Breaking News
February 21, 2018 - Early childhood immune signature predicts risk of developing asthma later on
February 21, 2018 - Stanford researchers explore how gut bacteria respond to common changes in habitat
February 21, 2018 - Household Products May Pollute the Air as Much as Your Car Does: Study
February 21, 2018 - Combo Bests Targeted Agent in mRCC
February 21, 2018 - Researchers discover brain pathway that dissociates opioid addiction from analgesia
February 21, 2018 - Scientists uncover how newly discovered gene helps grow blood vessels
February 21, 2018 - Brain’s quality control process holds clues to obesity’s roots
February 21, 2018 - Researchers to study whether menstrual cups can help prevent vaginal infections
February 21, 2018 - MS patients who feel stigmatized more likely to suffer from depression
February 21, 2018 - Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy could protect against childhood obesity
February 21, 2018 - Lower-Quality Medical Tx Might Have Skewed Key PCI vs CABG Trials
February 21, 2018 - Love and fear are visible across the brain instead of being restricted to any brain region
February 21, 2018 - Adults with congenital heart disease have increased risk for dementia, study finds
February 21, 2018 - Clinical trial studying type 1 diabetes reaches full enrollment
February 21, 2018 - Father’s stress affects the brain development of offspring, mice study shows
February 21, 2018 - ESRD Death Declines in Vasculitis Patients
February 21, 2018 - Taking ibuprofen for long periods found to alter human testicular physiology
February 21, 2018 - Google AI device could predict a person’s risk of a heart attack
February 20, 2018 - FDA Approves Domestic Source for Tc-99m Isotopes
February 20, 2018 - Sanofi rejects refund demand faces Philippine suit over dengue vaccine (Update)
February 20, 2018 - Researchers discover that activation of specific enzyme may help suppress tumor metastasis
February 20, 2018 - Blood or marrow transplantation survivors have higher risk of cognitive impairment
February 20, 2018 - Booze Beats Pot at Being Unhealthy: Oregon Poll
February 20, 2018 - Morning Break: ’20 Years Late’; Drugs in the Dirt; Catching Flu in the Dorm
February 20, 2018 - Another piece to the puzzle in naked mole rats’ long, cancer-free life
February 20, 2018 - Scientists identify four viruses that can produce insulin-like hormones
February 20, 2018 - New e-Health solution developed to prevent cardiovascular disease, dementia in senior citizens
February 20, 2018 - New genetic risk score could help guide screening decisions for prostate cancer
February 20, 2018 - Study finds higher risk of stroke among blacks with atrial fibrillation than whites
February 20, 2018 - Physical activity could be used as strategy for diabetes prevention
February 20, 2018 - Researchers develop sensing method for early detection of cancer and diabetes
February 20, 2018 - New wearable electronics could be game-changer for stroke rehabilitation
February 20, 2018 - Immune history influences person’s response to flu vaccine
February 20, 2018 - Research findings could help develop new drugs to prevent, treat dry eye disease
February 20, 2018 - Serenity Now! Learn to Have Patience with Patients
February 20, 2018 - Computer simulation addresses the problem of blood clotting
February 20, 2018 - Women with type 1 diabetes not protected against coronary artery disease
February 20, 2018 - Persistent bloating can be a sign of ovarian cancer, warns charity
February 20, 2018 - Trump administration proposes rule to loosen curbs on short-term health plans
February 20, 2018 - Key protein involved in epigenetic regulation of gene expression guides skin cell renewal
February 20, 2018 - Heart attack symptoms often missed in women
February 20, 2018 - Diagnosis of celiac disease takes 3.5 years for patients who do not report GI symptoms
February 20, 2018 - Study reveals functional dynamics of ion channels
February 20, 2018 - Study explores link between mortality risk and combustible tobacco use
February 20, 2018 - ‘She Trusted Me, and I’d Turned Her Away’
February 20, 2018 - AbbVie and Voyager Therapeutics collaborate to develop new treatments for tauopathies
February 20, 2018 - Fast food makes the immune system more aggressive in the long term
February 20, 2018 - Therapeutic target for glaucoma could have treatment ramifications for Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s
February 20, 2018 - Overcoming Negative Reviews | Medpage Today
February 20, 2018 - MyD88—villain of allergies and asthma
February 20, 2018 - Food scientists develop rapid screening technique to detect pesticide residue in vegetables
February 20, 2018 - Lab-grown cerebellar cells may help explain how ASD develops at molecular level
February 20, 2018 - Scientists explore connection between bad sleep habits and stiff blood vessels
February 20, 2018 - New Treatment Apalutamide (Erleada) Approved for Prostate Cancer That Resists Hormone Therapy
February 20, 2018 - Do You Really Need My Signature on That?
February 20, 2018 - HIV-1 genetic diversity is higher in vaginal tract than in blood during early infection
February 20, 2018 - Diabetes does not increase work-loss years due to early retirement
February 20, 2018 - Researchers aim to find out how PTSD affects decisions of police
February 20, 2018 - UH Cleveland Medical Center explores novel treatments for uterine fibroids
February 20, 2018 - Flu Vax Efficacy 25% Against Predominant H3N2 Strain So Far
February 20, 2018 - HIV screening most optimal at 25 years of age if no risk factors
February 20, 2018 - Loyola Medicine primary care physician offers advice to minimize risk of flu
February 20, 2018 - Safe sleep recommendations for parents that may help reduce child’s risk of SUID
February 20, 2018 - Why Do So Few Docs Have Buprenorphine Waivers?
February 20, 2018 - Low levels of alcohol good for the brain
February 20, 2018 - Experimental treatment improves invisible symptoms of a man with spinal cord injury
February 20, 2018 - Myriad’s EndoPredict offers better prediction of breast cancer recurrence, analysis shows
February 20, 2018 - Researchers identify fifteen genes that determine our facial features
February 20, 2018 - Morning Break: New Health IT Player; Luxturna No Bargain; Nuclear Freakout
February 20, 2018 - How does it compare? Hospice care at home, at assisted living facility, at nursing home
February 19, 2018 - Scientists develop water-soluble warped nanographene for bioimaging
February 19, 2018 - It’s Not Your Imagination: You’re Hungrier After Losing Weight
February 19, 2018 - Antihypertensive Use At Delivery Rising in Preeclampsia
February 19, 2018 - A centuries-old math equation used to solve a modern-day genetics challenge
February 19, 2018 - Liquid biopsies could be used as new predictive marker for metastatic TNBC
February 19, 2018 - Russian researchers develop new multi-layered biodegradable scaffolds
February 19, 2018 - Are ‘Vaccine Skeptics’ Responsible for Flu Deaths?
February 19, 2018 - Hidden genetic effects behind immune diseases may be missed, study suggests
February 19, 2018 - Emergency nurses experience regular verbal and physical abuse
February 19, 2018 - Study sheds light on biology that guides behavior across different stages of life
Study offers way to predict onset of lung disease in children with cystic fibrosis

Study offers way to predict onset of lung disease in children with cystic fibrosis

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

Cystic fibrosis (CF) shortens life by making the lungs prone to repeated bacterial infections and associated inflammation. UNC School of Medicine researchers have now shown for the first time that the lungs’ bacterial population changes in the first few years of life as respiratory infections and inflammation set in.

The study, published in PLoS Pathogens, offers a way to predict the onset of lung disease in children with CF and suggests a larger role for preventive therapies, such as hypertonic saline.

“Lung symptoms in kids with CF are likely due to an increased burden of bacteria,” said study senior author Matthew Wolfgang, PhD, associate professor of microbiology and immunology. “This implies there’s an opportunity for early intervention that could dramatically increase the quality of life for these kids.”

CF affects about 70,000 people globally, and is most common in children of Northern European ethnicity – about one of every 2,500 births. The disease is caused by a dysfunctional version of the CFTR gene that encodes the CFTR protein. In the absence of this protein, mucus becomes dehydrated and thick – a sanctuary for bacteria – leading to repeated infections, inflammation, and eventually structural damage to lungs and upper airway tissues. The life expectancy of CF patients is about 40 years.

Most CF studies have been done in adults and older children, and thus relatively little has been known about how and when inflammation, bacterial infections, and lung damage begin. To shed more light on that question, Wolfgang and colleagues analyzed bacterial DNA in samples of lung-lining fluid gathered from young children as part of an ongoing Australian project called AREST CF.

“It’s challenging and rare to get access to such samples,” said Wolfgang, member of the UNC Marsico Lung Institute. “Here in the United States, we don’t perform bronchoscopies on children diagnosed with CF if they don’t yet have clinical symptoms.”

The UNC scientists found that in most of the samples from CF children who were less than a year old, there were little or no signs of bacteria. “If there was no significant evidence of bacteria, there was also no sign of inflammation, and the child generally appeared healthy,” Wolfgang said.

In the children between ages one and two, the pattern was different: many samples contained a significant amount of bacterial DNA – from the same bacterial species that normally populate the mouth and throat. These bacteria are not typically regarded as lung pathogens.

“We can’t go so far as to say that these kids have active infections, but clearly there’s a significant increase in the bacterial burden in their lungs, and we know these bacteria provoke inflammation,” Wolfgang said.

In children age three to five, the samples contained increasing evidence of more worrisome bacteria, particularly Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Haemophilus influenzae, which are commonly found in older CF patients with more severe lung disease. As the bacterial burden worsened, molecular signs of inflammation increased. Also, lung X-ray studies of the children revealed mounting signs of structural lung disease as the bacterial burden increased.

“This tells us lung bacterial infections start much earlier than we had expected in children with CF, and these infections are likely the earliest drivers of structural lung disease,” Wolfgang said.

Many of the bacterial species in the young children with CF, he noted, were “anaerobic” microbes that thrive in conditions of very low oxygen. This finding suggests that the dehydrated, thickened CF lung mucus creates pockets of low oxygen in lung tissues.

“Therapies aimed at breaking up mucus very early in life might be very beneficial to these kids,” Wolfgang said. “These therapies could postpone the increase in bacterial burden, including the shift towards the more pathogenic species.”

Doctors already give preventive antibiotics to young children in Australia, Germany, and the UK. However, Wolfgang noted that the children in the AREST CF study, who were treated with antibiotics until the age of two, still showed a clear progression of bacterial burden and inflammation. “It could be that other therapeutic strategies, such as thinning mucus, may be more successful,” he said.

Wolfgang and colleagues at the UNC Marsico Lung Institute now hope to do a similar, long-term study analyzing the lung bacteria of individual children and the changes in these “bacteriomes” over several years. The researchers want to evaluate the effectiveness of an early mucus-thinning intervention, for example hypertonic saline – salt water delivered via inhaler – which is already used to hydrate mucus in older CF patients.

Source:

http://news.unchealthcare.org/news/2018/january/cystic-fibrosis-discovery-bacterial-burden-begins-during-first-years-of-life

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles