018 - Social connections may protect black men who have sex with men from acquiring HIV
May 19, 2018 - Study IDs Factors Linked to Quality of Life With Dementia
May 19, 2018 - Potassium — Consumer
May 19, 2018 - HIV-1 viruses transmitted at birth are resistant to antibodies in mother’s blood
May 19, 2018 - Some water pitchers are much better at removing toxins, shows research
May 19, 2018 - Scientists discover how unusually long strands of RNA help colon cancer cells avoid death
May 19, 2018 - International study finds viable treatment option for people with mild asthma
May 19, 2018 - Mayo discovery could enable development of personalized ovarian, brain cancer treatments
May 19, 2018 - ‘Superbug’ Surfaces at Poultry Farm in China
Study identifies six new genes regions associated with diabetes

Study identifies six new genes regions associated with diabetes

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

A recent study conducted by the TEDDY (The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young) international research team has identified six novel gene regions in children who are at risk of type 1 diabetes.

Credit: Kateryna Kon/Shutterstock.com

The polymorphisms were found in young people who already had type 1 diabetes as well as those in the pre-clinical stage of the disease; who have started making antibodies against insulin producing b-cells but have not yet developed the condition. All of these individuals will undergo a lifetime of insulin therapy.

It is hoped that the discovery will aid research into genes that cause diabetes and the identification of more targets for treatment or prevention.

The study also provided confirmation for three regions that had previously been associated with the development of type 1 diabetes.

Through longitudinal studies of at-risk individuals, the team also identified several chromosomal regions that were linked to which autoantibody would appear first in a patient.

The team looked at the two most commonly appearing autoantibodies: (a) IAA, which binds insulin directly, and (b) GADA, which targets glutamate decarboxylase; an enzyme that regulates the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas.

According to the principal investigator of the study, Dr. Jin-Xiong She, nearly 90% of the patients with type 1 diabetes have one or the other autoantibody initially and most will eventually develop both. The second autoantibody can become evident a few days or even years later.

There is mounting evidence that we have at least two major subtypes of type 1 diabetes, based on the autoantibodies children have. Now we have found a genetic basis that supports that.”

Dr Jin-Xiong, Principal Investigator of the Study

One of the primary goals of TEDDY was to identify the genetic variations that are related with the progression or lack of progression to type 1 diabetes, she added.

The study involved 5,806 Caucasian patients and focused on both HLA and non-HLA genes.

Most of the genes that are known to be linked with type 1 diabetes (including the ones that are presently considered the top two high-risk genes) are categorized as human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes as these genes are thought to regulate our immune system.

However, according to Dr. Ashok Sharma, who is an MCG bioinformatics expert and the first author of the study, studying non-HLA genes allowed the researchers to better identify children with the highest risk of diabetes.

“With HLA genes you can achieve a certain level of accuracy in identifying high-risk individuals. But if we can add additional genes into the screening, we can refine the prediction of the disease, we can increase the accuracy, we can probably even identify higher percentages of at-risk individuals,” She explained.

Sharma pointed out that there are many genes involved in the disease and that the genes involved vary between individuals. Not all patients with the high-risk genes even get the disease. The reason for this is still unknown.

The team expects that the study might clarify how genetics and environmental factors such as childhood infections conspire to cause the disease.

The scientists also examined 176,586 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were related to other autoimmune diseases such as celiac disease or rheumatoid arthritis, but not type 1 diabetes. They identified SNPs in participants with type 1 diabetes that differed from those with islet cell autoantibodies and those who still had neither.

Previous studies indicate that the genes responsible for the production of islet cell antibodies are not always linked to the development of type 1 diabetes.

Also, while islet cell autoantibodies (IA) are considered as high risk factors for type 1 diabetes, not every child with IA will progress to full-blown disease. Despite this, the presence of IAs is still considered to increase the risk.

However, according to TEDDY scientists, different genes may play a role in IA development while others play a role in the progression of the disease.

The SNPs identified are in close proximity to a gene that does play a role in disease development, even though they themselves may or may not have a direct functional consequence. They can be used as markers to aid the researchers in the discovery of more causative genes.

One key aspect of the study was how closely and long the participants are observed. Generally, gene identification begins with a case-control design, in which a comparison of genetic variations is done between patients with a condition and healthy individuals. This helps in the identification of differences that may contribute to the disease.

The prospective and longitudinal TEDDY study is considered more beneficial than standard cross-sectional or case-control studies, where scientists observe high-risk young people to see if the disease occurs or not.

According to She, this is the first major study on gene identification for any disease that uses this kind of longitudinal information.

Source:

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2018-01/mcog-gdm011618.php

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles