Breaking News
November 12, 2018 - Biogen and Eisai Announce Presentation of Detailed Analyses from the Phase 1b Long-Term Extension Study of Aducanumab at Clinical Trials on Alzheimer’s Disease (CTAD)
November 12, 2018 - Scientists reveal new cystic fibrosis treatments work best in inflamed airways
November 12, 2018 - Testing coronary calcium levels can better predict patient’s risk for coronary heart disease
November 12, 2018 - FDA conducts mass seizure of food and medical products held under insanitary conditions
November 12, 2018 - FDA Approves Invokana (canagliflozin) to Reduce the Risk of Heart Attack, Stroke or Cardiovascular Death in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes and Established Cardiovascular Disease
November 12, 2018 - Hormone helps reverse brain damage caused by obesity
November 12, 2018 - Grants aim to provide better cancer clinical trial access for military veterans
November 12, 2018 - Mitochondrial DNA may have strong influence on cellular metabolism and disease susceptibility
November 12, 2018 - High stakes, entrenched interests and the Trump rollback of environmental regs
November 12, 2018 - Stem cells transplanted for treatment of Parkinson’s disease
November 12, 2018 - Sandoz Inc. Issues Voluntary Nationwide Recall of One Lot of Losartan Potassium and Hydrochlorothiazide Due to the Detection of Trace Amounts of NDEA (N-Nitrosodiethylamine) Impurity Found in the Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API)
November 12, 2018 - Protein found in patients with severe asthma can help identify who would benefit from targeted drugs
November 12, 2018 - Experts develop a list of competencies in antimicrobial prescribing and stewardship
November 12, 2018 - Allied BioScience receives approved label from EPA for new bacteriostatic surface coating
November 12, 2018 - FDA announces emergency use authorization of Ebola fingerstick test with portable reader
November 12, 2018 - Grieving spouses with sleep problems have increased risk of chronic immune activation
November 12, 2018 - Exercise routines affect mental health in Japanese expatriates
November 12, 2018 - Fish oil and vitamin D pills no guard against cancer or serious heart trouble
November 12, 2018 - Excess Gestational Weight Gain Not Better for Child Bone Health
November 12, 2018 - Immune receptor provides protective immunity against Group A Streptococcus
November 12, 2018 - Scientists develop new method to produce irradiated nanomaterials for medical applications
November 12, 2018 - Blue light exposure decreases blood pressure
November 12, 2018 - Researchers discover two proteins essential for development of skeletal muscle
November 12, 2018 - Yelp reviews help understand strengths, weaknesses of emergency departments and urgent care centers
November 12, 2018 - Adolescent obesity linked with increased risk of pancreatic cancer later in life
November 12, 2018 - AHA: Poor Teeth-Brushing Habits Tied to Higher Heart Risk
November 12, 2018 - Researchers find how natural killer cells regulate protective HIV antibodies
November 12, 2018 - Rutgers receives $4.2 million federal grant to improve mental health services
November 12, 2018 - Sussex scientists develop a piece of hardware to show how brains function
November 12, 2018 - Study shows pivotal role of parents in efforts to change sexual orientation of LGBT teens
November 12, 2018 - Neck scan detects dementia way before symptoms appear
November 12, 2018 - Risk-profiling can benefit HIV prevention
November 12, 2018 - New thrombolytic based on magnetite nanoparticles successfully tested on animals
November 12, 2018 - Smoking rates go down in the US, lowest since 1965
November 12, 2018 - Phase III Trial of Darolutamide in Patients with Non-metastatic Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer Meets Primary Endpoint
November 12, 2018 - Moderate exercise before conception resulted in lower body weight, increased insulin sensitivity of offspring
November 11, 2018 - Community choirs for older adults reduce loneliness and increase interest in life
November 11, 2018 - Trevena Receives Complete Response Letter for Oliceridine from FDA
November 11, 2018 - More adults and children are using yoga and meditation
November 11, 2018 - Female smokers at greater risk of heart attacks, finds study
November 11, 2018 - Happy Childhood Memories Associated With Better Health
November 11, 2018 - X-linked infantile spinal muscular atrophy – Genetics Home Reference
November 11, 2018 - RNA thought to spread cancer shows ability to suppress breast cancer metastasis
November 11, 2018 - Study finds that thymus plays key role during normal pregnancy
November 11, 2018 - Exploring why some athletes ice their muscles after exercise
November 11, 2018 - Female Genital Mutilation Decreasing in African Nations
November 11, 2018 - Are humans immune to the CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing scissors?
November 11, 2018 - Breastmilk and saliva mixtures regulate oral microbiome of newborn babies
November 11, 2018 - Learning familiar faces through social interactions reduces variability in face recognition
November 11, 2018 - New open source decision support tool could help clinicians chose chemotherapy drugs
November 11, 2018 - New weapons drawn in global TB fight
November 11, 2018 - UCB and Biogen Announce Topline Results from a Phase 2b Study of Dapirolizumab Pegol in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
November 11, 2018 - Surgery restores boy’s ability to walk post-acute flaccid myelitis
November 11, 2018 - Comorbidity negatively impacts quality of life in people with dementia
November 11, 2018 - Neuroscientists receive $16.75 million from BRAIN Initiative to decipher the brain’s visual system
November 11, 2018 - Purdue researchers invent new smart drainage device to help glaucoma patients
November 11, 2018 - New initiative may benefit entrepreneurs working to transform patient care
November 11, 2018 - Sage Therapeutics Announces FDA Advisory Committee Votes 17-1 in Support of Benefit-Risk Profile of Zulresso (brexanolone) Injection for Treatment of Postpartum Depression
November 11, 2018 - Exercise could delay progression of type 1 diabetes when first diagnosed
November 11, 2018 - Study of gaze fixation in monkeys reveals role of dopamine neurons in response inhibition
November 11, 2018 - Bilingual therapy is vital to improve language disorders in dual-language children, finds study
November 11, 2018 - More Frequent Surveillance No Benefit After NSCLC Resection
November 11, 2018 - Phenylketonuria (PKU) Screening: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information
November 11, 2018 - Researchers discovered a new mechanism of action in a first-line drug for diabetes
November 11, 2018 - Study explains how dermal fibroblasts age
November 11, 2018 - New multi-allergen test works just as well with dried blood
November 11, 2018 - CWRH/UH researcher receives grant to study role of KLF2 factor in vascular-related disorders
November 11, 2018 - New infrared detector may transform smartphones into pocket-sized portable labs
November 11, 2018 - AHA: Young Golfer Returns to Sport He Loves After Stroke
November 11, 2018 - Yuan-Harel-Lupski syndrome – Genetics Home Reference
November 11, 2018 - Effective diagnosis of persistent facial pain will benefit patients and save money
November 11, 2018 - Loyola tests new catheter ablation system that can reach deeper into heart muscle
November 11, 2018 - Pilates exercise program offers many benefits for people with musculoskeletal conditions
November 11, 2018 - Mutant p53 protein ‘tackles’ DNA guardian to drive tumor development
November 11, 2018 - House Dems in new seats of power will steer health policy, attack drug prices
November 11, 2018 - Maximal longevity in species can be better explained by number of neurons in the brain
November 10, 2018 - Research on designing, delivering, physical activity programs for different audiences
November 10, 2018 - Why heart contractions are weaker in those with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
November 10, 2018 - AbbVie’s Upadacitinib Shows Significant Improvements in Physical Function, Pain and Quality of Life as a Monotherapy in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis in Phase 3 Patient-Reported Outcomes Data
November 10, 2018 - Acute Flaccid Myelitis: MedlinePlus
Parental attention can reduce risk of drug abuse in adolescence

Parental attention can reduce risk of drug abuse in adolescence

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print
Parental attention can reduce risk of drug abuse in adolescence
Survey of more than 6,000 teenagers reinforces protective function of rule-keeping. Findings also show that well-off school students drink most . Credit: Rebcenter / Wikimedia

Children required by parents to follow rules and discuss their activities have fewer problems when they enter adolescence, such as abuse of alcohol and other drugs. The likelihood of such problems is further reduced when parents explain what the rules are for and are supportive when they experience difficulties. In the literature, this parenting style is called responsiveness.

The research project that produced these findings was conducted at the Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP), surveying 6,381 children aged 11 to 15 in six Brazilian cities. The results have just been published in the journal Drug and Alcohol Dependence.

“The key conclusion is that parenting style can be a protective factor or a risk factor for the consumption of alcohol and other drugs in adolescence. This means the drug abuse prevention programs implemented by schools should not just raise the children’s awareness but also focus on training parenting skills,” said Zila Sanchez, a professor at EPM-UNIFESP and principal investigator for the project.

Data collection took place at 62 public schools in Tubarão and Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State; São Paulo and São Bernardo do Campo, São Paulo State; Fortaleza, Ceará State; and Brasília, in the Federal District. The subjects were seventh- and eighth-grade primary school students with an average age of 12.5.

“We opted to work with schoolchildren in their early teens in order to find out whether parenting style influences substance abuse at the start of adolescence,” Sanchez said. “Because prevalence of consumption is very low when they’re so young, our questionnaire asked if they had used drugs at least once in the previous year.”

Research crosses parental and drug use profiles

The questionnaire was administered by researchers in the classroom without the presence of teachers in order to avoid inhibition and embarrassment. Participants completed it themselves and placed it anonymously in a brown envelope. In addition to drug use, it also asked about how the adolescents perceived their parents (parenting style), socioeconomic conditions, sexual behavior, and school violence, among other topics.

The responses were analyzed during Juliana Valente’s Ph.D. research, with a scholarship from FAPESP and supervision by Sanchez.

A statistical model called latent class analysis was used to identify three groups with similar patterns of drug use. “Abstainers/low users” were the most prevalent, accounting for 81.54 percent of the sample, followed by “alcohol users/binge drinkers” at 16.65 percent. “Polydrug users,” who reported using tobacco, marijuana, cocaine, crack and/or inhalants such as benzene or glue in the previous year, as well as alcohol, accounted for 1.8 percent.

“The next step was to see if parenting styles were associated with any of these drug use profiles,” Sanchez explained. “To this end, parenting styles were analyzed in four different groups, in accordance with the adolescents’ own assessment and criteria established in the scientific literature.”

Based on an assessment scale widely used in international studies and validated in Brazil, parental profiles were scored according to “demandingness,” which relates to the degree to which parents monitor their children’s activities and require them to follow rules, and “responsiveness,” relating to the degree of parental sensitivity to children’s needs and openness to dialogue.

Parents with high scores in both domains were classified as “authoritative.” Those with high scores in demandingness alone were classified as “authoritarian.” Responsive parents who neither monitored their children’s activities nor required rule-keeping were considered “indulgent.” Finally, parents with low scores in both domains were classified as “neglectful.”

In line with the findings of surveys performed in other countries, the “authoritative” style was the most protective, followed by the “authoritarian” and “indulgent” styles. As the researchers note in the article, “neglectful” parents put adolescents at greater risk of belonging to the two classes of drug user identified by the study: alcohol users/binge drinkers, and polydrug users.

“The fact that an ‘authoritative’ style is more protective and a ‘neglectful’ style is riskier was expected, but there was disagreement about the ‘authoritarian’ and ‘indulgent’ styles in the literature. It wasn’t clear which was better. The findings of our study reinforce the idea that demandingness, in the sense of more parental monitoring and use of rules, is a style that protects adolescents by preventing drug consumption,” Valente said.

Well-off adolescents drink most

The researchers were particularly struck by the finding that the higher the interviewees’ social class, the more likely they were to belong to the binge drinker or polydrug user group. According to Sanchez, this result runs counter to those of surveys conducted in the US and Europe, where poverty is considered a risk factor for binge drinking and drug abuse in adolescence. On the other hand, it matches the findings of previous studies of the same age group conducted in Brazil.

“This is a very intriguing result and shows we can’t simply import data relating to risk factors and protection for use in prevention programs here without taking cultural differences into account,” Sanchez said.

For Valente, the statistical analysis did not support a link between different parenting styles and specific social classes because parenting styles were evenly distributed across household income brackets.

Data collection took place in late 2014 as part of a project funded by the Brazilian Ministry of Health, which commissioned the UNIFESP researchers to evaluate the effectiveness of a drug use prevention program called #Tamojunto in 62 selected schools.

“The program was brought from Europe, where it achieved good results, and adapted by the Ministry of Health,” Valente said. “It was designed not just to convey knowledge of drugs to adolescents but also to develop personal and interpersonal skills. Here in Brazil, however, we didn’t observe effectiveness based on the same metrics as in Europe.”

According to Sanchez, the data analyzed during Valente’s PhD and used as a basis for the article just published were collected before implementation of the program #Tamojunto and have no relation to its results.


Explore further:
Parenting style reduces kids’ distress in war

More information:
Juliana Y. Valente et al, Gradient of association between parenting styles and patterns of drug use in adolescence: A latent class analysis, Drug and Alcohol Dependence (2017). DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.08.015

Journal reference:
Drug and Alcohol Dependence

Provided by:
FAPESP

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles