Breaking News
August 19, 2018 - HPV Legislation Doesn’t Impact Teen Sexual Behaviors
August 19, 2018 - Exenatide treatment alleviated symptoms of depression in patients
August 19, 2018 - Tufts researchers win grant to study integration of genomic sequencing into neonatal care
August 19, 2018 - Novel finger-prick test can help prevent toxoplasmosis
August 19, 2018 - Cosmetic Procedures Boost Well-Being, Poll Shows
August 19, 2018 - Responsive parenting intervention results in lower BMIs through age three
August 19, 2018 - Anticancer drugs can help plants to battle infection
August 19, 2018 - Sunscreen from bathers releases significant quantities of polluting titanium dioxide into the sea
August 19, 2018 - Case Western Reserve gets three-year grant to enhance food systems in Cleveland neighborhoods
August 19, 2018 - Teenagers can thank their parents’ positive attitude for avoiding obesity
August 19, 2018 - Body mass index positively linked with blood pressure
August 19, 2018 - New tool fills gap in Small Molecules market
August 19, 2018 - Study compares survival outcomes in rural and urban cancer patients enrolled in clinical trials
August 19, 2018 - Researchers develop molecular matrix that delivers healing stem cells to injured elderly muscles
August 19, 2018 - Teva and Regeneron Announce Positive Topline Phase 3 Fasinumab Results in Patients with Chronic Pain from Osteoarthritis of the Knee or Hip
August 19, 2018 - New study pinpoints ways to improve quality of food and nutrition research
August 19, 2018 - Ology Bioservices wins $8.4 million worth agreement to manufacture anti-Ebola monoclonal antibody
August 19, 2018 - New CRISPR technology may help eliminate mutated gene sequence
August 19, 2018 - “Zombie gene” protects elephants from cancer finds study
August 19, 2018 - Study explores how many American cities protect the rights of employed breastfeeding mothers
August 19, 2018 - FDA Approves Lenvima (lenvatinib) for First-line Treatment of Unresectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)
August 19, 2018 - Pain: Considering Complementary Approaches (eBook)
August 19, 2018 - Autoimmune response drives vision loss in glaucoma
August 19, 2018 - Tandem Diabetes Care introduces t:slim X2 Insulin Pump with Basal-IQ Technology in the US
August 19, 2018 - Innovative platform developed to destroy cancer cells
August 19, 2018 - Lowering pH inside tumor cells can slow down spread of cancer
August 19, 2018 - Biomarker predicts kidney cancer risk years before diagnosis
August 19, 2018 - Consequences of healthcare-associated infections go beyond patients’ physical health
August 19, 2018 - New drug- free, nanotechnology-based method detects and treats oral plaque
August 19, 2018 - Integration of Opioid, Infectious Disease Treatment Needed
August 19, 2018 - How eye disorders may have influenced the work of famous painters
August 18, 2018 - Blood biomarker could help predict kidney cancer up to five years prior to diagnosis
August 18, 2018 - Dartmouth scientists create more sustainable feed for aquaculture
August 18, 2018 - Immigrants Not a Burden on U.S. Health Care: Study
August 18, 2018 - Women who eat fast food take longer to become pregnant
August 18, 2018 - Most YouTube videos on plastic surgery are misleading marketing campaigns
August 18, 2018 - The essential guide to make your laboratory more sustainable
August 18, 2018 - Loyola Medicine offers scalp cooling treatment to reduce risk of chemotherapy hair loss
August 18, 2018 - Researchers describe promising strategy to remove melanoma’s most powerful defenses
August 18, 2018 - Women with polycystic ovary syndrome dissatisfied with medical care
August 18, 2018 - Research discoveries reveal insights behind neurological degeneration
August 18, 2018 - Researchers win multi-million Euro award to conduct research into liver disease
August 18, 2018 - Survey highlights variations in practice of airway management in pediatric intensive care units
August 18, 2018 - UK students win sponsorship from Promega Corporation
August 18, 2018 - Janssen Reports Positive Topline Results for ATLAS Phase III Study of a Novel, Long Acting Injectable Two-Drug Regimen for the treatment of HIV-1
August 18, 2018 - PSD as a molecular platform for understanding synapse formation and plasticity
August 18, 2018 - Improved visual communication could help patients to make informed health-care decisions
August 18, 2018 - New algorithm helps identify and manage diabetic patients at increased fracture risk
August 18, 2018 - Microscopic insect odour detecting mechanisms discovered
August 18, 2018 - Researchers develop new approach to study how tuberculosis infects people
August 18, 2018 - FDA Approves Kalydeco (ivacaftor) for Cystic Fibrosis in Children Ages 12 to
August 18, 2018 - An ion channel differentiates newborn and mature neurons in the adult brain
August 18, 2018 - Conditions of first sexual encounter can be indicators of future HIV risk and gender-based violence
August 18, 2018 - Socio-economic position associated with pregnant women’s exposure to environmental hazards
August 18, 2018 - Study evaluates how students change their breakfast consumption when given extra time
August 18, 2018 - Chronic perinatal hypoxia linked to locomotor miscoordination, long-term cerebellar learning deficits
August 18, 2018 - Voters to settle dispute over ambulance employee break times
August 18, 2018 - AGA urges policymakers and stakeholders to improve affordability of drugs
August 18, 2018 - Increasing dietary protein may lower risk of diabetes in people with NAFLD
August 18, 2018 - New HIV therapy suppresses viral replication and increases immune cells in drug-resistant patients
August 18, 2018 - Broad Genetic Testing for NSCLC May Not Improve Survival
August 18, 2018 - Discovery opens door for synthetic opioids with less addictive qualities
August 18, 2018 - Transgenic rice plant extracts could help stop the spread of HIV
August 18, 2018 - Hologic’s Cynosure division partners with Porter Instrument to distribute nitrous oxide and oxygen system
August 18, 2018 - Two thyroid medications recalled by FDA
August 18, 2018 - Forecast Sees Abnormal Heat Worldwide Through 2022
August 18, 2018 - Childhood absence epilepsy – Genetics Home Reference
August 18, 2018 - Fearing hard Brexit, UK drugmakers stockpile to protect lives
August 18, 2018 - Discovery may help broaden the scope of defenses against HPV
August 18, 2018 - When they start thinking green, they see green
August 18, 2018 - Scientists introduce microfluidics-based chip for manipulation and analysis of single cells
August 18, 2018 - Researchers design new way to grow nose cells for treating spinal cord injuries
August 18, 2018 - New light shed on relationship between calorie-burning fat and muscle function
August 18, 2018 - Surgery Saturday Instagram series takes you inside Stanford’s OR
August 18, 2018 - Researchers uncover surprising new role for inhibition in the cerebellum
August 18, 2018 - Children have better nutrition when they live near forests, global study shows
August 18, 2018 - OHSU professor conducts clinical trial with artificial pancreas using Xeris’ liquid glucagon
August 18, 2018 - HSS takes young patients with physical challenges on a surfing trip
August 18, 2018 - Study shows electronic health records leave doctors and patients unsatisfied
August 18, 2018 - Study uncovers mechanism that affects multiplication of dengue virus lineage
Houston Methodist researchers have new explanation for why airways close during asthma attacks

Houston Methodist researchers have new explanation for why airways close during asthma attacks

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

Houston Methodist researchers have a new explanation for what causes the lungs’ airways to close during asthma attacks. The researchers who published the study in the Feb. 5 issue of the Journal of Experimental Medicine note that the discovery holds promise for developing a new class of drugs different from the steroids currently used to treat asthma.

According to the World Health Organization, 235 million people currently suffer from asthma, and it is a common disease among children. One of the key features of asthma is an overproduction of a highly sticky protein secreted by the mucous membranes of airways in the lungs, called mucin, which leads to plugging up the small airways and stopping air from traveling in and out of them. This leaves those with the condition out of breath and, oftentimes, causes them to gasp for air.

Led by Xian C. Li, M.D., Ph.D., and his colleagues in the Immunobiology and Transplant Science Center at the Houston Methodist Research Institute, the team discovered an interaction between two molecules that can be manipulated to potentially solve this problem. “If we can do this and develop better and more specific drugs to selectively stop super-enhancers, asthmatic patients may never have to struggle for air again,” he said.

The inner lining of lung airways is made up of epithelial cells that allow air to travel in and out, and this inner lining keeps the airways open, Li notes. “Embedded in these epithelial cells are a very important cell type called mucin-producing cells that are vital for keeping the epithelial surface moisturized and healthy, and they secrete mucin to protect the surface of the airways. Production of mucin is normally tightly controlled, but too much of it can be damaging,” he said.

Central to their findings was the identification of T helper cells that communicate with mucin-producing cells in the lungs through a small protein called interleukin 9 (IL-9). These T helper cells are a specialized type of white blood cells responsible for helping other cells in the immune system recognize foreign toxins by secreting IL-9 to regulate immune responses.

In asthma, the T helper cells in the lungs are hyperactive and express a molecule called OX40. To help immune cells survive, OX40 organizes super-enhancers, which are regions of DNA that control what genes become active, causing T helper cells to produce an abundance of IL-9. This, in turn, leads to massive production of mucin in the airways, eventually clogging them up.

“We were able to decipher how such great quantities of IL-9 are produced by T helper cells,” Li said. “In essence, OX40 activates the IL-9 gene in T helper cells, leading to the overproduction of IL-9 through a powerful molecular machinery of super-enhancers that regulate gene expression.”

Using chemical inhibitors, Li and his colleagues found a new way to stop this assembly of IL-9 gene super-enhancers to prevent the production of IL-9. This may point to new ways of treating asthma.

“Finding new approaches to target and block super-enhancers may provide a new means of treatment for asthma patients that is likely to be more efficacious than the standard of care, which is now steroids,” Li said.​

Source:

http://www.houstonmethodist.org/

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles