Breaking News
June 23, 2018 - FDA Alert: Kratom (mitragyna speciosa) powder products by Gaia Ethnobotanical: Recall
June 23, 2018 - CDC chief asks for, and gets, cut to his record $375K pay
June 22, 2018 - Novel cellular pathway may clarify how arterial inflammation develops into atherosclerosis
June 22, 2018 - Rutgers Cancer Institute educates childhood cancer survivors about late effects of treatment
June 22, 2018 - Study tests accuracy of device designed to detect heart dysfunction in childhood cancer survivors
June 22, 2018 - Study links annual haze with increased hospitalizations for respiratory problems
June 22, 2018 - Robotic surgery appears to be as effective as open surgery in treating bladder cancer
June 22, 2018 - Many Drugs Made Available Via FDA Expanded Access Programs
June 22, 2018 - Normal eye dominance is not necessary for restoring visual acuity in amblyopia
June 22, 2018 - Parent-Child Interaction Therapy can reduce depression rates in children
June 22, 2018 - Study provides insights into how components of different cells in the brain are altered
June 22, 2018 - Research does not confirm antidiabetic action of natural fatty acid derivatives
June 22, 2018 - Oxidative stress can be used against tumors to treat cancer
June 22, 2018 - Simple, cost-effective test may help improve early diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment
June 22, 2018 - New guide published to help battle fatal disease caused by kissing bugs
June 22, 2018 - Stigma Adds to Burden of Type 1 Diabetes
June 22, 2018 - In retinoblastoma survivors, oculo-visual issues tied to QoL
June 22, 2018 - Most adults with allergies do not use prescribed epinephrine even in emergency situations
June 22, 2018 - Study provides clues to how cancer cells develop resistance to chemotherapies
June 22, 2018 - New consensus paper serves as basis for uniform medical management of DSD
June 22, 2018 - Researchers work to identify areas of the brain that help us wake up
June 22, 2018 - Alcohol hangovers more significant and costly than people realize, shows research
June 22, 2018 - Targeting cells involved in blood vessel formation could hinder brain tumor growth
June 22, 2018 - Young cancer survivors need more support as they feel dissatisfied with their sexuality
June 22, 2018 - Unusual cell-to-cell communication in glioblastoma promotes aggressiveness and therapy resistance
June 22, 2018 - Turning A Phage – Drug Discovery Today
June 22, 2018 - World-first study links birth interventions and long-term childhood illness
June 22, 2018 - Improving the quality of biomedical research samples
June 22, 2018 - Researchers identify cerebral palsy using AI and DNA sequencing
June 22, 2018 - Administering nitric oxide gas after heart surgery may decrease risk of kidney problems
June 22, 2018 - Measuring levels of ethyl sulphate in hair can help assess alcohol consumption
June 22, 2018 - Researchers develop robot bloodhound that can rapidly detect odors on the ground
June 22, 2018 - AAA doses first patients in two clinical studies with PSMA-R2 for prostate cancer
June 22, 2018 - Researchers discover drug compound that inhibits movement of cancer cells
June 22, 2018 - Normalization of ‘plus-size’ body shapes may prevent recognition of health risks of obesity
June 22, 2018 - UC San Diego launches new bacteriophage therapy center
June 22, 2018 - New review outlines current state of sex-sensitive issues linked to heart failure drugs
June 22, 2018 - Pelvic pain a major issue for women nearing mid-life, research reveals
June 22, 2018 - Researchers develop reliable DNA barcodes for biomedical research
June 22, 2018 - New risk-prediction model may help identify diabetic patients at high risk of pancreatic cancer
June 22, 2018 - Study reveals how mTORC1-driven changes in crowding could influence major diseases
June 22, 2018 - Researchers uncover new therapeutic opportunity in the treatment of malignant melanoma
June 22, 2018 - UC Riverside researcher receives grants to advance cancer, ALS research
June 22, 2018 - Radiation therapy alone may be enough to treat older, sicker patients with anal cancers
June 22, 2018 - Technical report describes how to make accurate particle size measurements on carbon black samples
June 22, 2018 - Nocdurna (desmopressin acetate) Approved by FDA as First Sublingual Tablet to Treat Nocturia due to Nocturnal Polyuria
June 22, 2018 - Neuroscientists locate neurons in the brain that respond when a visual target is found
June 22, 2018 - First human Keystone virus infection reported
June 22, 2018 - New study reveals how ‘good’ bacteria help in regulating our metabolism
June 22, 2018 - Osteopathic manual therapy affecting the diaphragm improves chronic low back pain
June 22, 2018 - Researchers create revolutionary model to study pulmonary diseases
June 22, 2018 - Diagnosing Heart Disease Using AI
June 22, 2018 - Increasing biodefense risks posed by synthetic biology
June 22, 2018 - Many Women Report Vasomotor Symptoms in Their 60s
June 22, 2018 - Rare mutation of gene carried by Quebec family gives insight into how the brain is wired
June 22, 2018 - Chemists find new way to make enzymes do a non-natural reaction
June 22, 2018 - Summer is good time to check for signs of skin cancer
June 22, 2018 - Innovative method can help identify patients with spastic cerebral palsy
June 22, 2018 - Exercise alters characteristics of blood to reduce inflammation in obese people
June 22, 2018 - Researchers examine complications across different types of breast reconstructive surgeries
June 22, 2018 - Rhesus macaque model could be useful to test therapies for congenital Zika virus syndrome
June 22, 2018 - AHA: New Insights Into Sickle Cell and Stroke Risk
June 22, 2018 - Doctors prescribe opioids at high rates to those at increased overdose risk
June 22, 2018 - Reduction in US cigarette smoking rates
June 22, 2018 - Preconception binge drinking may have negative effect on future offspring
June 22, 2018 - FDA expands approval of novel diabetes management device to include younger pediatric patients
June 22, 2018 - Researchers confirm weight loss benefits of the 16:8 diet
June 22, 2018 - FDA approves Eversense CGM system for use in adults with diabetes
June 22, 2018 - State opioid monitoring programs are not created equal
June 22, 2018 - Autistic teens who are bullied have higher rates of depression
June 22, 2018 - Penn Medicine team launches universal stroke awareness program
June 22, 2018 - Scientists discover the molecular trigger of necroptosis
June 22, 2018 - Researchers report unusually high levels of herpesvirus in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s disease
June 22, 2018 - Theoretical models predict how juveniles evolve to be more susceptible than adults to infection
June 22, 2018 - USC study reveals how the cell launches emergency response to repair damaged DNA
June 22, 2018 - $1.9 million grant aims to enhance behavioral health services in community-based settings
June 22, 2018 - New 3D imaging technique could improve arthritis treatment
June 22, 2018 - Cytokinetics Announces Data From Phase 2 Clinical Study of Reldesemtiv in Patients With Spinal Muscular Atrophy
June 22, 2018 - Polarized cells give the heart its fully developed form
June 21, 2018 - Stem cells appear to help fight obesity in animal models
Scientists uncover genetic cause behind typhoid’s antibiotic resistance

Scientists uncover genetic cause behind typhoid’s antibiotic resistance

image_pdfDownload PDFimage_print

The genetic cause behind a strain of typhoid’s resistance to five classes of antibiotics has been uncovered by scientists at the Wellcome Sanger Institute and their collaborators at Public Health England and Aga Khan University, Pakistan. There is currently a major outbreak of typhoid fever in Pakistan, and there was a case in the UK following air travel, which has been isolated and treated. This study shows the typhoid strain causing the outbreak acquired an additional piece of DNA to become resistant to multiple antibiotics, including a third-generation antibiotic.

The results, published today (20 February) in mBio suggest that treatment options are running out for typhoid, and there is an urgent need for preventative strategies including vaccines.

Typhoid fever is a bacterial infection caused by the bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. It is highly contagious, and spreads through a human population in areas with poor water sanitation when contaminated food or water is consumed. Symptoms include fever, stomach pain, headache and constipation or diarrhea, and if left untreated it can become fatal.

Currently, an outbreak of drug-resistant typhoid is spreading through Pakistan and an emergency vaccination campaign is underway.

The outbreak began in November 2016, and was immediately recognized and reported to provincial public health authorities in Pakistan, where investigation into possible sources and control measures including use of a vaccine are ongoing. Public health alerts helped physicians recognize cases of typhoid that were resistant to ceftriaxone, an antibiotic reserved to treat multidrug-resistant infections. This strain was resistant to five antibiotics in total, a higher level of resistance than previously seen. The doctors treated the infections with the few remaining antibiotic options.

In the spring of 2017, collaborators Professor Rumina Hasan and Dr Sadia Shakoor from the Aga Khan University in Pakistan contacted the Wellcome Sanger Institute to genetically analyze the outbreak. Sanger Institute scientists performed whole genome sequencing of typhoid samples from Pakistan to investigate the genetic cause behind its high level of antibiotic resistance.

The team discovered that the typhoid outbreak was caused by strain H58, a strain known to be associated with multidrug resistance. When researchers looked further, they found this strain of H58 had gained an extra strand of bacterial DNA – a plasmid – that encoded for additional antibiotic resistance genes. The typhoid possibly picked up the plasmid from E. coli.

Scientists at Public Health England identified a strain of typhoid with the same high levels of resistance from an individual in the UK who had recently returned from Pakistan. Genomic comparison revealed that it was identical to the outbreak strain, meaning the outbreak had reached the UK, where it has been isolated and treated.

Professor Gordon Dougan, a senior author from the Wellcome Sanger Institute and University of Cambridge Department of Medicine, said: “We have used genetic sequencing to uncover how this particular strain of typhoid became resistant to several key antibiotics. Sporadic cases of typhoid with these levels of antimicrobial resistance have been seen before, but this is the first time we’ve seen an ongoing outbreak – which is concerning.”

Dr Elizabeth Klemm, co-first author from the Wellcome Sanger Institute, said: “Antibiotic resistance has been mounting in typhoid for decades. This outbreak was caused by a multidrug-resistant strain that had gone a step further and acquired an extra piece of DNA encoding additional genes for antibiotic resistance. We therefore classified this strain of typhoid as extensively drug-resistant. This is the first time we have seen an outbreak of extensively drug-resistant typhoid.”

Dr Charlie Weller, Wellcome’s Head of Vaccines, said: “The treatment options for typhoid are running out. It’s time we focus on prevention, in addition to treatment. Vaccines offer another way to tackle drug resistant infections and we have a unique opportunity to address typhoid with a new Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine that has been recently prequalified by the World Health Organisation.”

Source:

http://www.sanger.ac.uk/news/view/typhoid-outbreak-genetic-cause-extensive-drug-resistance-found

Tagged with:

About author

Related Articles